Lascaux 3; Göbekli Tepe, Indus Seals, Divine Hind and Bull Valley © 2009 by Franz Gnaedinger, www.seshat.ch

 

 

lascaux.htm / lascaux2.htm / lascaux3.htm / lascaux4.htm / lascaux5.htm

 

goebekli.GIF / ouranos.JPG / gt01.GIF // indus.JPG / indus2.JPG / indus3.JPG // hind1.JPG / hind2.JPG / anglin.GIF / tablets.GIF / eg1a.gif / eg1b.GIF / minoan.JPG // lascaux.htm / lascaux2.htm // calendar.htm

 

 

Hill of Creation, a paleo-linguistic fable

 

Some 12,000 years ago, a Late Magdalenian tribe settled in southeast Anatolia and built a five meters high earth mound on the limestone outcrop known as Göbekli Tepe, Nabled Hill, and on top of the mound a hypothetical calendar sanctuary consecrated to the triple goddess, the fire giver PIR GID, the fur giver BIR GID, the fertility giver BRI GID, and her triple hero AAR RAA NOS and AD DA MAN and GIS BAL CA MmOS whose names shall be explained later on. In the center of the circular sanctuary on top of the hill stood a Tree of Life, around it a dozen poles that symbolized the solar year of a dozen months of 30 days each. The year was organized this way:

 

  2 and occasionally 3 days of the winter solstice, BRI GID (falcon) PIR GID

    first midwinter day consecrated to BRI GID

    (occasional day in between consecrated to the falcon)

    last midwinter day consecrated to PIR GID,

      night of the fire archers PIR RYT (origin of the river name Euphrates)

      and their ‘fingers of light and luck’ DIG LIC (origin of the river name Tigris)

      turn of the year, mild winter

 

  3 times 30 days of PIR GID

 

  3 times 30 days of AD DA MAN

 

  3 days of the summer solstice, AD DA MAN turtle AAR RAA NOS

    first midsummer day consecrated to AD DA MAN

    second midsummer day consecrated to the turtle

    third midsummer day consecrated to AAR RAA NOS

 

  3 times 30 days of AAR RAA NOS

 

  3 times 30 days of BRI GID

    swelling rivers, begin of rainy season

 

  (and again 2 or sometimes 3 midwinter days)

 

63 continuous periods of 30 days, or 270 weeks of 7 days, are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations, mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime. This excellent relation of month and lunation was found using the very ancient algorithm of transforming lunations into days: 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 … days for 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 … lunations.

 

  17 lunations are 502 days

  15 lunations are 443 days

  17 lunations are 502 days

  15 lunations are 443 days

 

  64 lunations are 1,890 days

 

A dozen poles on top of the earth mound represented a dozen months of 30 days, while the space between the Tree of Life in the center and another pole near the tree represented the five and occasionally six additional days of the solar year (two and sometimes three days of midwinter, three days of midsummer). The dozen poles around the Tree of Life in the center formed a wide circle. Four poles marked the cardinal directions, the northern pole being consecrated to the fur giver BIR GID, and the southern one to GIS BAL CA MmOS. This organization reflected the zones of the land around the Göbekli Tepe:

 

  North --- BIR GID

  Rising midsummer sun --- AAR RAA NOS

  Rising midwinter sun --- BRI GID

  South --- GIS BAL CA MmOS

  Setting midwinter sun --- PIR GID

  Setting midsummer sun --- AD DA MAN

 

The dozen poles were arranged as the dial of a clock. A flat horizon provided, this type of sanctuary served as observatory of the rising and setting sun on the solstices and equinoxes, owing to the geographical latitude of Upper Mesopotamia.

 

The triple goddess and her triple hero ruled the land according to the number six in the above scheme, and according to the number four according to the following scheme:

 

  Sky --- AAR RAA NOS

  North --- BIR GID

  South --- GIS BAL CA MmOS

  East --- AD DA MAN

  West --- BRI GID

  Underworld --- PIR GID

 

The triple goddess was the fire giver PIR GID and the fur giver BIR GID and the fertility giver BRI GID. Now for the names of her triple hero. AAR RAA NOS was the god of the sky, mind NOS of the one composed of air AAR and light RAA, seen ex negativo through the big limestone ring found in a small chamber on the Göbekli Tepe  ouranos.JPG  This god became Greek Ouranos and Sanskrit Varuna. The second hero was AD DA MAN, he was the digger of ditches, of channels that made the water flow toward AD one place, coming from DA another place, and he did his work using his right hand MAN. The compound AD DA became a generic word for water and may even be present in English water itself, while MAN became the pars pro toto for a human being, as in farm hand. The origin of English woman seems to be something like weave man, she of the weaving hand, and the older form might have been BIR MAN, she handling fur. (Birmingham of the 99 names might once have been a center of bear furs and clothes made thereof by women.) AD DA MAN would have been the early farmer who dug ditches and water channels for the early fields. Agriculture began in the region of the Göbekli Tepe, for certain in the late phase of the Göbekli Tepe, perhaps already in the early phase, at the base of the Karacadag (pronounced Karadjadag) and in the fertile plain of Adjaman, a name keeping the memory of hypothetical AD DA MAN. Now the third hero was GIS BAL CA MmOS, hot BAL gestured GIS offspring MmOS of the sky CA. If AD DA MAN was the proto-farmer, GIS BAL CA MmOS was the proto-soldier and became GIS.BIL.GA.MISh in Sumer, better kown in the form of Gilgamish or Gilgamesh.

 

The triple hero was represented in the hieroglyph of a bucranium, the skull of a bull: AAR RAA NOS in the ring of the head, AD DA MAN in the ‘digging’ horns turned downward, and GIS BAL CA MmOS in the horizontal bar  gt01.GIF  PIR GID as the one who has the say  )OG or LOG was represented by a hollow horizontal oval between a pair of vertical elements, or simply by the standing H, the fur giver BIR GID was represented by a form that resembles a bowl, and the fertility giver BRI GID was represented by a ring in the bowl that may symbolize the primeval world BIR LAD, hill LAD in the cosmic fur BIR, separated in the ring AC meaning earth, and in the hollow CA meaning sky. The hieroglyph of the triple hero, namely the bucranium, is shown on the southern narrow face of the western central pillar of temple D, and the standing H and the ring inside a ‘bowl’ are shown on the southern narrow face of the eastern central pillar of temple D. The hieroglyphs of the triple goddess can be read as a message:

 

  )OG BIR AC CA

 

and this message may preserve the origin of the world according to the understanding of the people of the Göbekli Tepe.

 

In the begin the goddess PIR GID called out to her sister, the fur giver BIR GID, and asked her to use her cosmic fur in order to haul the primeval world out of the primeval water. BIR GID did as her sister asked, lowered her cosmic fur into the primeval water, filled it with clay, and lifted her heavy fur out of the water. PIR GID called out to her other sister, the fertility giver BRI GID, and asked her to form the lump of wet clay. BRI GID did as her sister asked and formed the lump of wet clay into a ring, separating earth and sky, the earth being the ring, teeming with the seeds of life, and the sky being the hollow within. In the sky appeared AAR RAA NOS. He asked his brother GIS BAL CA MmOS to open the ring. GIS BAL CA MmOS did as his brother asked, opened the ring using his great force, and flattened the ring into the earth as we know it, whereupon the sky escaped the narrow opening of the ring and spread out and covered all of the earth. Now the water escaped from the ring and flooded the surface of the earth. AAR RAA NOS called out for his brother AD DA MAN and asked him to dig channels, so that the waters won’t drown the earth but flow as rivers. AD DA MAN did so. Now PIR GID used her torches to light the sun and the moon and the stars, the sun warmed the air and the ground, whereupon plants of every sort sprouted out of the soil, and animals of every species emerged from clefts in the rock, and populated all of the earth and of the waters and of the sky. PIR GID liked what she saw, hung one of her torches high into the sky, where it forms the constellation of PIR SAI, fir PIR life SAI, known as Perseus, and retired to a beautiful cave that became the Underworld KAL, and with her second torch PIR GID lighted a warming fire inside the earth. We know her in the form of KAL GID pSAI Calypso, the giver GID of life SAI or pSAI in the Underworld KAL, Calypso, weaving the web of life in a spacious cave where a high fire was burning, and singing with a lovely voice.

 

The first hieroglyph of earth and sky, AC CA, was a ring, the second hieroglyph was the lying H, the lower horizontal bar symbolizing the earth AC in flattened form, the work of GIS BAL CA MmOS, the upper horizontal bar the sky CA, and the slim vertical bar the exchanges between earth and sky, especially prayers for rain and sacrificial fires imploring rain ascending to the sky, and rain rewarding the prayers and sacrifices falling from the sky. The prayers for rain and the smoke of the sacrificial fires imploring rain were symbolized by ascending snakes, while the falling rain was symbolized by descending snakes. AC CA was the original name of the Göbekli Tepe, meaning much as: where earth and sky are meeting. AC CA also evolved into Latin aqua, and into the name of the Indo-European earth goddess akka (Julius Pokorny), while the ancient Egyptians mentioned an unknown Syrian province by the name of aqa … A polished form of AC CA may account for Eva, Hebrew hawwa ‘mother of all life’.

 

The first hypothetical sanctuary on top of the Göbekli Tepe gave way to at least nineteen stone pillar temples all over the hill, only a few excavated so far by Klaus Schmidt and his teams, among them the temples called A and B and C and D, all belonging to the early phase, beginning some 11,600 years ago.

 

Follows a short interpretation of these temples.

 

Temple A may be seen as the temple of rain - thanking for rain in the mild winter, imploring rain in the hot and dry summer (the climate in the flanky hills of the fertile crescent was rather special). The diagonal web of snakes on the upper panel of pillar 1, ascending and descending, has the meaning of praying for rain and imploring rain via the smoke of sacrificial fires, and then of rain rewarding the prayers and sacrifices, and the same holds for the one ascending snake and the three descending snakes on the southern narrow face of pillar 1, while the ram below the web of snakes may represent a sacrifice to the sky god who has the power to make it rain (the slab at the base of pillar 1 has the size of a ram, so a ram could have been sacrificed on this slab, at the base of pillar 1 in temple A).

 

Temple B is a calendar sanctuary that parallels the solar year to the life and career of a supreme ruler  goebekli.GIF

 

Temple C is the temple of the boar as protector of the western entrances to and eastern exits from the Underworld that were passed by moon and sun, probably by the moon duck and the sun crane. The grim dog-like animal guarding the ground, a sculpted part of the shaft of pillar 27 and marvel of early stone masonry (appearing also on many other pillars in the simpler form of reliefs), may have hindered unworthy souls from leaving the Underworld. Only worthy souls, especially the souls of worthy former supreme rulers were allowed to return and climb the sky toward a heavenly abode. When a ruler died, his soul entered the Underworld, was guided through the subterranean labyrinth by the fox, returned, and climbed the sky toward a heavenly abode. The guard of the ground, hindering unworthy souls from returning, may have been RAG KAL DhAG NOS, able DhAG minded NOS (helper of the) queen RAG of the Underworld KAL, and this name might have become Requalivahanus much later, a minor god who warded off evil ghosts. The boar could have been SA TYR DhAG NOS, able DhAG minded NOS (helper of) the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR from above SA, and this helper and protector of the western entrances to and eastern exits from the Underworld could have become Satuvahanus. The queen of the Underworld was PIR GID, also known as the one who has the say  )OG or LOG, and as KAL GID pSAI Calypso, while the one who overcame from above in the double sense of rule and give was AAR RAA NOS.

 

Temple D, a Neolithic zoo according to Klaus Schmidt, may have been the Temple of Creation - the pillars show many animals, the huge central pillar may represent the triple goddess and her triple hero, the inscription on the central pillar of the triple goddess reading  )OG BIR AC CA  may even anticipate Genesis 1:1. Pillar 33 of temple D is highly interesting, the snakes on the wide faces, originally seen as pond by Klaus Schmidt, may symbolize the rivers Euphrates and Tigris, while the standing H on the narrow face represents PIR GID as the one who has the say, PIR GID on New Year’s Eve, night of the fire archers, while the fire arrows are represented as up shooting arrow-heads on the sides of the standing H. The fire archers would have been called PIR RYT wherefrom Euphrates, and her arrows were metaphorical fingers of light and luck DIG LIC wherefrom Tigris (consider the ancient and the local names of these rivers). The spiders of six and eight legs may hint at the division of the land around the Göbekli Tepe according to the number 6 and the number 4 doubled in 8 (as explained above).

 

Archaeological evidence for the above fable might perhaps be found in the plain of Adjaman, hypothetical ancient form AD DA MAN, on the Karacadag, hypothetical abode of AAR RAA NOS, and in a cave on the Euphrates in northern Syria, cave of PIR GID alias KAL GID pSAI Calypso.

 

The mythological pairings are:

 

PIR GID and AAR RAA NOS

 

BIR GID and GIS BAL CA MmOS

 

BRI GID and AD DA MAN

 

the latter pair accounting for Adam and Eve --- AD DA MAN Adam, and BIR GID, former of the primeval ring of earth and sky AC CA, wherefrom aqua and akka and hawwa and Eve.

 

 

 

Indus seals – honoring families for outstanding contributions to the public weal?

 

(see also the following chapter where a couple of seals and tablets are interpreted more thoroughly on the background of the founding epic of the Indus Valley, following the approach of Asko Parpola)

 

Illustrations in: Jagat Pati Joshi / Sayd Ghulam Mustafa Shah and Asko Parpola, Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions, 1. Collections in India / 2. Collections in Pakistan, Annales Academiae Scientiae, Helsinki Finland, 1987/1991  indus.JPG  (You may also consult Parpola 1994)

 

We know about five thousand beautiful seals and tablets from the Indus Valley, finely crafted steatite seals, most of them carved in between 2 400 and 1 400 BC, the majority of them showing a big animal, usually a buffalo / zebu / ‘unicorn’ / short-horned gaur, but also a rhinoceros or a tiger or an elephant, and above the animal a short line of ideograms. No other form of writing is known from the Harappan culture, no inscriptions on statues or buildings or bricks or shards (ostraca), neither on sacred nor on profane objects; no epic, no litany, no medical book, no magical instruction, no historical record. Why did the Harappans develop an elaborate system of signs but never used it for writing a longer text, as did the literate societies of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia? I believe that the Indus seals, true works of art, of the highest quality, helped ‘engineering’ the Harappan society and required exclusivity for that very purpose.

 

The highly developed urban centers required common efforts and contributions. I assume that families paid taxes by sending valid members to work for some time, usually for a season of 90 days, in the fields, or to form and bake and transport bricks – millions and millions of bricks were needed for building and ever renovating Mohenjo-daro and Harappa –, or to nourish all the many workers. Now people who did an excellent job while working for free, thus paying their taxes, may have been rewarded with a seal honoring their special effort and outstanding contribution to the public weal …

 

First a word on the Harappan calendars. A horned god and a horned goddess and their animals are suggesting a lunisolar calendar resembling the one of the Göbekli Tepe:  indus2.JPG

 

Horned god, also known as Lord of the Animals, three faces (looking to the left, at us, and to the right) --- Lord of the Year, personification of the 3 days of midsummer, arrival of the monsoon, element water

 

Rhinoceros --- season between midsummer and autumnal equinox, monsoon, from very hot to hot and warm, 90 days, or 3 months of 30 days

 

Buffalo / zebu / ‘unicorn’ / gaur (short-horned bull) --- season between autumnal equinox and midwinter, busiest period of the year when most of the communal work was dome, from warm to cool and cold, 90 days, or 3 months of 30 days

 

Horned goddess --- Lady of the Year, personification of the 2 and sometimes 3 days of midwinter, her animals are the pair of opposing goats (the goddess may be invisibly present in between them), element fire

 

Tiger --- season between midwinter and vernal equinox, from cold to cool and warm, 90 days, or 3 months of 30 days

 

Elephant --- season between vernal equinox and midsummer, from warm to hot and very hot, 90 days, or 3 months of 30 days

 

A year had 360 regular days plus 5 and occasionally 6 days (three days of midsummer, two and occasionally three days of midwinter), while 63 continuous periods of 30 days, or 270 weeks of 7 days, are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations. One lunation or synodic month calculated by these numbers lasts 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes, actual lunation 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.9 seconds (modern average value from 1989), mistake of the ancient value less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime.

 

This lunisolar calendar of the four seasons that required no writing, just laying out pebbles, was encoded on many seals and in a variety of forms:

 

Square, four elements marking the corners of a square, four elements arranged in the form of a square, circles or dots or loops, also an oblique cross --- calendar figure marking the four seasons of the rhinoceros and buffalo and tiger and elephant, four times ninety days, together 360 days

 

Cross (regular cross), five elements, four ends of the arms plus the center --- solstices and equinoxes plus the 5 and occasionally 6 additional days of the solar year

 

Square of nine elements, arranged as 3 by 3 dots or circles or groups of circles --- combined cross and square, again a calendar figure, solstices and equinoxes plus four seasons, together a full solar year of 365 and occasionally 366 days

 

Swastika --- another calendar figure symbolizing the solar year

 

Swastika turning in clockwise direction --- midsummer and season of the rhinoceros, autumnal equinox and season of the buffalo, midwinter and season of the tiger, vernal equinox and season of the elephant (read in outward direction)

 

Swastika turning in counter-clockwise direction --- season of the elephant and midsummer, season of the rhinoceros and autumnal equinox, season of the tiger and midwinter, season of the elephant and vernal equinox (read in inward direction)

 

Disks of seven figurative elements, or seven circles around a central one, indicate an alternative ‘lunar’ calendar. A long week had 13 days, a long month 52 days, a solar year consisted of 7 long months plus 1 and occasionally 2 days. But the main purpose of this calendar would have been to count continuous periods of 52 days. The result is an amazing concordance between lunations (first number in a pair) and long periods of 52 days (second number in a pair):

 

7–4   16–9   23–13   30–17   37–21   44–25   53–30   60–34   67–38   74–42   81–46

 

7 lunations are practically 4 periods of 52 days. 37 lunations are practically 21 continuous periods of 52 days and nearly 3 years. The best result is provided by the last number pair. 81 lunations are practically 46 continuous periods of 52 days or 2,392 days. One lunation, calculated by these numbers, lasts 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 26.66… seconds, mistake less than half a minute per lunation, or six hours in a lifetime. Also this calendar requires no writing, laying out pebbles is all one needed for carrying out the calculations and noting the results.

 

The Sumerians called the Indus Valley ‘Land of the Seven High Places’, a name that may refer to a hypothetical calendar monument of seven artificial hills (high places) around a sanctuary in the center. Such a calendar monument could have been encoded on several discs, a beautiful example coming from Nindowari-damb (Nd-3).

 

Disc of seven elements --- visualizing the alternative ‘lunar’ calendar

 

Disc of seven circles around a central one, for example Nd-3 --- hypothetical calendar monument of seven artificial hills, worshipped as the Seven High Places, a sanctuary embedded in the center, between the seven hills

 

Pipal tree (ficus religiosa) --- Harappan tree of life, associated with the horned goddess and the horned god whose symbolical marriage may have been celebrated in the temple of the tree in downtown Mohenjo-daro

 

Leaf of the pipal tree, also a heart, also three circles or dots or lines, also a trefoil --- life, health, and offspring. Consider the trefoils on the robe of the priest-king from Mohenjo-daro, on the linga-stand from Mohenjo-daro, and on the fragment of a steatite statuette of a bull from Mohenjo-daro

 

Manger, wicker-basket, feed position before a buffalo --- indicating that bulls were domesticated, even gaurs, and used for heavy work such as dragging a plough, a sledge of bricks, or a cart

 

Standard before a bull, most often a ‘unicorn’, sometimes also a rhinoceros, a pole with an often dotted bowl and above a grid --- harvest in double form, real harvest of grains, and metaphorical harvest of bricks. Rectangular grids indicate regular bricks, zigzag or undulating patterns or a dome indicate special bricks, for example round ones needed for tubes. In one case the bowl is replaced by a dough or a bread in conic form resembling Egyptian bread, while the grid above is replaced by a lump of clay hanging down on both sides, together an appealing plastic shape (M-741)

 

Buildings --- the incised copper tablet M-522 shows three buildings with a hint of perspective, a store house in form of a rectangle with a pole on top and perhaps a flag blowing to the left side, in the middle a palace with two flags blowing to the left side, and a family house in form of a grid 4 x 3. The tops are slightly narrower than the bases, making the buildings appear in the perspective of someone walking on the street. The drawing of the palace is identical with the ideogram of the palace, basically our H with additional vertical and horizontal strokes; the under half is the building, the upper parts of the vertical side lines are flag-poles (more later, also the humorous analogy of palace and dog honoring an excellent guard who did as good a job as a watchdog)

 

Royal barque, M-1349 and bis --- the cabins of these ships resemble the palace ideogram, hence these are royal barques, in the cabins are two high boards on which appear sequences of triangular objects that may be specially formed bricks, for example used for window frames in the form of a pipal leaf, bricks being indicated by the grids on the backsides, and these bricks of a high quality produced in a specialized manufacture would have been shipped to palaces all along the many rivers

 

Now for some of the ideograms above the animals:

 

Jar, basically an U --- provisions

 

Fish --- important in the Harappan diet. Fish broth was consumed as an aphrodisiac. The extra signs may indicate how the fish lived, was caught, and processed. An angle above or rather before the head may indicate that the fish lived in a pond; two parallel wavy lines next to it may indicate wild fish from a river; arrow-heads sticking in the gills may indicate speared fish; a horizontal halving stroke may indicate fish cut in pieces; and so on

 

Asymmetrical jar, with a slanting substance at the bottom --- fish sauce or paste, comparable to the popular Roman garum, tasty, rich in protein, not perishable, and easily transportable. Garum was fermented tuna cut in pieces, but fish sauce or paste was also made by fermenting small fish in jars. Fish sauce or paste is indicated when the asymmetrical jar sign appears in between a fish and an arrow or lance

 

Arrow-head on a shaft --- arrow, spear, lance, as verb to catch, also spearing fish

 

Mortar and pestle --- as verb to grind, cereals into flour, also dried fish to flakes and powder. Fish meal, still being produced in India, could have been added to soups, an instant fish broth, as it were. It may also have been used as animal feed, and as fertilizer, especially when it got rancid. The meaning of fish meal is indicated when the mortar and pestle occurs in combination with fish and an arrow-head on a shaft (spear or lance)

 

Two short vertical strokes at the top --- exposing to sun and air, drying fish or bricks or herbs

 

Horizontal boards fixed to a pole --- rack for drying fish or bricks or herbs

 

Rectangle with a pole on top --- store house, often a granary

 

Lens, rarely a full circle --- oven

 

Tree consisting of a trunk, a slanting branch, and three twigs slanting to the other side --- firewood. This sign (with a short trunk only) sometimes appears in a lens, indicating firewood in an oven

 

High standing triangle --- smoking chamber, for example used for smoking fish

 

A cross in the form of an X with one side closed by a vertical stroke and the other side open but the ends of the cross enhanced with ‘thorns’ --- bellows for kindling the fire in an oven, since that sign sometimes lies over a lens, and in other cases appears with flags for wind, moving air. As the sign also occurs before a man (seal of the Lord of the Animals or rather Year) it must have the additional meaning of cooling, causing draught in a house by opening the right doors and windows while closing others, consider the “sweet wind from the north” used by the Egyptians in order to cool their tents and houses

 

A cross in the form of an X with one side closed by a vertical stroke while the angle of the cross on the other side is made broader, stronger --- warming and heating a house by generating a warm stream using the hot air above a fire (the Harappans may not only have used water tubes but also heating tubes conducting warm air)

 

Grid --- bricks, wall, house, tower, any building made of bricks

 

Grid 4 x 3 --- indicating the Sacred Triangle 3-4-5 used by the Egyptian harpedontes (rope stretchers) in measuring out right angles. Hemon, probable designer of the Great Pyramid at Gizeh, developed a systematic method for the calculation of the circle starting from this triangle

 

H sign with additional horizontal and vertical lines --- palace, the poles decorated with flags

 

Standing rectangle with short vertical lines attached to the top and bottom lines --- household, or a camp of workers

 

D sign overlaid with an oblique stroke / --- bow and arrow, indicating a guard and protector

 

Pair of arms, raised or rather put forward --- worker, to work, for example a baker kneading dough

 

Now let us translate the messages conveyed by some typical seals, more or less in the order as I interpreted the ideograms:

 

H-93 shows an elephant, above a D for a bow overlaid with an oblique stroke / for an arrow, and on the other side a jar U ---- The family honored by this seal provided excellent guards who protected our provisions during the season of the elephant (between vernal equinox and midsummer)

 

H-252 till 277 and 859 till 870, all of the same size and form, all showing a bull on one side, and on the other side this sequence of ideograms: arrow-head on shaft (spear, spearing), fish (with arrow-heads sticking in the gills (speared fish), two short vertical strokes (dried in air and sun), tree with vertical trunk, slanting branch, and twigs slanting the other way (firewood), high standing triangle, inside a vertical pole crossed by three short horizontal strokes (smoking chamber, impaled fish being smoked) --- This seal honors a family of excellent fish smokers who supplied our workers in the fields, and in the brick manufactures, and other places of communal work, with smoked fish during the season of the buffalo (busy period of the year, between autumnal equinox and midwinter)

 

Seals showing the royal barque would have honored families of excellent sailors (M-1349)

 

Seals showing calendar signs would have honored families of excellent astronomers, counters of days

 

Seals showing grids would have honored families of excellent architects and builders, arrangers of bricks, an ideal example of such a seal being M-382, showing two grids 4 x 3 next to a man holding a staff or measuring rod the length of his body height (human measure), see also the comment on the grid 4 x 3 above, in the list of ideograms

 

The palace ideogram can resemble a dog, an example of Harappan humor --- This seal honors a family of excellent guards and protectors whose senses are as acute and sharp as the ones of a watchdog (a high compliment in form of a visual pun)

 

Three elements have the meaning of life, health, and offspring, also in the case of the trefoils on the robe of the priest-king from Mohenjo-daro, on the linga-stand from Mohenjo-daro, and on the fragment of a statuette of a bull from Mohenjo-daro --- May the king and may the owner of this linga and may this bull enjoy long and healthy lives and have plenty offspring …

 

The four faces of M-1431 may honor a family of bards who narrated the story of the origin of the year, how the rhinoceros and buffalo and tiger and elephant found together and were coaxed into the round of the seasons

 

The three faces of M-1430 may honor another family of bards for narrating the origin of medicine, showing a pipal leaf on each face, and on face A, between the pipal leaf on the side and the pipal tree in the center – Harappan tree of life – three women, the triple goddess, probably emanations of the horned lady

 

M-304 and bis and ter show the Lord of the Animals or rather of the Year surrounded by a rhinoceros and a buffalo and a tiger and an elephant, the horned god is seated on a dais, under it appears a pair of opposing goats, the Lady of the Year may be invisible between them. The ideogram above the center of the wide horns is a jar with two short vertical strokes indicating provisions (perhaps dried fish), on one side a man before the signs of the cooling and heating bellows, on the other side a fish and a jar --- This seal honors a family of excellent housekeepers who cared very well for our provisions, also for cool rooms in summer, and warm ones in winter

 

Seal M-1103 graces the cover of the second volume of the Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions, Collections in Pakistan  indus.JPG  and shows a magnificent water buffalo, above the animal a short sequence of ideograms, in the middle a pair of arms (worker, here a baker), next to them a rectangle with a pole on top (store house, here a granary) and a mortar and pestle (indicating the grinding of cereals to flour), and next to them a circle divided in six radial compartments plus a short vertical stroke in middle position (baking oven plus bread) and a rectangle with five short vertical strokes along the top line, and again five short vertical strokes along the bottom line, all inside the rectangle (household, or camp of workers) --- This seal honors a family of excellent bakers who supplied our household, or a camp of workers, with bread during the season of the buffalo … The linear order of a text would be:

 

   arms – granary – mortar pestle – oven bread – household

 

but the signs appear in the symmetrical order of a picture

 

   camp – mortar pestle – arms – granary – oven bread

 

The seals convey visual messages understood by all the many people living in the wide area of the Indus Valley who probably spoke different languages, Proto-Dravidian, Proto-Elamite, some Indo-European, Sumerian, perhaps also a couple of African and Chinese idioms. The visual messages of the seals could easily have been rendered in any of these languages, also the mythological ones, and would have served a purpose of integration, on top of their function of social ‘engineering’ by rewarding outstanding contributions to the common weal.

 

 

 

Divine Hind and Bull Valley, Minoan Symbols, Founding Epic of the Indus Valley, Indus seals and tablets again

 

(documenting my way of working and developing ideas in 36 paragraphs)

 

1)  CER  -: I -:  or CER LIL (pronounce  -:  by touching both lips with the tip of the tongue) was the divine hind or hind woman. She licked moon bulls into life, thus creating time, lunations, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 … days. Her constellation was Orion, ORE EON, beautiful ORE shore EON, the goddess from the beautiful bank of the heavenly river CA LAK galaxy Milky Way. The moon bulls waiting to go on their heavenly mission were present in Aldebaran in Taurus, TOR for bull in motion. The goddess was flanked by a pair of opposing ibices (Latin plural of ibex) marking midwinter (Marie E.P. König) and could be present invisibly between them, for example in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery in Lascaux. Twigs mark her function as vegetation goddess. Arbors were built in her honor, a winter hut made of fir branches, a spring hut covered in blossoms, a summer bower of green branches, and a colorful hut in the fall. The moon, waxing and waning and waxing again, symbolized the cycles of plant life, animal life, and human life and made the promise of a next life. Bees and bee swarms became another emanation of the goddess.

 

2)  Marie E.P. König understands the horse in cave art as symbol of the sun, the bull as symbol of the moon, the descending horses at the rear end of the axial gallery of Lascaux as winter sun, lower and lower on the horizon, finally giving way to a pair of opposing ibices that mark midwinter. The glorious rotunda at the other end of the axial gallery would then symbolize midsummer, the red mare the midsummer sun rising above the horizon in the early morning, and the proud white bull by her side a full moon occurring at the same time, ideal start of an eight-year period in the lunisolar calendar of Lascaux, while the lovely ‘Chinese horses’ in the axial gallery, moving in clockwise direction, heading for the rotunda, are the symbol of spring, halfway in between the niche of midwinter and the rotunda of midsummer. The Lascaux cave was used for initiating aspiring rulers and shamans who gathered there and celebrated midsummer. Before the red mare and the white bull in the rotunda appears a group of stags wearing big antlers, representing the divine stag CER KOS whose heavenly antlers were present in the summer constellations we call Scorpio and Sagittarius. Across the sky from them is the winter constellation of Orion, heavenly emanation of the divine hind woman CER  -: I -:  or CER LIL, invisibly present between the pair of opposing ibices in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery, in the negative space defined by the arcs of the horns and heads of her emblematic animals. The Orion goddess in between a pair of opposing ibices, or a pair of opposing mountain goats, became a well known symbol. A bronze disc from Lurestan on the Iranian highland shows her between her ibices, flanked by six flowers in the hourglass arrangement of Orion (more later).

 

3) The Altamira cave in northern Spain is famous for the powerful bisons that inspired Picasso. By far the largest animal, three meters long, is a marvelous hind licking the horns of a small bull under her head and neck  hind1.JPG  The head of another hind is drawn above a small ledge, the tongue indicated by a short vertical cleft  hind2.JPG  Many animals in European caves and on rocks in southern Africa were drawn and painted as if emerging from clefts and niches, or again disappearing into them, an early understanding of life that resurfaced in Vernadzky’s famous dictum of life being the metamorphosis of stone … The bisons of Altamira show compact, rounded forms. They are moon bulls, representing lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 … days. The bulls in the rotunda of Lascaux are shining white, suiting the moon, whereas the bisons of Altamira are red, symbolizing life. Dots in cave art, lines and fields of red and black dots, represent SAI for life, existence. Especially red dots have the meaning of life. Red dots on Neolithic houses in Switzerland would have said: May this house be blessed with life, may it see many children … The compact red bisons of Altamira are dotting the walls and ceilings of the splendid cave, wishing many moons or a long life for the people of that region, plenty of moon bulls licked into life by the lovely and motherly hind who was also the goddess of vegetation, and while the tails of the bisons in other caves, for example Niaux and Lascaux, are rendered realistically as ‘paintbrushes’, the tails of several bisons in the Altamira cave are given as ‘twigs’ or ‘fir twiglets’ marking them as creatures of the goddess.

 

4)  A relief in an abri at Angles-sur-l’Anglin shows the naked bodies of three women whose heads disappear in a ledge  anglin.GIF  The goddess on the right side has an accentuated hourglass figure, under her a bison. She is the divine hind woman present in the constellation of Orion. At Veyrier, Geneva, Switzerland, on the river Arve, close to the French border, in a former abri, destroyed when the place was turned into a quarry, was found a bone whose fine incisions were drawn on paper by none less than Abbé Breuil. The bone has a round hole at one end, while the other end broke off. Such bones were used for straightening arrow blades made from reindeer antlers. The drawing shows an ibex on one side, emblematic animal of the divine hind woman, and a long straight twig of over forty leaves on the other side, probably from a quivering aspen that may have grown farther down the Rhone Valley. The destination of this bone as tool in fabricating arrows goes to show that the hind woman was worshipped also as a goddess of hunting (more later when we come to the Artemis of Ephesos).

 

5)  A bronze disc from Lurestan, Iranian highland, Final Bronze Age, about 3,200 years old, found in a tomb, pinned to the cloak of the buried man, diameter 11.5 centimeters, about the size of a CD, shows the goddess giving birth to the head of a man, a round head emerging from her vulva in upside down position. The woman wears a roof-like hat made of fir twigs and is flanked by six flowers in the arrangement of the lateral stars of Orion (big flowers for Betelgeuse and Bellatrix, small flowers for Alnitak and Mintaka, big flowers again for Saiph and Rigel) and then by a pair of opposing ibices, emblematic animals of the Orion goddess. The round head of the man born by her may indicate a lunar god and make the promise of a next life in the beyond, somewhere along the beautiful bank ORE EON of the celestial river CA LAK. Also animals were born again in the beyond, indicated by animal bones inserted into a wall of a cave of the dukes Bégouen in the Ardčche. Hunters place a twig between the lips of an animal they shot. Where does this custom come from? Might it go back to an archaic ritual of invoking the divine hind, asking her to give the animal a second life in the beyond, so it may graze on the heavenly pastures along the beautiful Orion bank of the celestial river?

 

6)  An incised piece of bone in the shape of a bull’s head from Bilcze Zlote, northwestern Ukraine, Late Cucuteni, fourth millennium BC, shows a woman with an hourglass figure who raises her arms and evokes the Orion goddess who licked moon bulls into life, but also a bee, so the divine hind woman in her function as vegetation goddess acquired a further emblematic animal, perhaps following an epidemic among bees that caused the trees to bear no fruit, and made the early farmers of the Ukraine realize how important that little insect is. Ephesos was named for the bee whose pre-Latin name was something like aspasha, maybee from AS PAS SA meaning upward AS everywhere in a plain PAS downward SA, the bee lifting from a blossom, flying around, and alighting on another blossom, an accurate description of a bee’s labor. Do you know how far a bee must fly in order to produce half a liter of honey? 75,000 kilometers, nearly twice around the equator (calculated at a Swiss university). Ephesia, bee goddess of Anatolia, was taken over by Artemis who became the local Artemis Ephesia. Artemis was also a goddess of hunting, her covering Ephesia shows that the divine hind woman must also have been worshipped as a goddess of hunting, she licked not only moon bulls into life, but every bull, and all other animals, many of whom became the prey of hunters but were given a second life in the beyond by the goddess.

 

7)  The etymology of Demeter is not clear. Some explain her name as da-mataer ‘earth mother’, which doesn’t convince others. My explanation is AD DA MAI TYR, toward AD away from DA female zone of a Magdalenian camp MAI to overcome in the double sense of rule and give TYR, a compound designating the heavenly ones who overcome in the double sense of rule and give, and who watch over the entrance to and exit from the female zone of a camp, namely the fire giver PIR GID and the fertility giver BRI GID and the fur giver BIR GID, a trinity carved in rock in the abri of Angles-sur-l’Anglin  anglin.GIF  So we may assume that women were responsible for the fires in a camp, for all aspects of fertility, and for the many tasks involving fur, from placing a baby on fur to sewing fur clothes and cooking in a pit laid out with a hide and filled with water and heated with hot stones rolled in from a fireplace to healing by wrapping a patient in a warming fur smeared on the inside with a mixture of fat and medicinal herbs … The triple goddess PIR GID and BRI GID and BIR GID became the Celtic Brigit and the Three Mothers of Burgundy and Greek Demeter, while Elaia in Crete and in Arcadia on the Peloponnese was an alter ego of Demeter, her emblems being an olive tree and a giant bee on a gold ring from Mochlos.

 

8)  CER  -: I -:  accounts for northwestern PIE *kerdeha- ‘herd, series’ and for the cow-eyed Hera and for PIE *ker- ‘to grow’ and of course for Latin cervus French cerf meaning stag. The second part of her name has many derivatives, among them lip, German Liebe ‘love’ and Leben ‘life’, Ugaritic dd ‘beloved’ and Phoenician Dido ‘loved one’, then Lily, and perhaps also Ukrainian lyalka ‘doll’. The PIE version of love is *leubh-, close to German Laub ‘foliage’ and Laube ‘bower, bowery, arbor’, akin to Latin laubia, lobia, and English lobby and lodge, derivatives of  -: I -:  considering the twig of the goddess who was also responsible for the vegetation and in whose honor arbors were built, as indicated by the fir branch hat of the goddess on a bronze disc from Lurestan, evoking the roof of a hut made of fir branches.

 

9)  An Indian linguist who uses the pseudonym of Analyst informed me that BIR has more potential derivatives, among them Latin pellum, English filament and wool, again Latin vir for man, originally naming a brave hunter clad in fur and hunting the ferocious bear for its precious fur … Analyst is right, -R is easily replaced by -L, so we can get from BIR to Latin pellum Old English fell and German Fell, also Latin vellum, and English wool German Wolle, and French file ‘file’ and English filament. Analyst told me also that MUC for bull might survive in Sanskrit mahisha ‘bull’ and in mahi ‘large’ and magha ‘wealth’. MUC is the origin of Greek megas ‘big’, perhaps also of English big, certainly of English much and Swiss Mocke for something big and round. The bison was a big animal for the early hunters. A drawing in the cave Le Gabillou, Dordogne, shows a giant bull and a tiny hunter in front of the animal, the master bull hunter MAS whence Latin masculus ‘little man’, small in comparison. A further drawing in the cave Le Gabillou shows a man wearing the hide and horns of a bull performing sort of a dance while being attacked with lances, in my opinion the master bull hunter MAS acting as bull, teaching boys (not visible in the drawing) wielding toy lances how to attack a bull and to carry out the first and all deciding blow, and what were the risks of a move, how the bull reacts in a given situation. A master bull hunter could act as a bull, and the most successful master bull hunter became the bull man who was born again in the sky, in the region of the Summer Triangle Deneb Vega Atair, as indicated by the drawing on a stalactite in the rear hall of the Chauvet cave.

 

10)  We have two word groups for world, English world German Welt, and Latin mundus Italian mondo French monde. I explain English world via BIR LAD, the primeval hill LAD in the cosmic fur BIR of the goddess BIR GID, Magdalenian BIR LAD (werlad) Old English werald English world German Welt. Latin mundus Italian mondo French monde goes back to MUC DAL, valley DAL of the bulls MUC. The universal tool of the Stone Age was a celt or hand axe in the shape of an almond, Greek amygdala German Mandel. The world was seen as a giant bull whose body accounts for the mass of the earth while his horns are present in the eastern and western mountains where the moon and stars and sun rise from and set on, then traversing the Underworld and emerging again on the eastern horizon, moving in big arcs and circles, Sanskrit mandala ‘circle’. The divine bull Nandi was an old symbol of the earth. The Nandi mountains owe their name to a resemblance with a lying bull. The heavenly cow Hathor resided in the western mountain of Upper Egypt, a long ridge resembling a lying cow, the pyramidal Qoru above Deir el-Bahari and the Valley of Kings indicating her head and horn, while the lesser known Valley of Queens farther south leads to a grotto which is occasionally flooded by a waterfall from a wadi above and was a pre-dynastic invocation place of the birth giving goddess. Nut, alter ego of the heavenly cow Hathor, arching herself over the earth, resting on her feet and hands, swallowed the evening sun and gave birth to the sunchild in the morning, so that we can equate the western mountains with a devouring mouth, German Mund, and the eastern mountains with the os uteri, German Muttermund. Latin Mons ‘mountain’ could originally have been the mountains where moon and stars and sun rise from and disappear into. German Mund and Latin Mons could well be further derivatives of MUC DAL, and of course also German Mond ‘moon’, formerly a bull, the moon bull.

 

11)  MUC DAL amygdala almond Mandel mundus mondo monde mandala Mons Mond Mund Muttermund … Are there further derivatives? Yes, a particular one, Magdalenian, and Hebrew mGDL ‘big’. The idea of the world as bull valley is present in mysterious pre-Celtic objects resembling neck-rests carved of white marble or baked of clay, a pair of standing horns, in one case on the four legs of a bull, sometimes decorated, with indented small circles near the points of the horns indicating the moon and sun before leaving the Underworld, ready to climb the sky, and just having entered the Underworld, ready to traverse it; then we can see arcs indicating the travel through the Underworld, and in one case a pair of triangular mountains, the eastern mountain where the moon and sun rise from, and the western mountain where they set upon. These objects would have given way to the Celtic torq, a gold ring the size of a necklace with round ends that indicate the trajectory of the sun across the sky – in one case the ends of the torque are big golden ‘pearls’, on each one a winged horse, the morning sun horse ready to climb the sky, and the symmetrical evening sun horse looking back before entering the Underworld. A heavy silver counterpart weighing some seven kilograms has the arc underneath while the ends at the top render a pair of opposing bull heads. The name torq may stem from this version of the torq whose original form could have been TOR CA or TOR KAL, bull in motion TOR sky CA or Underworld KAL.

 

12)  The Minoans came from Asia Minor, probably from Ebla where also a minotaur was known, Minos tauros, TOR for bull in motion, and Minos from Mi-Nu-The, given in hieroglyphic Minoan, Linear A and Linear B as head of a bull for Mi-, as visual pun of a bull leaper on his or her feet hands feet for -Nu-, and as tree of life for -The. Mi- represented by the head of a bull might well go back to MUC for bull that is also present in Myc-enae. The generic name of a bull leaper could have been AD TOR OC CO, toward AD a bull in motion TOR with open eyes OC and a focused mind CO, a formula for the conditio humana that became Mycenaean atoroqo and Greek anthropos, also andros andra, genitive and accusative of anaer ‘man’, and Sanskrit Indra (more on him later). Begin of Homer’s Odyssey: Andra moi ennepe, Mousa, polytropon hos mala polla / plangchthae … Tell me, Muse, of the man who traveled far and suffered many evils … Odysseus confronted his bull, so to say, and more than one bull, for he waged war on Poseidon, his arch enemy, founder of Troy, to whom hecatombs of bulls were sacrificed, already in 1:25, indicating that Poseidon had the force and power of hundreds of bulls, and waging war in the Bronze Age was far a greater challenge than confronting a bull in Magdalenian times.

 

13)  Most hymns in the Rig Veda are dedicated to Indra, Agni, and Soma. Indra may go back to the bull hunter of old who became the bull man and then the divine bull, the cosmic bull himself, and the helper of the cosmic bull as well. The name Indra may go back to the above formula for the conditio humana, AD TOR OC CO. The name of the fire god Agni and English ignite may be explained via GNE for the nine days and nights of the Magdalenian full moon, a bright white fire in a pitch black sky in a time when there was no light pollution, glowing yellow and orange when rising from and setting on a dusty horizon. Soma as god was a bull, a bird, and a lunar deity, hence the winged moon bull. Soma as juice might have been the semen of the cosmic bull, from SOMm for body, his vital essence present in the soil, extracted by a variety of plants whose roots, pressed out, yielded a juice that was mixed with milk and consumed as a vitalizing and energizing drink. Our young generation consumes an energizing drink called Red Bull. ‘Bull’ is one of the epithets of Indra. As a hero he drank soma which made him strong and vigorous. As cosmic bull he is spending soma in the form of rain, life giving water, and as helper of the cosmic bull he fought the serpent that blocked rivers from flowing …

 

14)  The sacred bull Nandi is connected with Shiva and embodies the god’s creative powers, at least Nandi in the shrine at Khajuraho, 11th century AD. Shiva is a minor god in the Rig Veda, nevertheless he might go back to the ancient weather god whose generic name was ShA PAD TYR AS CA, the ruler ShA who goes ahead PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR up above AS in the sky CA … ShA PAD TYR  Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove, originally a storm god in form of a bull, probably a descendant of the weather god from Mont Bego in the Alpes Maritimes in southeastern France near the Italian border. TYR  Middle Helladic Sseyr Doric Sseus Homeric Zeus, perhaps akin to the Serri bull of the Hittite weather god; Zeus in the guise of a bull abducted Europa from Syria that may preserve the same TYR, consider Tyros, TYR CA  origin of the Turk- words and names. ShA … CA  Jahwe, a storm god from Mount Seir (!) in the Negev, rider of clouds, perhaps also worshipped as a bull, consider the bronze figurine of a bull from the top of a hill near Samaria from the 12th century BC. ShA PAD TYR AS CA  Jupiter/Giove-asca Giubiasco in the canton of Ticino in southern Switzerland, once a station on the way to and from the Swiss Alps where good weather was implored and thanked for. ShA PAD  Shiva, also a bull when we consider Nandi and the seated god wearing buffalo horns on a well known Indus tablet, known as Pashupati ‘Lord of the Animals’, Sanskrit pati ‘Lord’ being a derivative of PAD TYR. When we combine ShA PAD with PAD TYR we obtain ShA PAD TYR, origin of Jupiter. Sanskrit shiva means auspicious and Latin auspex means augur, someone who looks out for favorable signs in the sky, from birds, in a second and literary sense also leader, chief commander, protector, so shiva as adjective could well have been a derivative of ShA PAD as rump form of ShA PAD TYR AS CA.

 

15)  Shiva as Maheshvara, Elephanta, Mumbay, 7th century AD, has three faces: the left profile representing the destroyer, traditional role of Shiva; the majestic middle head with closed eyes representing the creator, traditional role of Brahma; and the right and rather feminine profile representing the preserver, traditional role of Vishnu. Also the seated god wearing buffalo horns has three faces, on the gray and the simpler yellow tablet  tablets.GIF  Let us compare Shiva with the early god of the Indus Valley: left buffalo horn, western mountain where moon and sun set and disappear, their light extinguished, Shiva as destroyer, traditional role of Shiva --- sheaf of emmer (gray tablet) and pipal tree of life (yellow tablet) in the middle of the horns, Shiva nourishing the plants from below, from the Underworld indicated by his closed eyes, restoring the powers of moon and sun so that they may return, Shiva as creator, traditional role of Brahma --- right buffalo horn, eastern mountains where moon and sun rise, guarded by Shiva the preserver, traditional role of Vishnu. The triple-faced god is then indicating the trajectories of moon and stars and sun. With closed eyes: from the western horizon to the eastern horizon, traversing the Underworld, passing under the roots of the pipal tree of life. With open eyes: from the eastern to the western horizon, traveling across the sky, passing over the leaves of the pipal tree of life.

 

16)  James Mellaart, excavator of Çatal Höyük, saw the reliefs of figurines with raised arms and legs and marked navel on the walls of several houses of the layers VI and VII, often in combination with a bucranium, as the pregnant goddess giving birth to a bull. So we have here another descendant of the divine hind who licked moon bulls into life, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 … days and nights. The divine hind was also the hind woman, animal and woman and goddess at the same time. In 2005 a clay seal in the shape of a bear was found in layer V of the southern Çatal Höyük area, a bear with raised arms and legs and a marked navel. This bear may then be understood as the triple goddess BRI GID and BIR GID and PIR GID in one, the fertility giver BRI GID being present in the pose of giving birth, in the marked navel, and in the grooves of the womb that anticipate the double spiral on the womb of the pregnant bird goddess from the Balkans (one spiral for the mother and one for the child, rolling inward and outward, beautiful symbol of the subsequent generations), the fur giver BIR GID being present in the deep grooves indicating a soft fur and appearing as ridges of a seal impression, and the fire giver PIR GID being present in the fire that baked the clay and in the light red color of the terracotta seal. BRI GID gave birth and helped giving birth, the fur of BIR GID, preferably the one of a bear, kept a baby warm, and the fire of PIR GID achieved the same, keeping the baby warm. The bear seal from Çatal Höyük may then have anticipated the divine mother and nurse from the Balkans wearing bear masks and a pouch of fur for the baby on her back. The goddesses from Çatal Höyük should not be confounded with the animals in downward position appearing on several Göbekli Tepe pillars: those grim animals baring their teeth were guarding the ground, allowing only worthy souls to leave the Underworld and return to the surface of the earth and climb a heavenly abode.

 

17)  A small stone tablet from Jerf el Ahmar in northern Syria, close to the Anatolian border, on the eastern shore of the Euphrates, about 11,300 years old, may commemorate the construction of the Göbekli Tepe: stone pillar temples on up to five meters of earth deposited on the limestone hill in the Sanli-Urfa region  tablets.GIF  One face of the tablet shows a pair of rings in the sky, above four pillars of a temple, symbolizing the sky by night and day, moon and sun, and hinting at the calendaric function of temple B on the Göbekli Tepe  goebekli.GIF  and probably of other temples as well. The workers are symbolized in a giant ant whose body is partly eclipsed by the four already standing pillars, a labor marked as achievement by four dots along the curve of the hind body segment of the industrious animal. The large ant is busy erecting a further pillar on the right side, a slab suspended in an oblique position, held by the left antenna-arm of the insect. On the left side hangs a long snake from the sky, tail above head below, indicating rain. Imploring rain was an important function of the sanctuaries, for example of temple A on the Göbekli Tepe. The other face of the stone tablet shows about six rows of rounded angles filled with big dots  tablets.GIF  leather bags filled with earth, carried to the hill and emptied on top of it, where earth was required in order to round the shape of the hill. Assuming an area of 200 by 200 meters, an average layer of 25 centimeters of earth, and a capacity of 10 liters for a leather bag we obtain one million fillings and as many walks to the hill that may well have appeared as ‘ant processions’ to an onlooker from a distance. At the top and in the middle of this tablet face is a wider bag that may also be seen as a pair of bull horns, inside a round hill under four dots, apparently the Göbekli Tepe under moon and stars and sun. The sign is then combining the primeval hill in the cosmic fur BIR LAD with the valley of bulls MUC DAL, and the mound in the center is the Göbekli Tepe, hill of creation, under moon and stars by night, under the sun by day …

 

18)  Aurochs and snake were the predominant symbols of the wider Göbekli Tepe area. The skull of an aurochs with wide horns was fixed to the wall opposite the entrance of the round house 1A at Hallan Çemi over 12,000 years ago. The bull man of old became the triple god and hero of the Göbekli Tepe region, indicated by the bucranium on pillar 31 temple D, composed of three graphic elements, the ring of the head for AAR RAA NOS, the horns whose points are turned downward for the digger of ditches AD DA MAN, and the bar on top for GIS BAL CA MmOS who broke the ring of the primeval world apart and flattened the lower half into the world we live upon according to the Göbekli Tepe myth of origin encoded in the inscriptions of the central pillars of temple D  gt01.GIF  AAR RAA NOS, mind NOS of the one composed of air AAR and light RAA is visible ex negativo through the big limestone ring found in a rectangular temple of the second building phase  ouranos.JPG  A fragment of a stone tablet from Tell Abr 3 near Jerf el Ahmar  tablets.GIF  shows the god on a ring for the sky, the halving of the ring indicated by short horizontal strokes, inside the ring a long snake heading upward, to the man or god on the ring, while an arrow head above a long vertical zigzag line and a succession of arrow heads shooting upward are seen on the sides of the ring. The snake heading skyward symbolizes prayers for rain and sacrificial fires imploring rain. Also arrows shot into the sky might have implored rain, perhaps with white bands attached to the arrows that would have waved in the air. A second tablet from Jerf el Ahmar  tablets.GIF  shows many long vertical snakes heading skyward, an arrow head pointing upward, two rings with snakes inside heading upward, and a man standing on one of the rings, while a sign on the ground combines a woman raising her arms with the tree of life in a poignant gesture of asking for rain. The other side of the tablet shows a grid of long horizontal and shorter vertical lines, under it a snake, so the lines are water ditches and the rectangles in between planting beds where lentils and herbs and berries may have grown, well protected by the water, the roots always humid, and the plants kept warm by the warmth given off by the water during the night. The Göbekli Tepe hieroglyph of the lying H symbolizes the earth AC and the sky CA (horizontal bars) and the exchanges between them (vertical bar), prayers for rain and sacrificial fires and wishing arrows imploring rain, ascending, and rain rewarding the prayers and sacrificial fires and wishing arrows, falling. A more elaborate version of the AC CA sign is found on a polished pebble from Netiv Hagdud  tablets.GIF  Earth and sky are indicated by three and four horizontal lines while the exchanges between them are indicated by a double snake line meandering down up down up down up down up and down again in fading lines visualizing rain, implored from and granted by the bull man in the sky. AC CA became Latin aqua ‘water’, while the ancient Egyptians mentioned a Syrian province by the name of aqa …

 

19)  Temple B on the Göbekli Tepe combines the solar year with the life of a supreme ruler  goebekli.GIF  Begin the calendar walk with pillar 16 in the official counting, here given as pillar ‘a’, New Year following midwinter and the night of the fire archers; start in counterclockwise direction and perform a double loop roughly in the shape of an eight: pillar a 30 days – pillar b 30 days – pillar c 30 days – pillar d 30 days – pillar e 30 days – central pillar f 30 days – space between the central pillars f and g, midsummer, 3 days – central pillar g 30 days – pillar h 30 days – pillar i 30 days – pillar j 30 days – pillar k 30 days – pillar l 30 days – space between the central pillars f and g, midwinter, 2 and occasionally 3 days, and back to the first pillar, yielding a solar year of 365 and occasionally 366 days. Before the first pillar of the calendar walk stood a proteome, a stone phallus. The first pillars a b c d e symbolize the life of the young ruler, the central pillars f and g his appointment as ruler, the pillars h i j k l his life as supreme ruler, and the crossing of the space between the central pillars the end of his life. His body may have been placed between the central pillars, while his soul visited the Underworld, was guided by the fox through the subterranean labyrinth, returned to daylight – if the grim guards of the ground allowed him to pass, finding him a worthy soul – and climbed the sky toward a heavenly abode, indicated by the foxes on the central pillars f and g whose heads and backs form elegant arcs evoking the trajectory of the rising sun … In his heavenly abode the former ruler became the bull man in the sky, helper of AAR RAA NOS, even a part of him, listening to the prayers for rain and smelling the smoke of the sacrificial fires imploring rain and admiring the wishing arrows with their lovely waving bands, and rewarding the prayers and sacrificial fires and wishing arrows with falling rain that filled the river beds … The prayers for rain and the smoke of the sacrificial fires and the waving bands of the wishing arrows imploring rain were symbolized by snakes heading upward, and the falling rain was symbolized by snakes heading downward. Before the first pillar of the calendar walk, pillar 16 in the official counting, pillar ‘a’ in my notation, stood a proteome, a stone phallus. Another proteome, this time a head and upper body and erected phallus, was found at another place on the Göbekli Tepe. Foxes are numerous, all male, and each one shows a phallus, apart from the fox on the central pillar f, pillar 9 in the official counting: this pillar shows a pair of snake heads instead, linking the phallus with water and making its erection a symbol of the ruler in the sky, the bull man up above, spender of life in the form of rain. Before the fox on pillar f or 9 is a bowl carved into the temple floor. We can be sure that it was filled with water during a ceremony invoking the deified ruler and bull man in the sky as spender of rain.

 

20)  The elegant female figurines from El-Mamariya in Upper Egypt, pre-dynastic  eg1b.GIF  eg1a.gif  symbolize the Nile Valley: her lower body in the shape of a carrot the fertile ground, her breasts the surface of the earth where we find our nourishment, her raised arms the slopes of the eastern and western hills and mountains, her hands the stars that rise from the eastern mountain and set on the western mountain (five fingers of a hand, five points of an Egyptian star), her head of a bird the height of the sky, and her eyes moon and sun … These figurines have an equivalent in the star decorated head of a cow on a palette, the horns corresponding to the raised arms of the female figurine, a star on both points of the horns. I imagine a ritual dance of creation performed by a priestess in lieu of the goddess: hands on the womb – hands on the breasts – hands on the head, fingers together, touching the head – closed arms raised as a circle above the head – arms opened – fingers spread … Min was the male personification of the Nile Valley, worshipped as Bull of the Great Phallus, a symbol of the river Nile, swelling every summer and flooding the river plain. In his raised arm he held a cereal stalk or a flail, now symbolizing the fertile land. His gesture of smiting indicated the borders of the river oasis that had to be defended against intruders. His name Min may go back to MAN for the right hand, considering his role as reaper, and as defender of the borders.‘Pashupati’ on the gray and yellow Indus tablets may personify the Indus Valley in much the same way  indus2.JPG  His buffalo horns are the eastern and western mountains where moon and sun rise and set, while the sheaf of emmer (gray tablet) and pipal tree of life (yellow tablet) in between the horns indicate the fertile land. The triple face anticipates Brahma the creator, middle face; Vishnu the preserver, right face; and Shiva the destroyer, left face, here associated with the setting moon and sun, their light being extinguished. ‘Pashupati’ became Shiva in all three roles of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma goes back to BRA MAN, right arm BRA right hand MAN, naming the god who created the world by playing his lyra. Shiva as destroyer may also have protected the land, in the same way as Min. Sanskrit minati ‘he diminishes, destroys’ would then go back to the same MAN for the right hand (accounting for our mathematical term minus, while BIR meaning fur accounts for plus, a fur bag full of goods, Avestan par ‘full’). Now the arms of ‘Pashupati’ are peculiar, covered by bangles they resemble fish skeletons, the bangles evoking fish bones and the hands fish tails, apparently symbolizing the river arms rich in fish. Tamil miin ‘fish’ may then refer to the fish hands of ‘Pashupati’. The Tamils came from the north and may well have imported the word miin that ultimately would go back to MAN for the right hand.

 

21)  The lunisolar calendar of the Göbekli Tepe had a week of 7 days, a month of 30 days, and a season of 3 months or 90 days. Season of PIR GID following midwinter and the night of the fire archers, 90 days --- season of AD DA MAN, 90 days --- midsummer festival, 3 days, day of AD DA MAN, day of the turtle, day of AAR RAA NOS --- season of AAR RAA NOS, 90 days --- season of BRI GID, 90 days --- midwinter festival, 2 and occasionally 3 days, day of BRI GID, occasional day of the falcon, day of PIR GID, night of the fire archers PIR RYT and their ‘fingers of light and luck’ DIG LIC, whence Firat Euphrates and Dicle Tigris … The ancient way of counting lunations was 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 … days for 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 … lunations. 17 plus 15 plus 17 plus 15 lunations counted in this manner yield 502 plus 443 plus 502 plus 443 days, all in all 1,890 days for 64 lunations. 1,890 days are also 63 continuous periods of 30 days, or 270 weeks of 7 days. These numbers yield an excellent numeric definition of the lunation or synodic month, 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes, exact average value from 1989 AD 29d 12h 44m 2.9s, mistake of the ancient value not even one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime … ‘Pashupati’ on the gray tablet is the Lord of a similar calendar, numerically even the same calendar: 3 days of midsummer, festival of ‘Pashupati’ --- 90 days of the rhinoceros --- 90 days of the buffalo --- 2 and occasionally 3 days of midwinter, day of the first ibex or mountain goat, occasional day of the goddess invisibly present between her emblematic animals, day of the second ibex or mountain goat --- 90 days of the tiger --- 90 days of the elephant. New Year may have occurred between the seasons of the tiger and the elephant, around the vernal equinox. The lunation was defined in the same way as in the basic Göbekli Tepe calendar … Also an Egyptian month had 30 days. The eyes of the Horus falcon were moon and sun. Seth destroyed the lunar eye, whereupon wise Thoth healed it, adding the pieces and their numerical values 1/2 and 1/4 and 1/8 and 1/16 and 1/32 and 1/64, or simply ‘2 ‘4 ‘8 ’16 ’32 ’64. The restored eye was called The Whole One. However, the numbers don’t really add up to 1. Why then The Whole One? Multiply a month of 30 days by the Horus eye series ‘2 ‘4 ‘8 ’16 ’32 ’64 and you obtain 29 ‘2 ’32 days, or 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes, one whole lunation or synodic month, mistake half a day in a lifetime. (May AAR RAA CA also account for Horus, and AAR RAA AC for Horakhty, Horus on the horizon?)

 

22)  A Minoan seal from Knossos carved in an onyx lens  minoan.JPG  resembles the gray ‘Pashupati’ tablet from the Indus Valley and inspired me to the following list of Minoan symbols. // Bull horns or sacral horns: a single pair of horns indicating space, repeated horns indicating periods of time (akin to the wings of a griffin, see below) // Double axe: marking the presence of the triple goddess, Britomartis (right blade), Dictynna (handle), and Elaia/Lousia (left blade) // Britomartis: right blade of the double axe indicating sunrise (and in the case of a double blade also the rise of the moon), eastern horizon, morning, spring, goddess of sowing and germinating, implored for rain in the region of Mallia, her name containing BRI meaning fertile // Dictynna: handle of the double axe, zenith (and nadir), midday (and midnight), midsummer (and midwinter), rod or scepter, tree of life indicated by a twig growing from the middle of a pair of sacral horns, cypress tree on whose top a bird is perched, column rising from the middle of a pair of sacral horns, hill or mountain, high hat, crown of birds, head of the female triad, supreme Minoan goddess, representing all three goddesses in one, residing on the Dictaean mountains, with a sanctuary in the Dictaean cave // Elaia/Lousia: left blade of the double axe indicating sunset (and in the case of a double blade also the setting of the moon), western horizon, evening, fall, goddess of harvest, accompanied by a giant bee as symbol of the workers in the fields who gather the fruit and bring them to store houses, Elaia meaning olive, Lousia meaning the angry one, indicating that the goddess could also make whither the plants and cause a famine, then turning from a woman into a black mare; inscription on a cult double axe from the Arkolochori cave deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth: I belong to the goddess Lousia // Symbols indicating the triple goddess, or Dictynna as head of the female triad: double axe, a triple censer, a bunch of a cotyledon and a flower and a sickle // Winged griffins flanking the goddess: astronomical year, wings representing the periods of time between the solstices and equinoxes, from midwinter to the vernal equinox and then midsummer, and from midsummer to the fall equinox and then midwinter (akin to the repeated sacral horns indicating periods of time, see above) // Spring equinox or vernal equinox: festival of Britomartis, the goddess in the guise of Cybele dancing with the god-king under the fresh leaves of the sacred tree, mythical union, the name Cybele may go back to CA BEL meaning sky warm, generic name of the spring sun horse, lovely ‘Chinese horses’ in the axial gallery of Lascaux // Midsummer: festival of Dictynna, supreme goddess, head of the female triad, resting in the shadow under the sacred tree // Fall equinox: festival of Elaia/Lousia, thanksgiving // Midwinter as end of a vegetation period: ritual uprooting of the sacred tree and mourning for it // Midwinter as begin of a new vegetation period: Cybele giving birth to her son, the mythical child known as Kouros (later identified with young Zeus), a priestess announcing the happy advent by blowing into her big triton shell …

 

23)  The following chapters refer to a paper by Asko Parpola, published in Volume 1 of SCRIPTA in September 2009, the first paragraph marking a difference // Asko Parpola made a discovery by equating the archer on a bronze tablet from Mohenjo-daro with a sign he reads as ‘crab inside fig’, the supreme god as crab inside the heavenly fig tree. He then identifies the archer with Rudra –Skanda – Murukan, the name of the latter given as pair of bangles. Bangles hung in fig trees implored children from the god up above among the stars … I read the crab as bellows and identify the archer with Varuna or VaruNa, descendant of AAR RAA NOS from the Göbekli Tepe, mind NOS of the one composed of air AAR and light RAA. Air and light are combined in the bellows that make wind, move air, and nourish fires that give light. The body of the archer is decorated with arrow heads that shoot upward. A similar succession of arrow heads shooting upward is seen on the fragment of the broken tablet from Tell Abr 3 near Jerf al Ahmar  tablets.GIF  imploring rain from AAR RAA NOS on the ring in the sky. VaruNa would then have had the same function as AAR RAA NOS in the region of the Göbekli Tepe: sending rain from his heavenly abode, his arrows representing flashes that light up the sky, his long eyes indicating the all-seeing god … In my opinion the Indus seals and tablets honor families for outstanding contributions to the common weal. The signs at the top of the ‘Pashupati’ tablets may convey this message: A family honored with such a tablet provides excellent keepers of the house who supply us with fish all year long, and air the house well, keeping it cool in summer and warm in winter … The ‘drawing’ on the gray ‘Pashupati’ tablet is elevated, so it was not a seal but a gem and order, maybe worn on the body, perhaps decorating and honoring a keeper of the palace, denoting him half humorously half seriously as VaruNa in the house … VaruNa would have been present in the space between the buffalo horns of ‘Pashupati’, the rain he granted filled the river beds and made fish thrive, the river arms being represented by the arms of ‘Pashupati’, the bangles evoking fish bones and the hands fish tails. Fish were an important part of the Harappan diet, fish was also consumed as an aphrodisiac and promised a young wife a son, which would go along with the custom of hanging bangles into a fig tree as prayer for children.

 

24)  Murukan as Lord of the Universe, honoring Asko Parpola, developing a deeper understanding of his approach // Asko Parpola tries to understand the Indus seals and tablets as Proto-Dravidian rebuses concerned with royal cosmology, if I may say so --- pun on pun on pun in a poorly documented language, an almost hopeless undertaking, yet he does the very best he can. The central figure of that royal cosmology is Murukan, Proto-Dravidian muruku, god of war, knowledge, and fertility. Murukan originated from a Golden Seed in the heavenly region of the Plejades on the morning of the vernal equinox. (The astronomers of Babylon considered Aldebaran and the Plejades gate posts of the ecliptic and called them Golden Door.) Murukan was a beautiful boy, and he rode a peacock that fed on snakes. The reverse of M-453 shows him seated in the presence of a pair of snakes, while the obverse calls him by his name (here given in my words): Murukan (pair of bangles) darling (pair of parallel lines for love) among the stars (fish, Tamil miin ‘fish’ and miin ‘star’), plus a few more signs. Murukan as man resides in the navel of the universe, he is present in the pole star, by then Thuban, alpha Draconis, called rope star. He resides as crab way up in the heavenly fig tree, the banyan tree, Ficus bengalensis or Ficus indicus, a tree of long air roots that gave rise to the idea of the god holding the stars with arms that are ropes of wind and hands that are the claws of a crab … Bangles hung into a fig tree implored children from the god of fertility. A king has to emulate Murukan, residing in the ‘navel’ of his country, holding the ‘ropes’ of his kingdom, as it were, guided by divine knowledge, we may infer. The roots of the banyan tree can crash a building, and this image was involved when Murukan was invoked as war god. Now we may attempt a new reading of the gray ‘Pashupati’ tablet in combination with my previous interpretations  tablets.GIF  Murukan who sprang as Beautiful Boy from the Golden Seed in the Plejades at the vernal equinox is present in the male figure on the left side, between tiger and elephant, while Murukan as man is present in the inscription and the walking man at the top of the tablet: Murukan (male figure) holding together earth and sky (crabs or bellows) among the stars (fish, Tamil miin ‘fish’ and miin ‘star’) in the heavenly fig tree (V and U signs). ‘Pashupati’ seated on his dais would then be Murukan in the center of the universe, holding all together, his arms no longer rivers but ropes of wind, his hands evoking fish tails or the claws of a crab are now stars (fish miin star), and his dais becomes the navel of the universe, pole star, by then Thuban, resting while all other stars move around on ropes of wind … Maybe I have to abandon my view of the seals honoring families for outstanding contributions to the common weal and support Asko Parpola in his struggle of deciphering the seals as records of a royal cosmology?

 

25) Seeing a possibility for combining my approach with the one of Asko Parpola // Or perhaps the two approaches can be united? AAR RAA NOS, mind NOS of the one composed of air AAR and light RAA, bull man in the sky, provider of rain, supreme god, visible ex negativo through the big limestone ring on the Göbekli Tepe, indicated by a pair of heavenly rings on one of the stone tablets from Jerf el Ahmar, sky by night and by day, shining moon and sun – this god became Ouranos in Greece and VaruNa in the Indus Valley, VaruNa also being a sky god and provider of rain, and a sender of flashes, we may assume, therefore a bowman and archer, with long all seing eyes, wearing the horns and tail of a bull on a bronze tablet from Mohenjo-daro, his body decorated with six up-shooting arrow heads, wishing arrows, two of them flanking the phallus, reminding of the ithyphallic proteomes on the Göbekli Tepe. Magdalenian RYT means spear thrower, wherefrom Greek rhytaer ‘archer’ and the Vedic archer Rudra who was also the fire god Agni, from GNE for the nine days of the Magdalenian full moon, white fire in the night, glowing yellow and orange on a dusty horizon. VaruNa resided in Harappa, from AAR RAA AD DA, god of air AAR and light RAA on the river that flows toward AD the sea while coming from DA the mountains, AD DA being a generic river name, softened to Indus (Harappa on a side arm of the Indus). AAR RAA CA, god of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA became muruku Murukan in southern India, represented by a pair of bangles that remind of the heavenly pair of rings on a stone tablet from Jerf el Ahmar  tablets.GIF  The raised arms of the goddess from El-Mamariya in Upper Egypt symbolize the eastern and western hills and mountains, her hands the rising and setting stars, hand = star. The arms of the Indian Lord of the Universe residing on earth are river arms rich in fish, the arms covered by bangles evoke fish bones, the hands fish tails, hand = fish. The arms of the god in the sky are wind ropes and his hands are stars, hand = star again. Magdalenian MAN means right hand, Tamil miin both fish and star … If the tablets of Murukan, formerly Pashupati or ‘Pashupati’, honor keepers of the palace, then the plain fish sign may have the meaning of water rather than fish, and we may imagine the following praise: A family honored with one of these tablets provides excellent keepers of the palace who care well for cool air in summer and warm air in winter, for the fires yielding warmth and light, and for fresh water, all gifts of our heavenly Lord …

 

26)  Uniting the calendar of the early Indus Valley with Asko Parpola’s cosmology, proving Parpola right // Calendar of AAR RAA CA muruku Murukan, residing in AAR RAA AD DA Harappa on a side arm of the river AD DA Indus, also residing in the navel of the sky, on his Thuban dais, way up in the heavenly fig tree, holding the stars with arms that are ropes of wind and hands that are the claws of a crab. His eyes were moon and sun, on long antennae like the eyes of a crab, moving around in big circles. His nose pointed toward Mizar-Alcor in the American Big Dipper. The position of Mizar-Alcor regarding Thuban at midnight indicated the solstices and equinoxes. The god revolved around his body axes, thus creating time, and swirling around the guiding stars of the four seasons, Algol in Perseus, guiding star of the season of the tiger, Vega in Lyra, guiding star of the season of the elephant, Arcturus in Bootes, guiding star of the season of the rhinoceros, and Regulus in Leo, guiding star of the season of the buffalo, thus driving the ‘merry-go-round’ of our year: 3 days of the midsummer festival, early monsoon, day of life and day of health and day of children, heavenly fig tree, pipal tree of life, three leaves, trefoil, king wearing a sheaf covered in trefoils presiding over the festival, Mizar-Alcor in horizontal position left of Thuban at midnight --- 3 months or 90 days of the rhinoceros, guiding star Arcturus in Bootes, above the western horizon around midnight --- fall equinox, Mizar-Alcor in vertical position above Thuban at midnight --- 3 months or 90 days of the buffalo, guiding star Regulus in Leo, on or above the eastern horizon at midnight --- 2 and occasionally 3 days of the midwinter festival, day of the first ibex or mountain goat, occasional day of the horned goddess, day of the second ibex or mountain goat, Mizar-Alcor in horizontal position right of Thuban at midnight --- 3 months or 90 days of the tiger, guiding star Algol in Perseus, above the western horizon around midnight --- vernal equinox, Mizar-Alcor in perpendicular position under Thuban at midnight; New Year, the god springing as Beautiful Boy from the Golden Seed in the Plejades near Perseus --- 3 months or 90 days of the elephant, guiding star Vega in Lyra, above the eastern horizon at midnight … (astronomical relations valid for the time of Harappa). A week had 7 days, a month 30 days, and a season 90 days. 270 weeks or 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months; mistake per lunation half a day in a lifetime.

 

27)  First ideas about an epic underlying the Indus tablets // The Indus seals and tablets might preserve an epic of AAR RAA CA who sprang as Beautiful Boy from the Golden Seed in the Plejades, fought the Algol tiger, reached the Cygnus peacock – Deneb the head, zaetha epsilon gamma delta iota kappa Cygni the fan –, rode him, escaped the Vega elephant, came into the snake infested Draco valley but luckily the peacock fed on the snakes. Beautiful Boy was called by the Mizar-Alcor woman who implored his help for the poor people on earth who suffered in a double way, the Arcturus rhinoceros drinking their water, and the Regulus buffalo devastating their fields. Now the epic tells how the strong young man obliged, made the Acrturus rhinoceros give back the stolen water and thus generated the first monsoon, then braced himself for the hardest task, confronting the Regulus buffalo demon, AD TOR OC CO, toward AD the bull in motion TOR with open eyes OC and a focused mind CO, atoroqo andros andra Indra. He overcame the bull, freed the people, and instructed them about the ways of civilization, in a first lesson how to bake bread and bricks. He built a stone ring, placed dry fig wood inside, igniting it with a fiery glance, and maintained the fire with air from the great bellows of his lungs, then he placed a dough inside the oven and baked it. Hereupon he built a second oven, formed bricks from river mud and baked them also. In further lessons he taught the grateful people how to build walls and houses and basins, he showed them the many ways of preparing fish, a healthy food, he told them to observe the sky, his heavenly abode, how to use a calendar, and how to organize their life: they should work for the common weal for some time of the year, and honor those who do a good job when working for the community … The Mizar-Alcor woman observed the young man from above and was amazed about his strength and knowledge, so she and the other wise woman of the ‘Big Dipper’, all in all seven wise women, agreed to appoint the young man Lord of the Universe on the Thuban dais. The Mizar-Alcor woman transformed the young man into a crab, made a banyan tree shoot up into the sky, taking the crab with it, and when the crab reached Thuban it cut four long air roots from the heavenly tree and used them as leashes for swirling around the guiding stars of the four seasons, the Algol tiger, the Vega elephant, the Arcturus rhinoceros, and the Regulus buffalo. Revolving around his body axis he created time, the ever changing seasons of the year, one year following the other. And then, one fine day, he saw the lady of the pair of opposing ibices walk by and fell madly in love …

 

28)  Further developing the founding epic of the Indus Valley // We may expect both confirmation and corrections of the hypothetical AAR RAA CA epic from Indian iconography, Shiva of the many arms dancing inside a ring of flames surely followed the ancient god who swirled around the stars, while the gem on his tiara, later also the beauty spot on the front of a god, marks the Golden Seed. Occasionally the gem on the headdress of Shiva appears inside a stylized banyan tree, and later a small Buddha could replace the gem on a headdress. I derive the names of a variety of gods from ShA PAD TYR AS CA, the ruler ShA who goes ahead PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR up above AS in the sky CA. The name of Shiva may go back to ShA PAD, while the name of Durga, the incarnation of his wife who killed the buffalo demon, may go back to TYR … CA, her deed commemorating the taming of the buffalo – once the demon was driven out of the bull, he became the Nandi bull, symbol of the earth and creative principle of Shiva. Also the elephant was tamed, and honored for doing heavy work. The veneration of Ganeshe may tell us that the Vega elephant in the early epic might have played a friendly role, contrary to the other animals, and on the gray Murukan tablet the elephant is the only big animal that is turned away from the god, not aggressing him. Perhaps the Vega elephant showed Beautiful Boy the way to the Draco valley and summoned the Cygnus peacock for him to ride? The peacock fed on the snakes in the Draco valley, thus freed the way for Murukan, and later he acted as love messenger. The Thuban mountain could have been the origin of the Buddhist stupa, reflected in a lovely miniature painting from the Malwa school; two beautiful women talking inside a house, a peacock standing on the side of the roof, gazing up to the golden pinnacle on the round roof on top of the tower above the middle of the house, beak open, as if calling. Another miniature painting from the same Malwa school shows a woman flanked by peacocks in front of a pavilion of twin turrets and across a lawn by the shore of a lotus pond. The Cygnus peacock, his head being Deneb, proceeds along the Milky Way toward Orion, ORE EON, beautiful ORE shore EON, the goddess on the beautiful bank of the heavenly river CA LAK galaxy Milky Way. Orion stands upright on the southern horizon at midnight in December, also during her midwinter festival. May she be the woman the god fell in love with, invisibly present between the pair of opposing ibices or mountain goats under his Thuban dais?

 

29)  Gaining confidence, reading the yellow tablet of Murukan // The Indus seals and tablets are best understood as complex references to the founding epic of the Indus Valley civilization, as I shall explain in the case of the yellow AAR RAA CA tablet  tablets.GIF  The heavenly Lord is alone, no animals around him. His horns evoke the eastern and western mountain and the valleys in between, in the middle a hill and a pipal tree of life. The signs above are an X with a stroke in upper position and a stroke in lower position, on the left side, and on the right side a fish and a pair of wavy parallel lines and a U sign with four short horizontal strokes outward the rim if the sign is regarded as a jar. The X on the left side represents the god on his Thuban dais holding the wind ropes of the guiding stars of the four seasons. The strokes mark the summer half year (above) and winter half year (below), thus indicating the love binding the god of the midsummer festival to the goddess of the midwinter festival, also the power that holds heaven and earth together, for Thuban is always high in the sky, while Orion stood on the ground and periodically descended below the horizon. The arms of the god evoke fish bones and his hands fish tails, thus indicating river arms, rich in fish, food provided by the god, while in the sky his arms are ropes of wind that hold stars. The U sign is the heavenly fig tree, the four short horizontal strokes again indicating the guiding stars of the four seasons, but then the U sign is also a jar, or a basket, or a gourd, emblem of the goddess considering a terracotta figurine balancing a pair of baskets on the head. Asko Parpola identified the pair of long parallel strokes as sign of love, so the wavy parallel lines are again a sign of love, as undulating lines evoking the heavenly river, the god residing on the left side, and the goddess on her beautiful bank on the right side … The X has the meaning of the god holding the stars with arms of wind and hands that are the claws of a crab, so the X is also a crab. The ropes of wind are generated by the lungs of the god, his bellows, as it were, so the same sign can mean bellows, and has then an earthly component used in the honoring aspect of the tablet: A family honored with one of these tablets provides excellent keepers of the palace who care for cool air in summer, warm air in winter, fresh water all year long, and for our provisions (jars of fish), and do their work with a portion of the love that holds the world together …

 

30)  A love story // Inspired by symbols of the eastern gate of the big stupa at Sanchi in central India one may propose a spiraling way of the enamored god on his way from the Thuban mountain down into the Draco valley, to the wise women, the Vega elephant, the home of the Cygnus peacock, and then along the Milky Way to the Orion goddess. The stars on his traveling route were Thuban, iota thaeta aetha zaetha omega psi Draconis, Dubhe, Megrez, Alioth and Mizar-Alcor in the Big Dipper, Vega, Deneb, and the stars of the Milky Way toward Orion. His travel may have included a struggle with a water demon, as indicated by another miniature painting from the Malwa school. When the god and goddess finally met, a pillar grew out of the earth and carried the loving couple into the heavens, Their marriage was celebrated every fourth midwinter, when a leap day was inserted, day of the goddess who stands upright on the southern horizon at midnight.

 

31) First glance // The impression of the seal M-414 shows a fish on the left side, with a short stroke inside for a dot, in the middle a big fig tree of many leaves, and on the right side a peculiar sign Asko Parpola considers a scorpion for the clearly visible sting. Fish miin star, dot Golden Seed, heavenly fig tree, the god on the Thuban dais again. The peculiar sign is basically another cross or X indicating the god holding stars, and the emblems of the arms tell us what stars are meant this time, in clockwise direction: sting, Spica and Heze in Virgo, lance of the young hero god, pointing toward Arcturus, the lance he used in fighting the Arcturus rhinoceros -- ear of an elephant, Vega, ear of the Vega elephant -- phallus, Albireo Sadr Deneb in Cygnus, body of the Cygnus peacock, invoking the bird as love messenger -- a pair of parallel strokes of medium length, Castor and Pollux in Gemini, twin turrets of the Gemini pavilion, love pavilion of the god and the goddess, across the heavenly river from Orion … From this we may glean a new version of the epic. The Arcturus rhinoceros drank all water and made the land go dry and the plants whither. The greedy rhinoceros got ever bigger and rounder. Many tried to pierce its armor, but nobody was strong enough, and all the lances broke, deflected by the bony plates of the hard skin. Then came the young hero god with his marvelous Spica Heze lance, and lo and behold, he succeeded, perforated the hard skin, the water gushed out, fell as the first monsoon on the earth – and was a new menace for the people and the dry land, for now came so much water all of a sudden! But luckily the Vega elephant saw what happened, came by with his Hercules herd, they all raised their trunks into the air and absorbed the water that came rushing down, then lowered their trunks and gently filled the river beds, making the dry earth grow grass and the trees leaves, and the flowers bloomed … The hero god looked around him, very pleased, and when he glanced over to the Gemini pavilion he saw the Orion goddess between the twin turrets looking across the river, he saw her, she had watched him, and they both fell in love with each other. The god walked toward her, but alas, he was hold up by the wild buffalo demon. A long fight ensued, and finally the young and strong hero god won, taming the buffalo and freeing the people from his tyranny. Then he helped people further, showing them how to bake bread, how to form and bake bricks and use them in building houses, also how to use the calendar, and how to organize the common life: every family should send valid members to do work for the public weal during some time of the year, and those who do a really good job shall be honored … When the god finished his teachings, the goddess had vanished below the horizon, so he returned to his dais on top of the Thuban mountain, where he prepared his long journey to the Orion goddess that took him a couple of years … The episode of the water rushing down survived in a legend of Shiva holding up the water with his head, while the famous carved rock at Mamalla-puram showing that scene includes giant elephants, and the rhinoceros on the gray calendar tablet looks rather deflated  indus2.JPG  M-414 may have honored a family of gardeners: The family honored with this seal provides excellent gardeners who care well for the plants, always giving them enough water but never too much, the trees are covered in splendid foliage, and the blooming flowers delight our women …

 

32) Combining the two approaches for good // One of the signs on M-112  indus3.JPG  shows a pair of vertical strokes of medium length, on top of each stroke a tiny triangle, while an arrow head intrudes the space between the strokes from below. The strokes may be the twin turrets of the Gemini pavillon, Castor and Pollux, and the arrow head may indicate the young hero god looking over to the Orion goddess behind the Gemini pavilion. Castor and Pollux as twin turrets of the Gemini pavilion are on the left bank of the heavenly river. Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and Amri were built on the left bank of the respective river, perhaps claiming an earthly version of the love pavilion of the divine couple as their origin? The people who had been given lessons by the god may well have enlarged the first humble pavilion into a splendid citadel, doing as the god himself instructed them, and this required plenty of work for the common weal that would have been honored with a seal or a tablet, if it was a really outstanding contribution. The sign I read as palace, for example on H-6, can be seen as an enlarged version of the Gemini pavilion, basically a standing H with doubled and enforced horizontal bar and slightly curved vertical strokes whose upper parts could well replace the twin turrets of the Gemini pavilion  indus3.JPG  Most communal work was done during the season of the buffalo, and most people worked in the fields and in the brick manufactures along the rivers. The animals on M-112 and H-6 and on the vast majority of the other seals are buffaloes, the animal tamed by the hero god, and the standard in front of the animal consisting of a dotted bowl and a grid above the bowl may well commemorate the god’s first lesson, how to bake bread and bricks, the dotted bowl evoking grains and dough, and the grid above the bowl bricks … Now the two approaches come together, the seals and tablets evoking the deeds and lessons of the god, and the seals and tablets honoring outstanding contributions to the common weal are no longer contradictory but emanations of the same spirit, evoking the deeds of the god and his lessons, and helping to make his will come true by honoring people who emulated him and followed his example, doing as he told them while spending time on earth, called down by the wise woman of Mizar-Alcor.

 

33)  King Arthur, the dragon of Lannion in Armorica, the sword Calibrus, and Merlin // The young hero god of the Indus Valley reached the foothills of the Thuban mountain, was implored for help in fighting the Arcturus rhinoceros and Regulus bull by the wise woman from Mizar Alcor and overcame the rhinoceros with the help of the Spica Heze lance in Virgo. So far the adventure as reconstructed from seals and tablets. Now this episode has a stunning parallel in another Indo-European legend, namely the one of King Arthur and the dragon of Lannion in Armorica, Britanny, on the Breton coast, opposite of Plymouth and Exeter in southwestern Britain. Here a description of the dragon from the Barzaz Breiz, translated by Jan Jaczek, a perfect match for Bootes (explaining brackets inserted by me): Now the dragon came out of its lair (rose from the horizon), vile and steaming. It had a single red eye on its forehead (Arcturus a red star, glowing orange) and its body was covered in green scales (analogous to the bony plates of the rhinoceros). It had the body of a fully-grown bull, but its tail was twisted into a spiral, like an iron screw (reference to the meteor shower of the Quadrantides, radiating from the Nekkar end of Bootes in early January) and thin needle-sharp horns at every joint, to deter any attacker from coming too close (alpha pi zaetha Bootis and alpha aetha tau ypsilon Bootis, the alpha star being Arcturus, and the aetha star Muphrid) … Calibrus the magic sword would then have been the Celtic equivalent of the Spica Heze lance of the hero god from the Indus Valley, and Merlin the one of the wise woman of Mizar Alcor. In the time of Chauvet, 32,000 years ago, the fast moving Arcturus was the head of Bootes, above Nekkar, the constellation was seen as the bear hunter ARC TYR, overcomer TYR of the bear ARC, a generic name that survived in the name of the star Arcturus, and in the name of the dragon slayer Arthur (bones of the long extinct cave bear having been regarded as remains of dragons). The ancient ones looked up into the sky, in a time when there was no light pollution, and projected their life and life conditions into the stars and constellations. The starry sky was their cinema. And how do we call a famous actor? a star …

 

34)  Bootes as dragon of Lannion // Bootes was the dragon of Lannion, rising above the northeastern horizon in early January at midnight, in horizontal position, the orange Arcturus eye on the right side, the Nekkar stump of a tail on the left side, the meteor shower of the Quadrantides radiating from the Nekkar end from January 1 till 6, maximum January 3 and 4. Arthur fought three days and nights with the dragon, must have been in early January when the dragon twisted his tail in a spiral, like an iron screw, radiating meteors. The narrative in the Brazaz Breiz is embedded in a sad love story, the one of Efflam and Enora who spend their married life apart yet in close proximity, reminding of Castor and Pollux, the twin turrets of the Gemini pavilion, love pavilion of the Thuban god and the Orion goddess from the Indus Valley. Bootes appears in vertical position, the Arcturus eye below, looking at the Heze point of the Spica sword, on the western sky at midnight on June 21, at 1 o’clock on June 6, at 2 o’clock on May 21, at 3 o’clock on May 6, at 4 o’clock on April 21, and so on, allowing to predict the struggle of the hero god with the rhinoceros and arrival of the monsoon long before midsummer … King Arthur may have been an emanation of the supreme Celtic god Dagda, the good god in the sense of the able god, from DhAG DhAG meaning able able. Also the Thuban god was an able god, able in every way, and enabling those who followed him.

 

35)  Arcturus rhinoceros, Lannion dragon, and behemoth // The rhinoceros of the early Indus Valley and the Lannion dragon have a fellow demon in behemoth of the Levant, as described in the Bible, Job 40:15-24, here the relevant passages (my explanations given in brackets): Behold now behemoth … he eateth grass as an ox (the Lannion dragon has the form of a fully-grown bull; the name of behemoth is the augmentative plural of Hebrew behemah ‘beast’, -mah perhaps from MUC meaning bull) … he moveth his tail like a cedar (the needle-like leaves of the cedar spiral around long shoots while the tail of the Lannion dragon is twisted into a spiral, like an iron screw, both images conveying the meteor shower of the Quadrantides radiating from the Nekkar end of Bootes in early January) … he who made him can make his sword to approach unto him (only God can raise the sword against behemoth, only Arthur could pull the magic sword Calibrus out of the rock, and only the hero god of the Indus Valley could pierce the armor of the Arcturus rhinoceros with the help of the Spica Heze lance in Virgo) … Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not; he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth (in my reconstruction of the founding myth and epic of the Indus Valley the rhinoceros drinks all water and makes the land go dry) … When the hero god of the Indus Valley travels along the heavenly river he has to fight one more demon, a sea monster, leviathan in the Bible (Job 41) whose constellation might have been Cassiopeia, which would also have been the constellation of the Indian sea monster. The begin of the name leviathan involves a coil, or the verb to coil, twist. On a miniature painting of the Malwa school the god Vishnu emerging from a big fish kills the sea demon emerging from a big winding sea shell or snail. I explain the name of Vishnu from PIS NOS, mind NOS of water in motion PIS, also bodies moving in water, Sanskrit piccha Latin piscis pisces English fish. Further derivatives of the compound are Latin penis – consider the phallus of the peculiar sign on seal M-414 indicating the Cygnus peacock as love messenger, and when Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu, shared the bed with the lovely Rudha he wore the crown of a peacock – and Venus, an emanation of the fertility giver BRI GID whose constellation was Orion, on the beautiful ORE shore or bank EON of the celestial river CA LAK …

 

36)  Vishnu’s Panchajana conch of life // Leviathan might symbolize the rolling sea, waves, the seven heads breaking waves, one may think of the famous wave of Hokusai, the green scales regular patterns of smaller waves on the surface of the Aegean Sea called the Great Green by the Egyptians, while steam and smoke and fire might keep a memory of the eruptions of the Thera volcano that caused terrible tsunamis, far reaching waves that washed pumice-stone up the shores of the Levant and Egyptian delta. Job: Canst thou draw out Leviathan with a hook or his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down? No, we can’t hook and rope a wave. The constellation of leviathan would have been Cassiopeia, by then near the zenith at midnight following the fall equinox, announcing the gales of October and mainly November, December and January in the Aegean and perhaps the entire Mediterranean, high going water, leviathan rising, while still at midnight in early October the heavenly river formed a big arch across the sky, from the western to the eastern horizon. Cassiopeia was the mother of Andromeda who was rescued from a sea monster by Perseus. Vishnu on the miniature painting from the Malwa school, emerging from a big fish, has four arms that hold a lotus blossom, a bangle, the Panchajana conch of life, and a golden lance whose point pushes back the raised white sword of the sea demon emerging from a big conch on the water, a winding sea shell. The demon is wearing small horns whose points are marked with a pearl each, so the water demon might indicate periodic water events going along with moon and sun: high tide, monsoon, the flooding of the river plain, both a blessing (Panchajana conch of life) and a menace (conch of the demon), perhaps also the bi-annual turning of the trade-wind that may provoke storms, and in this case the demon symbolizes the perils of seafaring, while the pearls of the conch symbolize the benefit of sea trading. Four women on the river bank or sea shore, wearing necklaces of pearls and coral beads, are supporting Vishnu, the god emerging from the fish, wearing on top of his yellow headdress a peacock crown adorned with a seam of pearls. Flowers bloom on the river bank or sea shore. Many symbols of life ban the demon, the biggest one the fish in the middle, guise of the god whose origin goes far back in time. Already the founders of the Harappan civilization knew how to tame a river and cope with the flooding in a common effort that would have shaped the society of the Indus Valley and may explain the marvelous infrastructure of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.

 

 

lascaux.htm / lascaux2.htm / lascaux3.htm / lascaux4.htm / lascaux5.htm

 

 

 

homepage