Basque and cave art (plus further messages) / © 2016 Franz Gnaedinger
(Basque adar 'horn')
Theo Vennemann considers Basque adar 'horn' a genuine Vasconic word and not a loan from Celtic adarcos (Old Irish adarc)
Pre-Proto-Basque *dar *da-dar
PPB *dar evokes Magdalenian TYR for the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give, present in the double formula naming the supreme sky and weather god from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age whose guise had (originally) been a bull
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
Among the derivatives are ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove, the ruler ShA goes ahead PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR (up above AS in the sky CA), DhAG PAD TYR Dis pater, byname of Jupiter, the able one DhAG goes ahead PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR (up above AS in the sky CA); TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus; TYR emphatic Serri of the Hurrites (adopted for a lower rank by the Hittites); and ShA CA DhAG CA Jahwe, the ruler ShA in the sky CA, the able one DhAG in the sky CA, storm god and fertility god and rider of clouds from Mount Seir (remember Sseyr and Serri) in the Negev. Serri was a bull, Jupiter and Zeus had once been bulls, and Jahwe is represented by a bronze figurine of a bull found on a hill near Samaria.
Pre-Proto-Basqua *dar 'horn' could have been a pars pro toto for the overcomer TYR in the guise of a bull or bullman (supreme leader, e.g. of the Lower Rhone Valley), TYR *dar emphatic doubling (?) *da-dar, also TYR Old High German tior Middle English der modern English deer for an animal wearing proud antlers, while CER meaning stag or hind accounts for the Celtic god of animals Cernunnos wearing stag antlers, Latin cervus French cerf German Hirsch 'stag' (maybe also Finnish hirvis 'moose' and sarvi 'horn'), also Greek keras English horn German Horn.
Furthermore, TYR accounts for Proto-Indo-European *(s)teuros 'domestic (large) animal' wherefrom English steer German Stier 'bull', Greek thaer German Tier 'animal' and maybe also German teuer 'expensive' – Latin pecunia 'money' from pecus 'cattle' (pecunia a heavy Roman bronze ingot worth a cow and decorated with a cow). A large domestic animal would then have been an overcomer TYR that was overcome itself.
(etorri zezen Basque esatari)
Magdalenian TOR means bull in motion, accounting for Spanish toro Latin taurus and many more cognates in very many languages (compiled by Saul Levin).
Bulls were a central topic in Eurasia, as we can glean from a Magdalenian formula naming the human condition: AD TOR OC CO Mycenaean atoroqo Greek anthropos 'human being' - toward AD bull in motion TOR right eye OC attentive mind CO, toward the running bull with open eyes and focused mind, facing the bull, taking the bull by the horns, coping with fate.
Confronting a bull was a high risk. A drawing in the cave Le Gabillou shows a Magdalenian hunter with a lance before an immense bull (danger and fear enlarging the animal in what I call attention perspective). Whereas a Minoan bull leaper symbolized an astronomer coping with the moon bull = calculating the lunar cycle. Basque etorri covering the meanings of think and teach might be placed in this context.
What about Pre-Proto-Basque *zen *ze-zen Proto-Basque *zezen Basque zezen 'bull' (Theo Vennemann) ? The origin of *zen might have been GEN for the three days of the young moon bull, a word present in origin, from ORI GEN, the young moon bull GEN on the horizon ORI. (G could become Z also in Slavic, while ideograms accompanying the white moon bulls in the rotunda of Lascaux indicate these numbers: 3 days of the young moon, 6 days of the waxing moon, 9 days of the full moon, 6 days of the waning moon, 3 days of the old moon; add alternatingly 3 and 2 days for the empty moon German Leermond and you obtain lunations of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days in a Stone Age way of counting synodic months.)
What about Basque as word or name? It may derive from PAS CA given on the long wall of the Brunel chamber in the Chauvet cave as a large red ocher domino five reading PAS (everywhere in a plain, here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta- 'five') plus one more dot (palm impression) in elevated position for CA (sky) - may the bullman (supreme leader of the Lower Rhone Valley) be born again in the sky by the goddess of the Summer Triangle Deneb Vega Atair (woman of the large pubic triangle on a stalactite in the rear hall, by her side a bull, his head before her womb), and may he roam the sky in his next life as he roamed the land in this life, may he get everywhere PAS in the sky CA ...
Chauvet could have been the stage for a play, perhaps a shadow dance by a fire: adventure of ARC TYR in the sky, among the stars and constellations, overcomer TYR of the cave bear ARC. Fast moving Arcturus was by then the head of Bootes, together ARC TYR, overcomer TYR of the cave bear ARC (a fearsome beast bigger than a grizzly) seen in the Big Dipper as bear facing Bootes. King Arthur of Britain fought the dragon of Lannion that appeared in the form of a full grown bull for three days and three nights without a break, and finally overcame him. Bones and skulls of cave bears had been seen as remains of dragons. The many dragons in tales, fairy tales, legends and myths combine then two archetypical animals, the bull in motion TOR and the cave bear ARC, both overcome by the hero, the overcomer TYR. Hunting plots and metaphors may have accounted for Basque esatari 'myth, legend' Finnish tarina 'narrative, legend' (TYR *dar tar) and English story Latin historia (TOR tor stor – you might also remember the Minoan lunisolar calendar of Knossos encoded in the myth of Minotaur).
Who were the Vascons? Maybe descendants of the Chauvet people surviving in the Pyrénées? joined by a tribe that came from Anatolia?
(Basque, a fable)
The region of the Göbekli Tepe between southeastern Anatolia and northern Syria was the land of the fire archers PYR RIT and their 'fingers of light and luck' DIG LIC shot into the night sky on New Year's Eve along the rivers they named
PYR RIT Firat Euphrates
DIG LIC Dicle Tigris
Later fall and early winter were the rain season. New Year followed the winter solstice and honored the fire giver PIR GID. Her husband was AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, visualized by the big limestone ring on the Göbekli Tepe that shows the head of the god ex negativo, framed by the minimally sculpted inside of the ring (arcs of the forehead, ears, cheeks and chin), otherwise consisting of nothing else than air and light.
Some 9,000 years ago a mountain tribe left the land of the fire archers, wandered westward, and finally reached the mountain range between southwestern France and northeastern Spain. They called the mountains PIR NAI, the fire PIR (archers) found a good place for a camp, NAI, a new home. The locals were descendants of the Chauvet people who called themselves PAS CA Basques or Vascons, keeping alive the ancient myth of the bullman (supreme leader of the Lower Rhone Valley) who was born again by the goddess of the Summer Triangle and roams the heavens in his new life as he had roamed the land in his former life - getting everywhere PAS in the sky CA ...
AAR RAA NOS had been implored for rain on the Göbekli Tepe. Now his name accounted for Basque aran 'valley' – a valley being a hollow between hills or mountains filled with air and light - while he was still implored for rain that fills river beds and water holes, ponds and lakes.
The Anatolian tribe settled in the region of many swamps and lakes and rivers they called AD DA AAR RAA Andorra, highland of rivers that flow toward AD plains and seas while coming from DA here, this region, where they are filled with rain by the one of air AAR and light RAA. One river was called DAL AAR RAA Valira, river of the valley DAL (proper Magdalenian word for a valley or dale) filled with rain by him of air AAR and light RAA); another AAR RAA SAL, he of air AAR and light RAA fills the watery ground SAL of the valley with rain; still another AAR RAA AC Aričge, he of air AAR and light RAA is the lord over an expanse of land with water AC, the region called Aričge (Ličge/Lüttich another case of -ac -ach -ičge -ich), irrigated by the river of the same name, Aričge.
(Magdalenian cosmology, Divine Stag)
CER KOS named the Divine Stag of Magdalenian cosmology, CER meanings stag or hind, also shaman or shamaness, present in Latin cervus French cerf German Hirsch 'stag', in the name of the Celtic god of animals Cernunnos wearing stag antlers (on the silver cauldron from Gundestrup, Denmark, probably made by Galataean Celts in Anatolia), in Greek keras English horn German Horn, and KOS meaning heavenly vault, present in cosmos.
The Divine Stag and his helpers guarded the exits from and entrances to the Underworld KAL that were passed periodically by the sun horse and moon bull. A small group of stags wearing large antlers can be seen in the midsummer hall (rotunda) of Lascaux: before the bull of the full moon (marked as such by the ideogram along his front) and the red mare of midsummer morning rising above the horizon of the ledge menhir6e.JPG
The stags are astronomer shamans watching the full moon followed by the sun rise on a midsummer morning, June 21, a rare occasion (ideal start of an eight-year period in the lunisolar calendar of Lascaux). One antler of the stag on the left side touches the mouth of the bull in a significant manner. Can this perhaps indicate a sound, a horn blown when the full moon rose, especially on a midsummer morning?
CER KOS read as stag CER on the heavenly vault KOS refers to the summer constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpio seen as antlers of the Divine Stag.
Derivatives of CER KOS are Latin quercus 'oak' and Gaulish érkos 'oak-forest'. How come? Antlers of the stag Cervus elaphus and oaks branch at the same wide angle followed by a curve which gives them a similar look. The sacred tree of the Divine Stag and his astronomer shamans would then have been the oak.
CER and CER KOS may have a parallel in Basque adar 'horn' and Celtic adarcos 'horn' (Old Irish rump form adarc). If so, adarcos in the wake of CER KOS testifies to the longevity of Magdalenian cosmology, and so does the (Irish?) legend of a stag whose antlers are decorated with burning candles – replacing the stars of the above summer constellations by flames, tiny lights blinking in the night ...
(Magdalenian cosmology, Divine Hind or Hind Woman)
CER -: I -: or CER LIL was the Divine Hind or Hind Woman. She called life into existence, also moon bulls, thus creating time, lunations of alternatingly 30 and 29 days. The main sanctuary of the Divine Hind was the cave of Altamira, Santillana del Mar, Cantabria, northern Spain (adjacent to Euskadi, land of the Basques of Vascons). Altamira is famous for the compact and energetic bulls covering walls and ceilings. By far the largest animal, however, is a beautiful hind licking the horns of a small bison under her, thus calling him into life and existence hind1.JPG
Pronounce the lip lick -: by touching both lips with the tip of the tongue. CER -: I -: accounts for cow-eyed Hera of Greek mythology, and North-West Proto-Indo-European *kerdeh- 'herd, series', -: I -: for a call of Celtic herdsmen surviving in the locally famous lyoba call of herdsmen in the Swiss Canton of Fribourg, also for German Leben English life, German Liebe English love, Latin libido 'desire', English lip (licking the lips a signal of appetite, once maybe of love and desire that finds a first fulfillment in a kiss, lips on lips), Ugaritic dd 'loved one' Phoenician Dido 'Beloved One', female given names Libby and Lily, flower lily, German Laub 'foliage' and Laube 'arbor' suggesting arbors in honor of the goddess who made also plants grow (some Altamira bulls have regular tails in form of a paintbrush, others have tails in form of a fur twiglet). One more class of derivatives are articles like English the French le la les that call the subsequent noun into existence, one might say. Finally, the Divine Hind could grant a second life in a heavenly beyond when implored by red ocher dots on cave walls that have the meaning of SAI for life, existence, while the cave wall represents the sky CA, together SAI CA psychae, asking for a next life in a heavenly beyond for a worthy soul. Bulls and hind of Altamira are a little younger than Lascaux while the earliest painted element in the Altamira cave is a red ocher dot, over 41,000 years old.
The heavenly abode of the Hind Woman was ORE EON, she on the beautiful ORE bank or shore EON of the celestial CA river or lake LAK together CA LAK overformed in Galaxy 'Milky Way' - she on the beautiful bank of the Milky Way, appearing in the winter constellation of Orion, across the sky from the summer constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpio that were seen as antlers of the Divine Stag CER KOS.
Marie E.P. König identified the bull of Lascaux as moon bull, the horse as sun horse, the line of descending horses in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery as winter sun giving way to the pair of antithetic ibices (or ibexes), midwinter emblem (also antithetic mountain goats for example in the Middle East.) Now if the niche symbolizes midwinter, the glorious rotunda midsummer, the axial gallery connecting them a year, the lovely pair of 'Chinese' horses heading (in clockwise direction) from niche to rotunda spring, and the roaring megaceros 'giant stag' near them a chief astronomer (geometrical figures being calendar ideograms). While the arcs of horns and heads of the opposing ibices ) ( evoke the hourglass figure of Orion; the Hind Woman being present as a mere hunch, Lascaux celebrating midsummer when winter is far away.
The sacred tree of the Divine Hind and Hind Woman was the fir. Arbors in her honor were made of fir branches, while the custom of decorating a fir tree with candles, outdoor then also indoor, might originally have symbolized the union of Divine Stag and Hind – promise of new life, another spring and summer ...
(Euskara, an old memory? part 1)
Ideograms marking the moon bulls of Lascaux indicate 3 6 9 6 3 days for the young - waxing - full - waning - old moon; add alternatingly 3 and 2 days for the empty moon German Leermond and you have lunations of alternatingly 30 and 29 days (Stone Age way and still Celtic way of counting lunations or synodic months). GEN was the young moon bull: a pretty animal in the midsummer hall of Lascaux, and the small bison under the beautiful hind of Altamira hind1.JPG
The Hind Woman in Orion called moon bulls forth from the constellation of Taurus above her, Taurus from TOR for bull in motion, while the Divine Hind of Altamira called them out of niches and crevices in the rock of cave walls – animals emerging from and disappearing into niches and crevices of rock are seen in both European cave art and in the rock art of Southern Africa.
On a second level of meaning, the small bison of Altamira might be the bull(man) given a second life. Remember the bull(man) of Chauvet, supreme leader of the Lower Rhone Valley, given a second life by the goddess of the Summer Triangle Deneb Vega Atair (possibly one of the emanations of the triple goddess of the fire giver PIR GID and fur giver BIR GID and fertility giver BRI GID who became the Celtic triple goddess Brigit).
A pharaoh was born again by Nut, sky goddess residing in a fig tree (Egyptian sycamore) but also arching herself over the land, whereupon the reborn king led a double existence, dwelling in his pyramid, 'house of a million years', and following Ra in a sun bark along the swaying kha-channel (identified as band of the ecliptic by Rolf Krauss).
If the bull(man) born again by the goddess (one of her many emanations) led a similar double existence, traveling across the sky but also dwelling in his cave, we may assume that caves were forbidden zones protected by taboos, accessible only for shamans and shamanesses and whom they invited, for example aspiring shamans and shamanesses in the case of Lascaux, and generally wandering arch shamans and shamanesses who held together and stabilized a Magdalenian society. Wide wandering shamans hold together Amazonia still in our time.
(Euskara, an old memory? part 2)
Wandering arch shamans and shamanesses were given as megaceroi, giant stag and hind. The roaring megaceros in the axial gallery of Lascaux was a chief astronomer. Others may have been healers. Again others were judges, for example the stately pair of a male followed by a female in the cave le Cougnac, Payrignac, Lot. In the same cave is a drawing of a falling man pierced by lances, considered by experts on cave art the capital punishment for a crime - inflicted by wandering judges?
Magdalenian AIS means fate, while GAR named a crevice in rock where animals emerged from or disappeared into. Now imagine a couple of wandering judges wearing emblems of megaceroi, visiting a cave, entering the crevice GAR, consulting the spirit of a former bull(man) inside the cave, then leaving the dark halls and chambers, emerging from the crevice GAR, announcing their decision or verdict, and thus deciding on the fate AIS of a single person or a goup or the entire tribe
AIS GAR Euskara ?
This etymology of the alternative term for the Basque language, Euskara, is motivated by a local superstition. Remember that GEN for the young moon bull might have become Pre-Proto-Basque *zen *ze-zen Proto-Basque *zezen Basque zezen 'bull' (Theo Vennemann; by the way, zezen might have a cognate in Manchurian sisen 'herd'). Now there is a Basque belief that a zezen dwells in a cave, a genie in form of a terrible bull haunting people who approach the cave by night. Can this fear be rooted in a darkly remembered remote past? If so, *eusk- 'Basque' ara 'manner' Euskara '(to speak in the) Basque manner' is an overforming.
Also Basque or Euskara itself is keeping old memories, for example of AAR RAA NOS, the sky god of the Göbekli Tepe region, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, a god of several emanations, human (big limestone ring on the Göbekli Tepe showing the head of the god ex negativo), bull (bucrania, one in the gathering house 1A at Hullan Cemi pronounced Chemi, another on the neck of the male central pillar of temple D on the Göbekli Tepe), and bird (various depictions), accounting for Basque arano 'eagle, vulture' and German Aar, König der Lüfte, poetic for eagle, king of the airs (plural)
AAR RAA NOS arano Aar
while Basque ara 'manner' might be a shortened AAR RAA of the original meaning: in the manner of those who follow the sky god of air AAR and light RAA whether he assumes the guise of a man or bull or bird.
By the way, AAR RAA NOS might already have been worshipped 14,000 years ago on the hill west of the river of Altay in the northwestern tip of China. He would have mirrored himself in lakes, naming a lake NOS AAR RAA nuur (?). As young moon bull GEN he would have become the father of herds, emphatic doubling GEN GEN Manchurian sisen 'herd'.
(lessons for aspiring shamans and tribal leaders – Lascaux)
The cave of Lascaux was never inhabited but served for teaching aspiring shamans and tribal leaders (my hypothesis). From the midsummer hall (rotunda) one can go to the midwinter niche, or to the cabinet of the felines, or to the pit
midsummer hall --- midwinter niche
connected by the axial gallery
lessons in astronomy and calendars
midsummer hall --- cabinet of the felines
connected by passageway and nave
polarity of life and death?
lessons in healing?
midsummer hall --- pit
connected by passageway and apse
lessons in ethics and moral
The original entrance in shape of the left eye socket (photograph taken from tv, sorry for the poor quality) revealed a composite animal that follows the morning horses rising above the horizon of the ledge menhjr88.JPG / menhir6f.JPG
The composite animal shows the head of a bearded man, a pairof horns growing as lances from his forehead; the mottled hide of a feline; the hind body of a bull; and the swollen belly of a pregnant mare
GER SAP )EI TAC MUC CRA AMA CED
Make a wise use of your weapons; wait patiently and then act in a decided manner as a lion; be strong as a bull; and care for your own like a mare for her foal …
The Magdalenian rebus conveys a message to aspiring tribal leaders. Upon following the passageway and apse they reached the pit where they were given another message by three enigmatic figures: a falling birdman, a wounded bull, and a bird on a pole sinking down, while a woolly rhinoceros passes under them, running from the right to the left side, according to Marie E.P. König the goddess of giving life and taking life menhir6d.JPG
The birdman might have been the supreme leader of the Guyenne, the bull the supreme leader of the Lower Rhone Valley, and the bird on a pole the supreme leader of the Pyrénées. Now they are dying. What will happen to their souls?
Michael Rappenglück identified the birdman with the constellation of Cygnus, the bull with the one of Lyra, and the bird on a pole with the one of Aquila. I’d say the eye of the birdman is Deneb in Cygnus, the eye of the bull Vega in Lyra, and the eye of the bird on a pole Atair in Aquila, all together the Summer Triangle, meaning that worthy tribal leaders will be born again by the goddess of the Summer Triangle and spend a second life in a heavenly beyond …
Have a closer look at the rhinoceros. There are three and three dots behind her, three behind her vagina, indicating a second life for worthy souls, and three behind her anus, meaning that she will drop unworthy souls. A drastic message, contrasting with the almost humoristic message seen from the ancient entrance, a lesson in ethics and moral for aspiring tribal leaders.
However, the center of Lascaux is the midsummer hall, symbol of life and happiness. Maybe there was a midsummer festival in the region of Lascaux?
By the way, the above geographical identification is facilitated by the birdman seen as river map of the Guyenne menhir6i.JPG
(midsummer festival at Yverdon-Clendy – menhir site)
An impressive menhir site comprising more than forty large and middle-sized and small stones, among them groups or families (very charming) can be found at Yverdon-Clendy in western Switzerland, at the southwestern end of Lake Neuchâtel. The oldest menhirs are about 6,400 years old. In my opinion seven menhirs belonged to the first site representing a large raven spreading his wings upon landing on the shore of the lake menhir1b.GIF
Five of the seven stones would have been or simply were a calendar of the solstices and equinoxes menhir1d.GIF
Four of the seven stones define the corridor of the midsummer festival, leading to the northeastern end of the lake, where the midsummer sun rises from the lake, between two low hills (no longer visible, the shore being filled up and overgrown) menhir1f.GIF
And here the large menhir of the autumn solstice, a fascinating shape-shifter of a stone, among the appearances are a big round bird eye, a tree, a hand, a bird’s beak, and the profile of the birdman as supreme leader of the region of the three lakes, pointing in the direction in which the bird flew or landed menhjr61.JPG
Later on the site was slightly modified, and the number of stones much increased. There is again the calendar of the solstices and the midsummer corridor. New are cycles of plant and animal and human life – too much to explain here, but you can find a thorough interpretation in three pages beginning here menhir0a.htm (text in German, plenty photographs)
Further messages (Frontpage, the fine Microsoft program is no longer supported, so I can’t place more links on my homepage and have to add more messages here)
(bird goddess and Horus falcon – early calendars)
In the spring of 2004 the Vinca (vincha) script arose my curiosity. What if the bird goddess of Old Europe (a term coined by Marija Gimbutas; Mesolithic and Neolithic Balkans) had been Ki Ri Ke given as cross line angle? surviving in Homer's Kirkae English Circe? and could the schematic bird woman depicted on a shallow bowl from Gradesnica in western Bulgaria and a Bohemian pottery mark have encoded a calendar of the four seasons? kirike30.GIF / kirike31.GIF
25 25 25 16 25 25 25 16 25 25 25 16 25 25 25 16 plus 1 or 2 days
are a regular year of 365 and occasional leap year of 366 days, the short periods of 16 16 16 and 17 or 18 days covering the equinoxes and solstices.
Now there is a lunar aspect. Seven lunations or synodic months counted in a Stone Age way are matched by several sequences of nine calendar periods each
30 29 30 29 30 29 30 sum 207 days
25 25 25 16 25 25 25 16 25 sum 207 days
25 25 16 25 25 25 16 25 25 sum 207 days
25 16 25 25 25 16 25 25 25 sum 207 days
Near the end of 2004 followed the lunisolar calendar of the Göbekli Tepe and the Horus modification of Ancient Egypt.
Göbekli Tepe calendar: a month had 30 days, a year 12 months plus 5 and occasionally 6 more days, while 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months; mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime.
(15 and 17 lunations counted in the 30 29 30 mode yield 443 and 502 days respectively. 17 15 17 15 17 or 17 32 49 64 81 lunations are then 502 443 502 443 502 or 502 945 1447 1890 2392 days.)
Horus calendar: the solar eye of the Horus falcon represented a month of 30 days; the lunar eye one lunation or synodic month of 30 days multiplied by the Horus eye series '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64 yielding 29 '2 '32 days or 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes (modern average of a synodic month 29d 12h 44m 2.9s).
This calendar was encoded in the myth of Seth who destroyed the lunar eye of the Horus falcon whereupon wise Thoth healed it by assembling the parts '2 and '4 and '8 and 16 and '32 and '64 of the metaphorical eye (a story being more easily memorized and remembered than mere numbers).
Early 2005 saw the reconstruction of the amazing lunisolar calendar of Lascaux and start of the Magdalenian 'time travel'.
Now for the names of the Horus falcon and the bird goddess Ki Ri Ke of Old Europe in the light of the Magdalenian approach to early language.
AAR RAA NOS was the sky god of the Göbekli Tepe region, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS (of his own). His guises were a bull or a man (his head visualized ex negativo by the big limestone ring) or a bird. His bird emanation accounts for Basque aruna 'eagle, vulture' and German Aar, König der Lüfte, poetic for eagle, king of the airs (plural).
AAR RAA became Greek hora (with omega, long o) that covers a variety of short and middle and long periods of time, time originally counted and measured via changes of light RAA in the air AAR - day and night, moving sun and moon and stars. Latin hora Italian ora French heure English hour have restricted meanings (one hour some 30 diameters of sun or full moon along the ecliptic).
AAR RAA CA named Horus as the one of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA, the longer version CA AAR RAA CA the bird goddess Ki Ri Ke via the onomatopoeic shortening
CA AAR RAA CA ki Ri ke Ki-Ri-Ke Kirkae Circe
Athene appeared in the bird guises of the sea eagle and the little owl Athene noctua. A warning call of the latter is rendered as Kij Kij Kij in German and kekeke in English
Kij Kij Kij kekeke Ki Ri Ke
Kirkae hovered as owl above the men she guided, 'owl-eyed Athene' rose into the sky 'like an owl'.
The bird woman on the bowl from Gradesnica resembles a song thrush known for beautiful melodies. Kirkae sung in a beautiful voice while weaving her cloth in a cave. We may assume that she wove the fabric of life.
(how the edible olive arrived in the Argolis – Phaistos Disc again)
Here is how the edible olive reached the Argolis – a hermeneutic hypothesis that may one day be tested genetically, since the genome of the olive has been decoded.
Derk Ohlenroth deciphered the Phaistos Disc, a pair of clay discs baked together. One side is about Tiryns, the other about Elaia’s grove at Phigalia. Here my translation in freestyle English.
Tiryns disc, spiral text, beginning with the rosette in the center, self-deification of Eponymous Tiryns who compares himself to Zeus the shining one via shining Tiryns:
Zeus is the shining one also when Zeus is the Lycaion one
whose lovers give birth to his equals. And if Tiryns is a shining town,
I, (Eponymous) Tiryns, am the shining one’s equal
Tiryns disc, text along the margin, beginning with the rosette, a banning formula of archaic power, warning potential intruders, enhancing the protection provided by the palisade around the acropolis of Tiryns with word magic:
Marked by the god and lonely forever and without any hope for salvation
shall return without a shadow who tries to intrude the sanctuary
(Zeus shrine in the former Round Building on top of the acropolis)
Elaia disc, invoking Despoina whose taboo name was Nyx ‘Night’, daughter of Demeter-Elaia in the guise of a mare (Black Demeter-Melaina) and Poseidon in the guise of a stallion; instructing a visitor of the grove how to call forth Nyx and get the oracle of her priestesses:
Enter Elaia’s grove and kindle peeled wood, beat the ground around
the smoke and neigh suddenly like a pair of horses (imitating the couple
of Demeter-Elaia and Poseidon in their equine guises): Aio aé! hyauax!
Come, Shadowy One, Noble Late Night, born anew by the goddess
Follows my archaeological and historical interpretation (differring from the one by Ohlenroth) in form of a fable.
A hopeful young man from Lycosoura on the Peloponnese loved to visit Elaia’s grove where he learned all about planting cereals and edible olives (Greek Elaia means olive) and keeping bees in transportable hives. Also he got an oracle by the priestesses who were fond of him: Take a handful of cereal grains and an armful of olive twigs to the Argolis and cultivate the plain, avert a famine, and you might become king of a polis there … So he did. He went to the Argolis, planted cereals and edible olives and installed bee hives everywhere. And really, he averted a famine and was appointed king of Tiryns in the Middle Helladic period of time.
He had a Minoan friend in Phaistos on Crete, a talented goldsmith and scribe who made a pair of gold discs for him to wear on his shoulders. The clay maquettes, baked together, survived in a chamber of the old palace of Phaistos, and are known as – Phaistos Disc. A fresco in the Middle Helladic palace of Tiryns showed the king and his successors as lion-wolf-dog-bee kings worshipping Demeter, goddess of cereals, her gown decorated with grains, and the sky raining them, while between the kings were seen vertical olive twigs. The first king in line, Eponymous Tiryns, rose a libation jug in honor of the goddess, behind her the eagle of Zeus. The lion is a royal animal, the wolf lives in a pack, the dog is watchful, and the bee a most industrious helper of farmers. The palace and the frescoes within are lost, however, another gifted Minoan goldsmith crafted a gold signet ring showing the scene in an oval only some 5 cm across, with very fine details, even clearly visible spirals on the shoulders of the kings – the hypothetical gold discs ring.gif / ring2.JPG The ring survived in a cache of Tiryns. Can we hope that also the pair of gold discs are hidden in a not yet discovered cache of the lstill unexcavated lower part of the acropolis?
Homer in the Odyssey gives the lineage Zeus – Arkeisios – Laertes – Odysseus – Telemachos. Lord Laertes the gardener who planted the olive tree around which Odysseus and Penelope build their immoveable bed – symbol of the everlasting Greek civilization – may well be Eponymous Tiryns, or rather his dynasty in the Middle Minoan / Helladic period of time.
There is much more to say, but I make it short by showing a ring from Mokhlos on Crete, Elaia in her boat which turns into a horse, with her an olive tree, on the sky a large bee elaia.GIF
Hypothesis: edible olives reached the Argolis earlier than hitherto assumed, coming from Asia Minor via Minoan Crete to the western then eastern Peloponnese. Now that the genome of the long living olive tree has been decoded one might be able to trace back variants for a couple of millennia.
(eye-formula and wheel-metaphor)
OC right eye, open eyes
CO attentive mind
POL fortified settlement, Greek polis 'town'
LOP enveloping hedge, fence, palisade, wall
OC CO was a formula for the open eyes gathering fleeting visual impressions that are woven into stable pictures by the mind CO, Italian occhio German Auge English eye Greek omma (guttural stop replaced by a labial one) Sanskrit aksi, while CO OC has the meaning of look, a noun in Scottish keek and imperatives in German guck and Dutch kijk.
CO OC LOP named the organization of an early town: in the center the ruler of the focused mind CO surrounded by watchful guards of the open eyes OC along the enveloping wall LOP, Cyclops, cyclopic wall, Greek kyklos 'circle, ring, cycle, group, margin of a shield, disc, ring wall or town wall', en kyklo 'round about', Proto-Indo-European *kwekwlos 'wheel' English wheel Sanskrit chakra 'wheel'. OC CO LOP named the guards of the open eyes OC around the ruler of the focused mind CO along the enveloping palisade or wall LOP, Latin oculus 'eye' Greek ops genitive opos 'eye, face'.
LOP OC OC might perhaps account for Old English locian Middle English loc(i)en New English look, and for dialectal German lugen 'to look out'; POL OC CO maybe for peek and peep (again replacing a guttural stop by a labial one).
Cyclopes had been one-eyed giants who personified early towns, most famous Polyphem, Homeric symbol of Troy. Polyphem resembled more a wooded mountain top than a man who eats bread. His one eye was the acropolis overlooking the wide river plain, his body downtown Troy VIIa that provided protected shelter for 5,000 to 10,000 people. CO OC LOP is overformed by kyklos ops 'round eye' but the original form and meaning are still recognizeable.
PIE *kwekwlos 'wheel' was inspired by round early towns like Dimini and sometimes wheel-like ground plans of fortified settlements in the Transural ('nation of towns'), moreover by a possible rite of magically enforcing a palisade or wall by riding or driving – wheeling – three times around it, reciting banning formulae against potential intruders. (Eberhard Zangger believes that Achilles broke such a spell by dragging Hector's body three times around the wall of Troy.) The wheel metaphor was easily established: ruler and hub; guards (their glances and arrows flying radially) and spokes; ring wall and tire.
OC CO occhio Auge eye omma aksi
CO OC keek guck kijk
OC CO LOP oculus 'eye'
CO OC LOP Cyclops kyklos *kwekwlos wheel chakra; (maybe also goggle)
LOP OC CO locian loc(i)en look lugen (?)
POL OC CO peek peep (?`)
The concept of CO OC LOP and OC CO LOP is visualized by the Tiryns discmor side of the Phaistos Disc: the ruler of the focused mind CO near thecenter (male profile, tattoo on the cheek, uper circle invoking Middle Helladic Sseyr Homeric Zeus, lower circle Eponymus Tiryns who governs in the name of the god), surrounded by soldiers who guard the entrance and look over the palisade LOP that is enforced by the archaic banning formula written along the margin of the Tiryns disc. The same organization is encoded in the shields of the soldiers: a central dot surrounded by six dots along the inside of the circle.
A blot surrounded by a circle of smaller blots can be seen four times on the staring plaster head from Mycenae: on forehead, cheeks, and chin. This was the Argos eye, emblem of the watchful union of Helladic towns in the Argolis: Tiryns in the center, surrounded (in clockwise direction) by Mycene Berbati Midea Nauplion (Argivian bay) Lerna Magoula Argos, moreover Dalamarna between Argos and Tiryns.
By the way, ITA CA Ithaca would originally have been the Argolis then the Peloponnese, young bull ITA sky CA, under the sky of the young Zeus bull, surviving in the name of a relatively small island off the south-western Peloponnese, while ATI CA Attica, mature bull ATI sky CA, under the sky of the mature Zeus bull, named the center of the classical Greek civilization. POL LOP Peloponnese was the land of the many fortified settlements POL enveloped in palisades or walls LOP, personified by PAS LOP Penelope, everywhere PAS enveloping palisades and walls LOP ...
(wheel of time – Tao Te Ching 11 verse 1)
Remember the comparison of a round early town and a wheel
ruler of the focused mind in the center -- hub
guards of the open eyes watching out -- spokes
ring wall -- tire
A wheel of thirty spokes is mentioned in Lao Tsu, Tao Te Ching, 11 verse 1, from the translation by James Legge
The thirty spokes unite in the one wheel,
but it is on the empty space for the axle
that the use of the wheel depends.
The hub or 'empty space for the axle' stands for the Tao and, considering the above comparison of early town and wheel, also for the ruler who governs along the Tao. Moreover there might be a connection to the Göbekli Tepe calendar: each spoke a month of 30 days while 63 periods of 30 days are 1,890 days that correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months, 64 being the number of houses in the circle of the I Ching.
Tao might be one further derivation of DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able.
The Oceanians worship their ancestors in the form of stone sculptures they call Tikis (plural). A Tiki (singular) is half god half human. Maybe also Tiki derives from DhAG ? As far as I know the Oceanians came from Taiwan, and if this island should once have been a Late Magdalenian outpost, and if its name is ancient, it might originally have been DhAG PAS, accounting for both Taiwan and its capital Tai-Peh, able ones DhAG everywhere PAS, Tai containing Chinese da 'great'.
(word Wort verbum mot parola parole parler – word and tambourine)
Magdalenian proposes BIR DAP as origin of English word, fur BIR activity of hand DAP, naming a speech held by a shaman or shamaness to the sound of a beaten DAP BIR tambourine. A variation would have accounted for German Wort 'word', BIR TON, fur BIR that makes a sound TON when tapped upon, inverse TON BIR for tambour and tambourine (amalgamated with DAP BIR). A first 'tambour' was a gorilla silverback beating the fur of his chest. I remember having read of African tribes communicating with each other over long distances by beating wooden drums and conveying sentences that are understood verbatim, word for word, by the receivers of the message, probably due to what I call micro-timing, in combination with a relatively small vocabulary and a repertoir of standing expressions and phrases. (Hunting Piraha convey sentences by whistling.) Latin verbum 'word' might combine the fur BIR with onomatopoeic -bum German Bumm English boom, a parallel being bong- in the name of the bonga drum. French mot 'word' may be akin to motoric, from Magdalenian MOT for a repetitive forward and backward movement, as in cutting TOM and cleaning a hide with a stone knive, or beating the fur of a tambourine. Italian parola 'word' and French parole and parler 'speak' may combine the fur BIR with having the say )OG or LOG, the beaten fur of a tambourine accompanying or even conveying the word of a shaman or shamaness.
Maybe the rhythmic beating of a tambourine was the origin of meters like the iamb and hexameter in poetry? while Magdalenian double formulae with often similar sounding words may have an echo in pairs of lines held together by alliteration and rhyme?
(a deep dualism 1/3 – verbal morphospace and elements of meaning)
Are 'semantic atoms' and 'prime words' more than metaphors? Can we find primes among the words in a dictionary as we find primes among the natural numbers - unambiguous units of meaning?
Let me try 'big' and 'bigger' as fairly basic words.
Proto-Indo-European has no explanation for Middle English big(ge) 'strong, mighty' and New English big, while Magdalenian offers PEC for animals like the ibex, also Latin pecus 'cattle, mainly sheep and goats and swine (pecus pec- pig?)' and pecunia 'money' in reference to a valuable and heavy Roman bronze ingot decorated with a cow and worth a cow, a precious animal and life insurance for a farmer family in Roman times; then Old English buc(c) and bucca Middle English bukke New English buck and German Bock. Analogously MUC for bull has derivatives in Greek mega 'big' and English much, also might and mighty, in Italian mucca 'cow' and Swiss Mocke for something (also comparatively) big and roundish or compact. Big and mega are then metaphors referring to cow and bull as big and heavy and strong animals that were most important for our ancestors; consider also that the first letter in the alphabet – Semitic aleph Greek alpha – originally
represented the head of an ox.
The word big is not really a unit of meaning but may be said to have been attracted by a concept of the mind.
How about bigger? 5 is bigger than 3, however, 5 dimes are a smaller sum of money than 3 dollars. The problem becomes even deeper when we consider the natural numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ... n and the prime numbers 2 3 5 7 11 ... among them. While the number of naturals grows constantly (n) the number of primes among them grows more slowly (approaching n divided by the natural logarithm of n). There are more naturals than primes, even infinitely many more (their ratio slowly approximating the natural logarithm of n). On the other hand, naturals and primes can be paired unambiguously
1 2, 2 3, 3 5, 4 7, 5 11, 6 13, 7 17, 8 19, 9 23, 10 29, 11 31, 12 37 ...
hence the set of naturals and the set of primes have the same size, aleph-zero, neither set is bigger or smaller. (Aleph-zero names the lowest of infinitely many ever higher infinities.)
When 'bigger' can be more and infinitely many more but also the same size, neither bigger nor smaller, and this in the case of the same numbers (naturals and primes), the seemingly basic word becomes relative and ambiguous. We can neither let it go nor rely on it entirely. Perhaps we need a complementary way of looking at words?
A dictionary defines a word with other words in a circular web logic. I recommend the study of minimal word spaces (a few words and their relations) used for a task that requires cooperation. Minimal word spaces may shed light on the architecture of actual word spaces, and what I call the verbal morphospace in between (a loan from evolutionary biology). Maybe verbal morphospace and semantic element are a deep dualism like wave or field and particle in quantum theory?
(a deep dualism 2/3 – what are numbers?)
Ian Stewart, in: Taming the Infinite, Quercus London 2008
The meaning of 'number' is a surprisingly difficult conceptual and
philosophical problem. It is made all the more frustrating as we all
know perfectly well how to use numbers. We know how they behave,
but not what they are.
Let me try a dualistic definition. Mathematics, in my opinion, is the logic of building and maintaining, based on the formula a = a that may generate sort of a logic 'field' the 'particles' of which are numbers – naturals, integers, rationals, irrationals, reals, imaginary numbers, complex numbers, quaternions, transfinites, infinitesimals, surrealistic numbers, and so on, whatever will come next, all of them incorporating mathematical logic that makes them ideals of the technical realm.
A machine (9) is assembled from parts (1, 3, 5)
1 plus 3 plus 5 equals 9
We wish to take it apart, in order to clean or repair it
9 equals 3 plus 1 plus 5
and then to reassemble it again from the parts, getting back the well functioning machine we had before
5 plus 1 plus 3 equals 9
Numbers can be taken apart in many ways, and then be put together again, for example 1 or 1/1 given as '1
1 = '1
1 = '1x2 '2
1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3
1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4
1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5
1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5x6 '6
1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5x6 '6x7 '7
'1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5x6 '6x7 '7 = 1
'2 '6 '12 '20 '30 '42 '7 = 1
Turning the stairway into an infinite series
'1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5x6 '6x7 '7x8 '8x9 '9x10 '10x11 ... = 1
A subseries approximates pi/4
'1x2 '2x3 '5x6 '6x7 '9x10 '10x11 '13x15 '15x17 '21x23 '23x25 ... = pi/4
and can be transformed as follows
'1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '13x15 '17x19 '21x23 '25x27 ... = pi/8
and then turned into a stairway number for pi
8 times '1x3 '16
8 times '1x3 '5x7 '32
8 times '1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '48
8 times '1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '13x15 '64
8 times '1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '13x15 '17x19 '80
8 times '1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '13x15 '17x19 '21x23 '96
8 times '1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '13x15 '17x19 '21x23 '25x27 '112
Patterns emerging from numbers may be seen as 'field lines' of mathematical logic.
(a deep dualism 3/3 – reformulating Gödel)
Half a century of personal studies led me to the triangle of language whose corners are
life with needs and wishes
mathematics, logic of building and maintaining
based on the formula a = a
art, human measure in a technical world
based on Goethe's formula
all is equal, all unequal ...
known to artists of all times
Gödel would have shown that the mathematical corner can't be separated from this triangle. Mathematical logic is powerful but can only provisionally be secured from the other side of logic, the border in between being marked by paradoxa and emanations of the infinite, equal unequal in themselves.
Galileo famously wrote that the book of nature is written in the language of mathematics. Einstein was dreaming of a physics that can get rid of the weird natural constants and relies entirely on mathematical numbers like 2 and e and pi. And the cosmologist Max Tegmark believes that the universe can not only be understood via mathematics but ultimately is mathematics.
God may understand all of the world in mathematical terms and have written the metaphorical book of nature in the language of mathematics; we, however, can only decipher the first lines on the first page in the first volume on the first shelf in the first room of an immense library. For our limited mind, the world breaks apart into equal unequal. Mathematical logic makes us proceed technologically, while art helps us integrate technology into life and society and nature.
If numbers incorporate mathematical logic based on the formula a = a, words incorporate the wider logic of equal unequal. This means that language can only partly be formalized, never completely, and that we can never get rid of the Liar Paradox in its various forms – it is just a reminder of the other side of logic, of the wider logic of equal unequal.
PS Mathematical logic is often considered logic per se, which is a mistake, and one that makes many school children suffer. Mathematics and mathematical logic are based on the formula a = a that appears to be self-evident. But is it so? Are there two things in the world that are exactly the same, absolutely equal, identical? And is there anything that remains unchanged forever? An apple is an apple, but one apple may be red and sweet, the other green and sour, and what if the apple is eaten? We human beings are all the same and all different, with our special traits and features and abilities and fates. Not even monozygotic twins are completely identical. Some children are good at mathematics (I was one of them) while others can’t easily abstract from the differences that make up the richness of the world. Also their skills are needed and deserve being honored.