Lascaux 4 / On my way to Atlantis / Apollo / Reading place names (featuring: Indo-European homeland, civilization of REO Rhea Rheia) / © 2010 Franz Gnaedinger

 

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On my way to Atlantis

 

At the begin of times the world was a large island called AD LAS, toward AD mountain LAS, wherefrom Atlantis. The island softly rose to the mountain KAL LAS in the center, mountain LAS of the cave or Underworld KAL, wherefrom Hellas. Inside the mountain  was a big and beautiful cave KAL KOS, ‘heavenly’ vault KOS of the cave or Underworld KAL, decorated with beautiful reliefs made of various metals, KAL KOS accounting for Greek chalkos ‘ore, copper, bronze, metal’. Another name of that big and beautifully decorated cave was GRA KOS, ‘heavenly’ vault KOS of the decorated cave GRA, wherefrom Graikoi Greeks. The cave was inhabited by titans who belonged to the brazen race and personified metals, among them KAL EN, she inside EN the cave of Underworld KAL, wherefrom Helen, beautiful Helen of the white arms, Homeric symbol of tin, and Hellenoi Hellenes, another name of the Greeks (who, my claim, originated in the region between the Arals Sea and the Alai mountains and cast the first bronze, alloy of copper and tin, some 5,500 year ago, and whose bards would have invented the myth I am trying to reconstruct here in my new Magdalenian chapter, a myth concerning the begin of the Bronze Age, while the Homeric epics Iliad and Odyssey tell about its end and aftermath). On top of the mountain KAL LAS resided AAR RAA NOS, mind NOS of the one composed of air AAR and light RAA, wherefrom Ouranos, also AAR RAA CA, the one composed of air and light in the sky CA, also AAR RAA ) or AAR RAA L, the one composed of air and light who has the say ) or L, wherefrom Aral (Sea) and Ural (mountain). A proud river sprang from the top of KAL LAS and flowed three times around the mountain until reaching the sea surrounding the island AD LAS Atlantis, personified by AC EON NOS, mind NOS of the shore EON land AC, wherefrom Oceanos ocean, while the river was called AD DA, toward AD from DA, flowing toward the sea while coming from the mountain. The river was personified by PAD AD DA PAS TON, he who goes PAD toward AD coming from DA and makes himself heard TON wherever he gets, everywhere PAS, known to us in the form of Poseidon. The river banks were personified by AD DA NAI, to find a good place to build a camp NAI on the river that flows toward the sea coming from the mountain, known to us in the form of Athaenae Athene, while NAI AD DA accounts for the Najades. AAR RAA NOS let it rain, and the fertile soil made the titans emerge, the first people, the brazen race of early days.

 

AAR RAA NOS Ouranos residing on top of the mountain KAL LAS shone his light RAA and thus made the day. The sun horse was not yet born. But there was the moon bull, emerging from one of the eastern clefts in the rock, not in the mountain KAL LAS but beyond the river ocean. Those clefts were called GAR while the first three days in the life of the young moon were called GEN, combined GAR GEN, name of the two immortal guards who watched the clefts beyond the river ocean, those in the east, where the moon bull emerged from, and those in the west, wherein he disappeared in order to traverse the Underworld. We know those guards in the form of Gorgons. A further Gorgon, this time a mortal one, guarded a cleft in the mountain KAL LAS, realm of the divine hind CER -: I -: or CER LIL, belonging to the female zone MAI, the sacred cleft where the first animals emerged from the rock. The Gorgon of this cleft was called MAI DhAG, the able one DhAG of the female zone MAI, wherefrom Medusa, originally a beautiful girl. Now it came to pass that MAI DhAG Medusa was seduced by the glittering water on a warm spring afternoon, so she abandoned her duty, strolled over to the river and took a bath. PAD AD DA PAS TON Poseidon caught a glimpse of the lovely maiden, and washed over her in form of a wave. MAI DhAG Medusa turned into a boulder, blocking the river and making the water flood the fields in hundreds of rivulets, like so many snakes. PIR SAI, fire PIR life SAI, known to us in the form of Perseus, helper of the ancient goddess PIR GID, fire PIR giver GID, touched the big boulder with his fire sword, whereupon the rock turned back into a woman, however, her head was severed, the hairs were a nest of snakes, and the blood spurting out of her neck turned into the first horse PAC AS, horse PAC upward AS, wherefrom Pegasos Pegasus, the winged horse, and into the giant Chrysaor, personification of the gold people found in river beds (more than today)..PAC AS Pegasus multiplied himself into a variety of horses, first of all the sun horse of spring, CA BEL IAS, sky CA warm BEL healing IAS, wherefrom AFelios Helios; then also the windhorses of AAR RAA AS, upward AS toward the one composed of air AAR and light RAA, known to us in the form of Iris, rainbow messenger between earth and sky; the common horses on earth; and the water horses of Poseidon, father of Pegasus.

 

AAR RAA NOS Ouranos residing on top of the mountain KAL LAS was responsible for the daylight (not yet recognized as indirect sunlight), for the weather, and for time. AAR RAA accounting for Latin aura ‘breeze, air, daylight’, Rumantg aura ‘weather’, and English aura ‘nimbus’, Greek hora ‘time span, season, spring, harvest, climate, year, daytime, day, hour, moment, age, youth’, Latin hora ‘hour, time span, season’, and English hour. Dawn was called AAR RAA ORE, the beautiful one ORE belonging to and protected by the one composed of air AAR and light RAA personified in the Roman goddess of dawn Aurora, personification of the eastern horizon and of the east in general. AAR RAA NOS Ouranos was followed by his son CRE NOS, ruling CRE mind NOS, wherefrom Kronos or Cronos, god of time, consider our chronometer. CRE NOS Kronos Cronos was followed by his son TYR, he who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give, also TYR CA, overcomer TYR in the sky CA, and TYR PAS, overcomer TYR everywhere PAS, naming the god of weather and time afflicting everybody. The followers of TYR called themselves TYR CA MAN, we who carry out the will of the overcomer TYR in the sky CA with our right hand MAN. Variations of TYR and the compounds involving TYR are found in the region of the Aral Sea: Turan, Turkmenistan, Darvaza, Amudarja, Turtkul, Zanadarja, Syrdarja, Trans-Turan, Turkestan, Turksib. Darja means river, overcomer of a plain, as it were. (We have a river called Thur in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland, while the Roman name of Zurich was Turicum, and the still older name might have been TYR AC, designating both the river that overcomes the land AC, and the people who overcome an expanse of land with water AC, the land including the river of many arms that dominated the plain for a very long time, the people overcoming the overcomer, so to say, learning to cope with the river that ruled life in the plain but also provided water and fish aplenty, five thousand years ago when the first dwellers settled in the area of Zurich.) TYR became emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr, Doric Sseus, and Homeric Zeus. TYR CA is also present in Turk, Turkey, Turkish. TYR PAS became Latin tempus ‘time’, tempestas ‘weather, storm’, and tempus ‘temple of the forehead’, the latter equating  the clouded sky with the clouded brow of the weather god, German umwölkte Stirn, literally clouded forehead. The god was present in time and weather, reaching everybody everywhere, overcomer TYR everywhere PAS. Latin tempus ‘time’ would be a polished form of TYR PAS, the impossible -YRP- turned into -emp-. German Zeit for time would be a similar development as TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus. And finally TYR PLO as name of a shrine of the god surrounded by a fence made in the wickerwork technique PLO would have become Latin templum, -YRP- again polished to -emp-, TYR PLO templum, TYR PAS tempus.

 

CER -: I -: or CER LIL, divine hind who called animals into life, was an emanation of the ancient goddess BIR GID the fur giver and became Hera, the wife of TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus. Her name survives in English herd, series, and in German Herde, Serie. -: I -: has many derivatives, among them lip (the divine hind of Altamira licked moon bulls into life, thus creating time, lunations, period of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 … days or nights), German Leben English life, German Liebe English love, Latin libido, Ugaritic dd ‘beloved’, Phoenician Dido ‘loved one’, perhaps Ukrainian lyalka ‘doll’, then the flower lily and the female given name Lily, and a locally famous word from the Swiss canton of Fribourg used for calling a cow, ljoba, from Celtic loba, a call serving to hold a herd together, so we are back to CER -: I -: *kerdeh herd. Hera was connected to cows by the Homeric epithet cow-eyed Hera. She ruled the female zone MAI, the secret cleft GAR in the rock of the mountain KAL LAS wherefrom the first animals emerged, guarded by MAI DhAG Medusa. When this one abandoned the cleft on a fateful day in spring, one of the titans, a member of the brazen first race, approached the cleft and slew a variety of animals emerging from the rock. Why and what for? He planned to create a new race of people that resemble the gods. He formed them of clay, inserted seeds of life he had found in the fertile soil, and now added properties he took from the animals that he slew when they left the sacred cleft in the rock of the mountain KAL LAS, inserting these properties and abilities into his clay people. Now they had the shape of humans and a seed of life each, but lacked a soul. AD DA NAI Athaenae Athene was pleased by the lovely new creatures and blew a soul into them, so they came fully to life. The first humans were made. Now the titan who had shaped them was called PRO MAI DhAG, the word PRO meaning to beat in forward direction, MAI DhAG refers to the sacred zone of the cleft guarded and then abandoned by the able one DhAG of the female zone MAI. The name PRO MAI DhAG is known to us in the form of Prometheus.

 

PRO MAI DhAG Prometheus formed his clay people, the first human beings, at a well protected place DAI in a secret cave KAL he used for a new camp IAN where a fire PIR was burning on the bank of a small river REO. The first man was called DAI KAL IAN, he who was made at a well protected place DAI in the secret cave KAL in the new camp IAN, wherefrom Deukalion, and the first woman was called PIR REO, she who was made by the fire PIR on the bank of the small river REO, wherefrom Pyrrha. DAI KAL IAN Deukalion and PIR REO Pyrrha were the first human beings, and the first couple. They worshiped the gods and goddesses, and thus were the only ones to survive the later flood, a terrible flood that made all other humans drown, punishing them for all sorts of transgressions. When Prometheus had slain animals emerging from the cleft in the rock of the mountain KAL LAS in order to implant their various properties and abilities into the clay people he had shaped in his cave, he had inserted not only good but also bad ones, or good ones in animals that became bad in humans and made them prone to every sort of misbehaving. Hera complained to her husband TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus about Prometheus, whereupon Zeus made a wind blow into the secret cave and extinguish the fire of the titan. Hereupon resourceful Prometheus took a long stalk of the giant fennel, waited for the sun horse to pass overhead, caught a spark from her glowing eye and lit his fire again. This made Zeus furious, he fettered Prometheus to a rock and made his eagle feed on the titan’s liver. However, Herakles, a descendant of the divine stag CER of old, husband of the divine hind, had pity with Prometheus and freed him from the rock, which made Hera angry, and from then on she was the enemy of Herakles.

 

Deukalion and Pyrrha worshiped the gods and goddesses, however, their children and children’s children did not, rebelled against Poseidon, and, what is more, incited the titans to rebel against Zeus, whereupon Zeus left the mountain KAL LAS in the middle of the island AD LAS Atlantis, and the earth-shaker Poseidon shook up the island, made the mountain topple and much of the island sink, drowning all titans and all humans apart from the first ones, the couple Deukalion and Pyrrha. Remains of the former mountain KAL LAS are now seen everywhere in the world, and remains of the island KAL LAS are present in the continents, while the former beautiful hall KAL in the first mountain LAS, with all the shining and glittering reliefs along the walls and on the vault, was crashed, and is now present in ore leads and veins and pockets inside mountains, hard to get at, requiring the labor of mining in order to extract. Only the life of Deukalion and Pyrrha was spared. They had more children and children’s children who spread all over the new face of the world. One tribe settled in the Troas, founding Troy, and on the Anatolian mountains, founding Hattusa. Another tribe settled in Greece, the land of the young Zeus bull in the sky ITA CA Ithaca, once the name of the entire Peloponnese, and in the land of the mature Zeus bull in the sky ATI CA Attica. Later on these tribes were entangled in a war about KAL EN, beautiful Helen of the white arms, Homeric symbol of tin. There is no tin in Greece, so the Achaeans got it from the Ore Mountains in Middle Europe, and from Central Asia. The precious metal was bound to pass Troy in either case, and the Trojans laid their hands on the precious cargo, abducting Helen, so to say. The war was remembered as the war of Athens vsersus Atlantis by Egyptian priests according to the report by Solon.

 

Conclusion: Atlantis would have been a mythical First World imagined by bards living in the region between the Aral Sea and the Alai mountains roughly 5,500 years ago. KAL LAS, mountain LAS of the cave or Underworld KAL, would have become Hellas, also Greek kallos ‘beautiful’, referring to the magnificent hall inside the mythical mountain, perhaps mirrored in the palace of Menelaos  in Homer’s Odyssey, book 4: “”It seemed to them that this lofty hall of illustrious Menelaos was lit by something of the sun’s and moon’s splendor (…) The whole place gleams with bronze and gold, amber and silver and ivory. What an amazing quantity of treasures! The court of Zeus on Olympos must be like this inside. The sight fills me with awe.” Helen was the wife of Menelaos, Homeric symbol of tin, her white arms tin ingots, her glittering robes she made herself the glittering tin ore cassiterite, and her thread tin wire, by then cut out of hammered foil. Her husband xanthos Menelaos symbolizes copper, the color xanthos covering all hues of copper, yellow, brown, red. And their daughter, lovely Hermione who resembles golden Aphrodite, symbolizes bronze, of a golden shine when freshly cast (modern bronze contains about five percent of tin, Mycenaean bronze required twelve or even fifteen percent). Menelaos had a slave woman for a mistress, symbol of andrasit, a natural alloy of copper and zinc found in the Troas, zinc in enslaved form, so to say. Their son was late come strong Megapenthes, symbol of brass, harder than bronze and arriving late in the ‘family’ of metals. A northern legend regarding the begin of the Bronze Age is the fairy tale of Snow White, the vain queen symbolizing copper, for some five thousand years the most precious material, her poison arsenic used in hardening copper before tin was added, Snow White symbolizing tin, and the seven dwarfs miners, DAP ARG German Zwerg English dwarf, those who handle DAP the shining decoration of a cave ARG, here the loads and veins and pockets of a mine, while the location ‘behind the seven mountains’ refers to the Ore Mountains in Middle Europe.

 

Eberhard Zangger identified Troy with Atlantis, and pleasant Scherie with an early Troy. May the Trojans have seen their land as New Atlantis? According to Plato in Critias, the first king of Atlantis was called Atlas and had a twin brother by the name of Gadeiros in the local language and Eumaelos in Greek meaning rich in sheep, so the king’s brother may personify the green pastures of Atlantis, and also of the Troas. In the Homeric tradition, sheep and goats are ships, horses Achaean ships, oxen the cargo ships on the Black Sea, the oxen of Helios Hyperion a Crimean fleet. On that level, Eumaelos might be a friendly early version of Polyphem, the one-eyed giant who resembles more a wooded hill top than a man who eats bread, Homeric symbol of Troy, his cave the Trojan harbor, and his sheep and goats foreign ships … In my opinion, Odysseus is dreaming of the war, trying to leave Troy and coming to strange places that are nothing else than Troy in disguise and blended with other places and periods of time, until, in a time travel (Eberhard Zangger) he reaches early Troy, recognizes where he is and what a lovely place he destroyed, or will destroy on the time level of his travel, an event predicted by the Trojan bard Demodocus ‘teacher of the people’, and he weeps, whereupon he is allowed to go home, and the ships in the Trojan harbor start like stallions, bringing him home quickly and safely … Back to Eumaelos. Greek maelon means sheep, goats, small cattle, present in –maelos of Eumaelos, while –eiros in Gadeiros may be akin to Old Prussian eristian Lithuanian eras Armenian oroj Tocharian B yriye ‘lamb’, and Latin aries Sanskrit areya Tocharian B ariwe ‘ram’. Eu- of Eumaelos means good, while Gad- of Gadeiros evokes Magdalenian GADh meaning good – a full equivalent! Inverse DhAG means able, good in the sense of able. This word has a wide variety of derivatives, among them English fox, able guide through the labyrinth of the Underworld, his full name having been DhAG KAL PAS, able DhAG Underworld KAL everywhere PAS, able leader through the labyrinth of the Underworld, KAL PAS accounting for Latin vulpus ‘fox’. Then we have Latin dux ‘leader’, and Latin facere Italian fare French faire Old English don English do German tun, also English fiction, and English dough German Teig /famous example of words drifting apart in fiction and dough). Then we have German taugen ‘to be good, able, fit, of use’, tauglich ‘good, useful, fit, apt, suited, qualified, competent, able, suitable, appropriate, fit for service, able-bodied’, Werkzeug ‘tool’, Ding ‘thing’, furthermore zeugen ‘beget, Middle Danish fokken ‘to copulate with’ and the English word you guess. The supreme Celtic god was called Dagda meaning good god in the sense of able god. Then we have Ugaritic dingir ‘god’, Latin deus ‘god’ and Greek theos ‘god’, also English day German Tag (the daylight having been ascribed to the supreme god and his helpers, not yet to the sun). The theory of Proto-Indo-European claims that Zeus and Latin deus are akin, while deus and Greek theos are not compatible. Magdalenian claims that Latin deus and Greek theos are akin, both from DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, while Zeus comes from another word, TYR meaning to overcome in the double sense of rule and give, Magdalenian TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr Doric Sseus Homeric Zeus. Now I may formulate a second Magdalenian test case. PIE: Zeus deus // theos, Magdalenian: Zeus // deus theos.

 

TYR became an almost omnipresent god, most often the weather god whose longest name or title was ShA PAD TYR AS CA, ruler ShA who goes ahead and leads the way PAD (activity of feet) and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR up above AS (upward) in the sky CA, wherefrom ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove, DhAG PAD TYR Dis Pater, byname of Zeus, TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr Doric Sseus Homeric Zeus, DhAG Dios, alternative name of Zeus, as for Sseyr consider also the Serri bull of the Hittite weather god, ShA CA Jahwe, rider of clouds from Mount Seir (!) in the Negev, TYR Syria Tyros, TYR CA Turk Turkey Turkish, TYR CA MAN we who carry out the will of the overcomer TYR in the sky CA with our right hand MAN (the most fervent believers in the god accounting for the old Turkish augmentative –men), ShA PAD Shiva and TYR CA Durga, an emanation of Shiva’s wife, and finally the full name or title ShA PAD TYR AS CA is preserved in the name of the village Giubiasco on a bend of the river Ticino in southern Switzerland where the lovely Italian landscape of the Lago Maggiore abruptly goes over into the grim landscape of the Swiss Alps, where people heading for the mountains implored good weather from the god, while those returning from the mountains thanked for the good weather and the luck they had … The male overcomer TYR was preceded by a female one, AD DA MAI TYR, the overcomer TYR guarding the female zone of the camp MAI, watching the coming to AD and fro DA, a name or title accounting for Daemaetaer Demeter, personal union of the three ancient goddesses: the fire giver PIR GID and fur giver BIR GID and fertility giver BRI GID. A daughter of Demeter in the form of Elaia was Nyx, from Magdalenian NYG meaning night, a goddess mentioned on the Elaia disc: … Come, Noble Late Night, always born again by the goddess! (Derk Ohlenroth). Nyx was the daughter of the goddess and had daughters in the Moirae who spun, measured and cut the thread of life (and were feared by everybody including Zeus, their Roman equivalents the Fatae ‘fates’ by Jupiter). ‘Daughter’ may com from DhAG TYR, able DhAG overcomer TYR, the night coming over the day. Nyx had an alter ego in Aphrodite, Nyx Aphrodite, goddess of love, also an overcomer, her name indicating the fertilitiy giver BRI GID, a-bri-gid-e a-fro-dit-e Aphrodite, and providing an explanation for Latin Africa, suggesting BRI CA, where the sky CA is fertile BRI and produces all kinds of animals, plants, and human races …

 

The emblem of Atlantis may have been a rosette of eight petals and a small circle in the center, the cicle indicating TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus in the center, and the petals North and South, East and West, Underworld and Sky, Past and Future, declaring Zeus the Lord of the Universe. The flower appears in the center of the Tiryns disc and marks the emphatic Ss- of Sseyr (Derk Ohlenroth), Tiryns given as Slryns, TYR morphed into the dialect form Slr-. This flower encodes a lunisolar calendar: each petal a long month of 45 days (five Homeric long weeks of nine days), together 360 days, and the small circle in the center adding 5 and occasionally 6 days, while 21 continuous periods of 45 days are 945 days and correspond to 32 lunations or synodic months, mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime. As hypothetical emblem and calendar of ‘Atlantis’ we may read the petals as follows: North, long month of winter solstice, festival of the fur giver BIR GID in the emanation of Hera / long month of winter / East, long month of spring equinox, festival of the triple goddess in the emanation of AD DA MAI TYR Demeter / long month of spring / South, long month of summer solstice, festival of the fertility giver BRI GID in the emanation of Aphrodite / long month of summer / West, long month of fall equinox, festival of the fire giver PIR GID in the emanation of Persephone / long month of fall (harvest). TYR in the center, indicated by the small circle, and the four petals marking the cardinal directions illustrate Magdalenian PAS meaning everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, all in all five places, wherefrom Greek pas pan ‘all, every’ and pente penta- ‘five’. The ancient way of looking at the world can be expanded: here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, in the past and in the future ….

 

Bronze allowed to manufacture bridles, and bridles made it possible to tame horses. Magdalenian PAC means horse. PAS means everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me. PAS PAC would then mean: a horse PAC to get everywhere PAS and may account for PIE “ekwos ‘horse’, while inverse PAS PAC might account for Sanskrit asva ‘horse’, the first P omitted, the second P softened to v, the final C again omitted. PAC may also account for wagon German Wagen, horse and wagon being an item, and for German Weg English way, the horse trampling a way into the meadow and soil. German Wiese ‘meadow’ may stem from PAS, and Weide ‘pasture’ from PAD for the activity of feet, the comparative PAS for everywhere in a plain present in the English form pasture. English wheel goes back to the organization of an early town or polis, from Magdalenian POL meaning fortified settlement, inverse LOP for the protecting fence or wall, CO for the right eye, inverse OC for an attentive mind, together CO OC LOP meaning: to watch out over the fence or wall LOP with open eyes OC and an attentive mind CO. This compound has a derivative in Cyclops, the most famous one being Polyphem, the ‘much talked about’ Cyclops representing Troy whose acropolis was surrounded by a cyclopic wall, guards standing on the wall and looking out over the land, with open eyes CO, and in the center ruled the king, the master mind CO. The visual symbol is present in the shield of the soldiers on the Tiryns disc and Elaia disc: a central dot for CO surrounded by six dots for OC in a circle for LOP. The compound CO OC LOP has further derivatives in Greek kyklos ‘cricle’, in English cycle, in Old English wheol English wheel, and in Sanskrit cakra ‘wheel’. Magdalenian TYR means overcomer, inverse RYT means spear thrower, archer. Imagine an archer turning around his body axis and aiming in all directions: the potential trajectories are radii of a big circle mirrored in the spokes of a wheel, hence Latin radius and rota ‘wagon’, Greek rhedae ‘wagon of four wheels’ and German Rad ‘wheel’ … The invention of agriculture between 12,000 and 10,000 years ago in the region of the Göbekli Tepe in southeast Anatolia would have turned Late Magdalenian into Japhetic. The casting of bronze 5,500 years ago in the region between the Aral Sea and the Alai mountains, the manufacture of bridles in the Caspian steppe and the manufacture of wagons in the Pontic steppe turned Japhetic into Proto-Indo-European, emerging and spreading quickly on the ancient Magdalenian substratum.

 

 

Apollo

 

TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus was the father of Apollo, his mother was Laetho, second only to Hera, and his twin sister Artemis. Apollo was the master archer, Magdalenian RYT meaning spear thrower, archer, consider Greek rhytaer ‘archer, protector’, RYT and TYR being inverse forms. Also his twin sister Artemis, emanation of the ancient fur giver BIR GID, was an archer. Apollo was the god of light, later identified with Phoebus Apollo, sun god on his wagon. Laetho and her twin children stood on the mountain Kynthos, from GYN DhAG, able DhAG woman GYN, personifying the eastern hills and mountains where the sun rises from, giving birth to the sun in the form of Phoebus Apollo. Hekatos Apollo, the far shooting Apollo, was the master archer and patron of bowmen. He was also the god of wisdom and prophecy, of music and poetry, and of healing, Aesculap his son. He also sent disease and quick, non-violent death. His original name could have been AD POL IAN, wherefrom Hittite Appaliuna Greek Apollon Roman Apollo Etruscan Aplu, the original name meaning toward AD fortified settlement POL to mark the future place of the entrance of a new camp IAN. He would have indicated good places for a new settlement by shooting one of his arrows, where it stuck the entrance of the new settlement was to be, or he may have indicated a suitable spot of land with a ray of sunshine breaking through the clouds … His arrows were invisible, so he opened the eyes of the vates – divinatori, auguri, seers –, Latin vates going back to PAD for the activity of feet, naming the rays of vision that ‘go’ out from the eye. When Romulus ploughed the sacred pomerium, the periphery of the first village of Rome, he carefully lifted the plough out of the ground when he came to the place of the future entrance. Why this additional trouble? In order not to disturb the invisible arrow marking the spot, we may infer.

 

Apollo would have been the god of the spreading civilization, worshiped by the people of the Linear Ware Culture, seven thousand years ago, the people who built longhouses along the river Danube, and the folks who built woodhenges in Middle Europe. Several words for settlements and their inhabitants go back to that time. For example folk German Volk to POL DOK, fortified settlement POL made of poles and beams and rafters DOK, and people to POL PLO, fortified settlement POL made in the wattle-and-daub-technique PLO, wherefrom Old Latin poplo Latin populus Italian popolo French Peuple English people, also Latin populus ‘poplar tree’, indicating that poplar shoots and the quickly growing straight vertical branches of Populus nigra were used for uprights in wattle-and-daub walls. Names of settlements could also account for numbers. DAI for protected area may be present in ten, more or less ten, number of people under the same roof. KOD DOM may account for Latin centum ‘hundred’ and name the people who gathered in a longhouse, in a hut KOT or in a house DOM, the latter word having timber for a derivative, and if we enlarge the original hut to a longhouse, KOD DOM might mean the people from the surrounding villages gathering under the timber roof of the biggest longhouse in the region, where business was done, decisions were made, and problems settled – more or less hundred people gathering in a big longhouse. Greek hekaton ‘hundred’ would have the same origin as hekatos ‘far shooting’, epithet of Apollo, and may refer to his way of hovering above one big longhouse, gathering place of the chiefs of the surrounding villages, and shooting an arrow to the place where the next big longhouse in the center of another district should be built. Hekatos ‘far shooting’ would then refer to the distance between one longhouse of hundred to the next longhouse of hundred. A hecatomb was a sacrifice of hundred oxen, sheep and goats, perhaps sacrificed during the annual festival in a village of a big longhouse of hundred, some of the meat eaten, a larger part dried and prepared as winter provision.. Hekate was the goddess of sorcery, crossroads, and dogs; she may have asked for small sacrifices from people who traveled from village to village, and from one longhouse of hundred to another longhouse of hundred. DAI SAI may name the people gathering and voting in the central hall of a woodhenge in Middle Europe some seven thousand years ago, more or less thousand deputies of the surrounding villages who could have found place in a circle of typically over thirty meters across, DAI meaning protected area, SAI meaning life. DAI TON could have named those who made themselves heard TON inside the protected area DAI of a woodhenge, wherefrom Teutonic.

 

DAI as number would have named more or less ten people under the same roof. Latin December goes back to Magdalenian DEC for to behave decently, namely in the tenth month of the Late Magdalenian calendar, when the hunters returned to the winter camp and had to behave in the narrow space of a tent or hut. A further word indicating ten is DIG meaning finger, present in Latin digitus, and, with an infix, in English finger German Finger. An interesting word for finger is PIE *polik(o)s ‘finger ‘thumb’, Latin pellex ‘thumb’ Russian palec ‘finger, toe’. I recognize POL meaning fortified settlement, and LIC meaning light and luck, perhaps indicating fire pillars (a pillar and on top a flame) in the form of ‘thumbs’ illuminating early towns, Greek polis itself being a possible derivative of POL LIC, then meaning city of lights, consider Paris, ville de lumières, French ville ‘town’ a derivative of POL, and New York, city of lights. The many lights could have accounted for Greek poly- ‘many’, while English many is a derivative of MAN for the right hand, many people many hands, many hands many people (pars pro toto for a human being).

 

The mother of Apollo was Laetho, Roman Latona, in her name LAD for hill, a word also present in Latium, land of hills, and the first village of Rome was founded on the Palatinus, wherein we may find POL LAD INA, fortified settlement POL on a hill LAD, there, let us found a new camp over there INA, together: let us found a new camp and then a fortified settlement over there, on that hill. LAD INA would then also account for Latin, naming the people who settled on hills, and then their language. I derive the name of Rome from REO MAN, we who carry out the will of the goddess REO Rhea with our right hand MAN. Rhea was the wife of Cronos, among her children was one Aventicus, whom she had from Heracles, a god worshiped in the form of Hercle by the Etruscans, master town builders, and in the hills of Latium flows a river by the name of Avens, joining the Tiber and reaching Rome, where we find a hill named Aventicus next to the Mons Palatinus. Rhea must have played a role in the life of the Romans. Athens is named for AD DA NAI Athene, to find a good place for a camp NAI on a river that flows toward AD the sea while coming from DA the mountains, or along a trading route going toward AD one place while coming from DA another place. Athene and Apollo were antagonists in the Trojan war, Apollo on the side of Troy, apparently proud of the good place he had chosen for the town.

 

 

Reading place names

(featuring: Indo-European homeland, civilization of REO Rhea Rheia)

 

1)  The sky god of the Göbekli Tepe was AAR RAA NOS, mind NOS of the one composed of air AAR and light RAA, visualized by a big limestone ring that shows a framed glimpse of the sky in round form, with two small hollows for the ears, making the intention of a head and face unmistakable (although the ring has been photographed slightly from the side), a head consisting of nothing but air and light  ouranos.JPG  AAR RAA NOS became Greek Ouranos, Sanskrit Varuna, and Egyptian Ra – the supreme god appearing in the solar disc, spending his daylight RAA. The variation AAR RAA CA, the one composed of air and light in the sky CA, became Harappan muruku, Tamil Murukan, and Egyptian Horus, while AAR RAA AC, the one composed of air and light on earth AC, became Horakhty, Horus on the horizon (moon and sun rising and setting). AAR RAA NOS accounts for the names of many valleys, for example Val d'Aran, while Arundel combines AAR RAA NOS with DAL for dale, valley, German Tal. A valley is a hollow between hills and mountains, filled with air and light. In the Valais, southwestern Switzerland, we have the Val d'Hérens leading to the mountain peak Dent d'Hérens next to the famous Matterhorn, a side valley being the Val d'Arollo, perhaps from AAR RAA )  or AAR RAA L, the one composed of air and light has the say  )  or L, while a longer side valley of the Val d'Hérens, forking off further down, is called Val d'Hérémence, perhaps from AAR RAA MAN, those who carry out the will of the heavenly Lord composed of air and light with their right hand MAN. The followers of the sky god on the Göbekli Tepe called themselves NOS AAR RAA, they who follow the mind NOS of the one composed of air and light, namely AAR RAA NOS for whom Harran / Haran was named, an important place in the Bible, some forty kilometers south of the Göbekli Tepe, AAR-RAA-NOS  AAR-RAA-N  hARRAN. Propably the most frequent pictogram on the Göbekli Tepe is the snake that has to do with water – snakes heading skyward symbolizing prayers for rain and the smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain, while snakes heading downward symbolize falling rain rewarding the prayers and sacrificial fires. The early farmers of that region on the margin of the Fertile Crescent needed plenty of water, and then, all of a sudden, a hard rain went down, during forty days and forty nights according to the Bible, sweeping away fields and destroying villages. One NOS AAR RAA Noah followed the Euphrates downward, building Uruk of the cattle enclosure for his ark in the Mesopotamian flood plain, while the other NOS AAR RAA Noah followed the Euphrates upward and settled in Armenia, land of the AAR RAA MAN, they who carry out the will of the heavenly Lord composed of air AAR and light RAA with their right hand MAN.

 

2)  Pillars were erected in honor of AAR RAA NOS, on the Göbekli Tepe and elsewhere. Jacob on his way to Harran sleeps in the wilderness of Judea, sees the Lord on top of a heavenly ladder – high up in the air AAR, surrounded by an aureole of light RAA – and in the morning erects a pillar in honor of the heavenly Lord (Genesis 28). AAR RAA NOS Ouranos had a son by the name of CRE NOS Chronos Cronus, ruling CRE mind NOS, and this one had a friend (and possible alter ego) in ShA PAD Japhet (Hebrew) Japetos (Greek), the ruler ShA goes ahead and leads the way PAD (activity of feet). CRE NOS and ShA PAD wandered all the way to the Aegaean shore of Anatolia in the west, and to the Pamir in the east, roof of the world, where they resided on the two highest mountain peaks of Tadjikistan, close to each other, Chronos governing the heavenly cycles, thus becoming the god of time (his name surviving in our chronometer). Now the worshippers of CRE NOS overturned the pillars of AAR RAA NOS, and this was remembered as castration of Ouranos in Greek mythology. Chronos married Rhea, from REO meaning to flow, river. Chronos and Rhea had a son by the name of Zeus, originally TYR, the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give, TYR became Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth), emphatic Sseyr became Doric Sseus, and Sseus Homeric Zeus. (Japhet had a son by the name of Tiras, Genesis 10:2, which makes me assume that Japhet might have been an alter ego of Chronos). The byname of Zeus was Diós, from DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able. His emblematic animal was the eagle, German Adler but also Aar, König der Lüfte 'king of the airs', Aar keeping a memory of AAR. Rhea gave also birth to Poseidon, originally the god of rivers called PAD AD DA  PAS TON, he who goes PAD toward AD one place while coming from DA another place, and everywhere PAS he comes to (everywhere in a plain) he makes himself heard TON. The compound AD DA became a generic name of a river that flows toward AD the sea while coming from DA the hills and mountains, present for example in the name of the Indus, AD-DA  AnDA  inDus. The emblematic animal of Poseidon was the horse AC PAS, expanse of land with water AC everywhere (in a plain) PAS – on the back of this animal you get everywhere on earth, wherefrom Greek hippos ‘horse’ and Latin equus 'horse' and the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona. Rhea had a further son in Hades, from KOD meaning hut and tent, here caverns and gangways hewn in mountains, mines. His emblematic animal was a dog, a tamed wolf whose name might come from KAL KAL, doubled for cave and Underworld

 

   KAL-KAL  KwAL-KwAL  wL-KwAL  wL-Kwos  PIE *wlkwos ‘wolf’

 

   KAL-KAL  AL-KAL  L-KAL  Ly-Kos  Greek lykos ‘wolf’

 

   KAL-KAL  AL-KwAL  L-Kwa  Lu-pus  Latin lupus ‘wolf’

 

   KAL-KAL  KwAL-KwAL  wAL-Kwe  Tocharian B walkwe ‘wolf’

 

   KAL-KAL  KwAL-KAL  wAL-KAL  wiL-KAs  Lithuanian wilkas ‘wolf’

 

   KAL-KAL  KwAL-KwAL  wAL-K  voL-K  Russian volk ‘wolf’

 

   KAL-KAL  KwAL-KwAL  wAL-K  wui-K  Albanian uik ‘wolf’

 

   KAL-KAL  KwAL-KA  wAL-KA  vAhr-KA  Avestan vahrka ‘wolf’

 

   KAL-KAL  KwAL-KA  wL-KA  vr-KA  Sanskrit vrka ‘wolf’

 

   KAL-KAL  KwAL-KwAL  woL-Kw  English wolf

 

so dogs, tamed wolfs, might once have guarded the precious metals gained from mines, from caves, from the Underworld KAL. The first wolves were tamed 15,000 years ago, and might have guarded flint mines. KAL is present in the names of mining people, Hellenoi, Gallii, keltoi Celts, Helvetii. The Underworld KAL had once been a beautiful place, Greek kallos 'beautiful', but became a hell with the labor of mining. The historical Zeus might have come from the Hindukush, pivot of Eurasia and the Indian subcontinent. If the name Hindukush goes back to early times it might originate from AD DA KOS, watershed of rivers, the Amu-Darya springing in the north, the Indus passing by in the south, while the mountain range carries the heavenly vault KOS. Rhea might have personified the Amu-Darya; Hades the copper and tin mines in the Alai Mountains; Poseidon the riders covering the ground between the Alai Mountains and the Aral Sea; and Zeus the civilization of the Lowland of Turan some 5,500 years ago, in my opinion the first Indo-European homeland.

 

3)  The historical TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus, Tiras in the Bible, he who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give, would have come from the AD DA KOS Hindukush, watershed of rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA the mountains, resting place of the heavenly vault KOS, and would have lived in the Early Bronze Age, some 5,500 years ago. The historical Hades would represent the miners of copper and tin in the mines of the Alai Mountains and Tadjikistan, while the historical Poseidon would represent the riders who connected the mountains with the Aral Sea, covering a distance of some one thousand kilometers, galopping along the Amu-Darya, each group of riders responsible for the section from one to the next station on the river banks. Zeus punished Prometheus for having stolen the fire of the sun, chained him to a rock in the Caucasus, and made an eagle feed on his liver, taking out a daily portion that grew back in the night. Prometheus would represent the inventive minds who managed to fuel the melting ovens and generate a much greater heat than ever before. Zeus confined their power, and asked for tributes. What about the Caucasus? There is a village called Alexandreia on the Caucasus on a map of the region in around 300 AD, so the historical Prometheus could have lived in that sector of the Pamir. The historical Zeus would have reinstalled AAR RAA NOS, naming the Aral Sea for this god, AAR RAA )  or AAR RAA L, the one composed of air AAR and light RAA has the say  )  or L. We find the god also on the other side of the AD DA KOS Hindukush, namely in Harappa, a polished form of AAR RAA AD DA, the heavenly Lord composed of air AAR and light RAA presides over the city on a river that flows toward AD the sea while coming from DA the mountains, AD DA being a generic formula for a river, also for a trading route. Bronze, alloy of copper and tin, is harder than copper, also than copper with an addition of antimon. Bronze allowed to cast bridles, bridles made it possible to tame horses, and riding horses allowed the new civilization and their language – a specific dialect of Late Magdalenian, or Proto-Indo-European – to spread quickly in all directions. The first homeland of the Indo-Europeans would have been the banks of the Amu-Darya and the Lowland of Turan, their second homeland the Uralic steppes, and their third homeland the Pontic steppes.

 

4)  The name of AAR RAA NOS had spread widely, and so did the name of TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus. We find him in ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove, the ruler ShA goes ahead PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR. Jupiter was also called Dis Pater, from DhAG PAD TYR, DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, also present in TYR DhAG Zeus Diós. TYR CA Turk-, the overcomer TYR in the sky CA. On the Indian subcontinent we have ShA PAD Shiva and TYR CA Durga, one of the emanations of Shiva's wife. ShA CA, ruler ShA in the sky CA, is present in Jahwe, the stormgod and 'rider of clouds' from Mount Seir (!) in the Negev. One of the two bulls of the supreme Hittite weather god was called Serri. TYR Tyros Syria, home of princess Europe, abducted by Zeus in the guise of a bull. Perhaps the longest name and title of the weather god was ShA PAD TYR AS CA, the ruler ShA goes ahead PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR up above AS in the sky CA. This long name and title may have survived in a polished form in the village of Giubiasco on a bend of the river Ticino in southern Switzerland, where the lovely Italian landscape of the Lago Maggiore abruptely goes over in the grim Swiss Alps. Tradesmen heading for the mountains would have implored the god for good weather, while others, coming from the mountains, thanked him for the good weather and the luck they had in crossing the Alps. TYR was a weather god, also, I would say, a god of time, French temps meaning both weather and time. The origin would have been TYR PAS, the overcomer TYR everywhere PAS, overcoming everybody everywhere in the double form of weather and time. Or, the other way round: weather and time are ruling life, overcoming everybody, and so had to be associated with the overcomer TYR. Saturnus Saturn, from SA TYR NOS, mind NOS of the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR from above SA, founded the Golden Age of Latium, while he was implored in the form of TYRSANOS on an Etruscan shard from the agora of Athens. Also rivers have been named for TYR, for example the Durius Dourio in Spain and Portugal, or the Thur in Switzerland, while the Roman name of Zurich was Turicum, perhaps from TYR AC – the river Limmat, by then untamed, leaving the lake in many arms, overcame TYR the land AC.

 

5)  Many rivers were named for TYR, many more for REO Rhea, mother of TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus, while the Tyrrhenian Sea in front of the Etruscan shore of Italy honors both TYR and REO. The four rivers Rhodanus Rhone, Arura Aare, Reuss, and Rhenus Rhein spring close to each other in the Swiss Alps, preserving REO Rhea, Arura in the form of AAR RAA REO, the heavenly one composed of air AAR and light RAA makes it rain, the rain fills the river bed with water and makes the river REO flow – Ouranos fathering Rhea. The name of the Roman province Raetia comes from REO AD DA, province of the many rivers REO that flow toward AD far away seas while coming from DA the central Alps. The name of the Roman province Venetia goes back to PAS AD DA, the province of rivers everywhere PAS that flow toward AD the Adriatic Sea (AD REO Adria) while coming from DA the Alps, among them the Addua Adda and the Atesis Etsch Adige. The Lake of Constance belonged to the province of Raetia and was called Lacus Venetus, of the same build and meaning as Venetia. The Venedae lived in the swampy lowlands between Warsaw and Moscow, center Minsk, PAS AD DA, rivers everywhere PAS that flow toward AD the lake north of Kiev and then, united in one big river, to the Black Sea while coming from DA innumerable swamps. AD DA was a generic name for rivers that flow toward the sea while coming from swamps or hills or mountains. The compound was also used for trading routes that go toward AD some places while coming from DA other places, present in the name of Athene, from AD DA NAI, a good place for a camp NAI on a river or a crossing of trading routes, while the inverse form NAI AD DA accounts for Naiade and perhaps also for the Egyptian Neith, equivalent of Athene. The language spoken in the Swiss part of Raetia is Rumantg, a word containing REO MAN, those who carry out the will of REO Rhea with their right hand MAN. The same compound explains the name of the Romani Romans. The Rumantg word for weather is aura, l'aura, from AAR RAA, air and light, referring to the heavenly father of Rhea. If you approach the San Gottardo from the south, wandering up the Leventina, you come to a place called Airolo at the base of the steep mountain. The name of this village may go back to AAR RAA )  or AAR RAA L, the one composed of air and light has the say – early tradesmen reaching Airolo and looking up to the far away sky above the steep slope would have said: Are we really supposed to climb that wall of a mountain? will we make it? our life is now in the hands of the heavenly Lord, he decides our fate, he has the say … The short form  )  or L is preserved in the name of the Canaanite god El, while the longer form  )OG or LOG accounts for Elohim, Allah, and Greek logos. The formula AAR RAA )  or AAR RAA L would have been the same as the Arabic insh Allah.

 

6)  Rhea had an alter ego in the Gallo-Roman goddess Epona, from the same AC PAS accounting for Latin equus 'horse' – on the back of this animal you get everywhere PAS on earth AC … Epona rode a horse in lady fashion, seated sideways, accompanied by a bird, a fowl, and a dog, reminding of the emblematic animals of Zeus, an eagle, of Poseidon, a horse, and of Hades, a dog. Poseidon was originally the river god, so his horse can represent a river, and the same for the horse of Epona; as alter ego of REO Rhea she is the mother of Zeus and Poseidon and Hades. The center of the Epona cult in Gallia was Alesia, on the wide plateau of the low but steep-walled Mont Auxois at the base of Mont Réa (!). Rhea, as goddess of life and flowing time and streaming water, filling the world with her fecund presence, was invoked by signs carved in rock. Many of them are lost, others are preserved, among them the amazing carvings in over two-thousand quarztite cult caves in the Ile-de-France (Paris and the region around it), land of the rivers Seine and Marne and Oise. Magdalenian for sign is SIG, present in the epithet of Rhea, SIG KAL, the goddess evoked by signs carved in rock SIG inside caves KAL. The main spring of the Seine is an idyllic pond in a lonely valley above Alesia (35 km west of Dijon) and was consecrated to Sequana who gave her name to the entire river. Sequana may be a derivative of the above SIG KAL

 

   SIG-KAL  SIG-KwALn  SI-KwAn – Sequana

 

river of the goddess of the signs carved in rock SIG worshipped in caves KAL, and this river, as any other river, springs from the Underworld KAL, a word also accounting for German Quelle 'spring' and English well – the ancient ones believed that wells and springs and ponds and swamps and lakes are connected to the Underworld

 

   KAL  KwAL – Quelle well

 

The inverse form of SIG KAL, namely KAL SIG, may be present in Alesia

 

   KAL-SIG  AL-e-SI  AL-e-SI-a – Alesia

 

7)  Paris was named for the Celtic tribe of the Parisii. The Gallo-Roman name was Lutetia, then Lutèce. Lutetia may come from LAD AD DA, the hill LAD on the river that meanders toward AD the sea while coming from DA the low mountains in the east. We know that hill as Montmartre, the church Sacré Coeur marking the highest point. It overlooks the Ile-de-France whose quartzite caves harbor a treasure few people know about, mainly abstract signs carved in the hard stone. More than 2,000 caves were used as cult places. I know a couple of them from the books by Marie E.P. König, a fine interpreter of cave and rock art. Among the signs are found round forms, cup marks, bowls, rings, circles and ovals  reo01.JPG / reo02.JPG / reo03.JPG  The most frequent patterns are grids, confined and open ones. Round forms are also implied by the shape of water polished rock outcrops, and by the concave shape of the caves. Cup marks were symbols of fertility according to Adolfo Zavaroni, decipherer of the Cummean alphabet (Val Camonica). The circle combined with the cross of the axes represents the world with east and west, south and north (Marie König). There are vulva signs, for example the big sign in the cave Boigneville, an oval with the vertical diameter and a marked center, sixty centimeters high  reo04.JPG  Perhaps the most complete sign are ovals combined with the vertical and horizontal diameters and a grid, the oval symbolizing the world, the oval with the vertical diameter and the center read as vulva symbolizing the goddess of life, while the grid may symbolize the houses of heaven, the regions of the earth, generally the richness of life, and, keeping a memory of calendar figures (for example in the rear end of the axial gallery in Lascaux), time, for example in the cave Villetard, Dép. Seine-et-Marne  reo01.JPG / reo02.JPG  We may imagine pilgrims in the cave, imploring the goddess by tracing the carved lines with a finger, saying or singing a prayer. SIG for sign would then also account for English say and sing. At the entrance of the cave Boissy-aux-Cailles was carved the contour of a horse, written above, in archaic letters, Epona intersaxa. Inside are marvellous patterns of grids, and on top of a big slab in the second chamber is a large vulva, a natural and perhaps a little enhanced sculpture. There are further signs, for example fir needle patterns, according to Marie E.P. König the symbol of waxing and waning, growing and withering, youth and old age, birth and death – the goddess of life was the goddess of giving life and taking life. In one cave was carved the contour of a bronze axe, in another cave the one of a blade – the axe being a tool of agriculture, enabling life, but also a weapon, taking life. The curved blades of the Minoan double axe have the same meaning of morning and evening, spring and fall, sowing and harvest, waxing and waning, youth and old age, being born and dying (and being born again in the beyond).

 

8)  The Rhine was named for REO Rhea. On the upper Rhine are many rocks bearing signs, most often cup marks. Wonderful carvings are found on the rocks of Carschenna Domleschg, above Sils and Thusis on the Rhine, among them circles and spirals, many concentric circles, in one case nine concentric circles combined with the cross of the axes, and a cup mark in the center  reo05.JPG / reo06.JPG / reo07.JPG  The concentric circles remind of waves in a pond. Between the circle-systems appear riders on horses, the horse being a guise of REO Rhea (remember Epona). The cup-and-ring mark with the four radial lines in form of a cross may honor, evoke and implore the same goddess as the oval with the long and short diameters, the grid and the marked center in several caves of the Ile-de-France, namely REO Rhea, the goddess of life and flowing time and streaming water, filling the world with her fecund presence …  reo02.JPG / reo07.JPG  Are there also place names reminding of SIG for sign? On the upper Rhine are several places named for a saint, Sogn Benedetto, Sogn Gion, Sogn Giusep, Sogn being Rumantg for Latin sanctus, consider also sacred, further possible derivatives of SIG, indicating that former SIG places of pagan worship were converted into places of Christian saints. Many rocks bearing signs were removed from arable land. It was also believed that some of the marks were left by the devil, a further reason to remove rocks with carvings. On the Upper Rhine is still a big boulder called Devil Stone, not easily accessible, therefore still in place. Luckily also the wonderful rock carvings on the Carschenna are not easily found. If my interpretation holds, REO Rhea was also present in the river Amu-Darya. The Persians called the region of Samarkand between the upper courses of the Oxus (Amu-Darya) and Jaxartes (Syr-Darya) Sogdiana, perhaps from SIG DhAG, the goddess wotrshipped in signs SIG is able, good in the sense of able DhAG

 

   SIG-DhAG  SIG-DhAnG  SIG-DiAnG – SoGDiAna

 

comparable to her son TYR DhAG who became Zeus Diós. If so, we might expect signs carved in rock also on the upper course of the Amu-Darya. Further cup-and-ring marks with radial lines are found in the highland of Britain, and in other regions, perhaps all testifying to the ancient goddess of Eurasia, REO Rhea, the goddess of life and flowing time and streaming water, filling the world with her fecund presence.

 

9)  The lunisolar calendar of the Göbekli Tepe had a month of 30 days, a year of 12 months, plus 5 and occasionally 6 additional days, while 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months, mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime. Also the Egyptian month had 30 days. The eyes of the Horus falcon were moon and sun. Seth destroyed the lunar eye. Wise Thoth healed it, adding up the numerical equivalents of the six parts of the lunar eye, 1/2 plus 1/4 plus 1/8 plus 1/16 plus 1/32 plus 1/64 or simply '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64, The restored lunar eye was called The Whole One. However, the numbers don't really add up to one. Why then 'the whole one'? Multiply the month of 30 days by the series of the Horus eye '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64 and you obtain 29 '2 '32 days or 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes, practically a lunation of 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.9 seconds (modern average value from 1989 AD). So 'the whole one' means one whole lunation or synodic month, of the same numerical definition as in the lunisolar calendar of the Göbekli Tepe, while the name of Thoth may go back to DhAG DhAG meaning able able, good in the sense of able, which also accounts for the name of the supreme Celtic god Dagda who was the good god in the sense of able god – able physically while Thoth was able intellectually. His wife was Seshat, The One Who Wrote First, 'she who is foremost in the house of books', the goddess of writing and measuring and building and of the calendar. Seshat recorded the regnal years and jubilees which were alloted to the king, but she certainly also cared about the annual rise of the river Nile, warning the farmers if the waters rose too slowly or quickly. The -hat of her name means house, reminding of Magdalenian KOD for tent, hut, while the initial Ses(h)- might perhaps go back to SIG for sign. We have then SIG KOD Seshat, house of signs, a perfect match to 'the one who is foremost in the house of books'. Osiris was the proto-dynastic personification of the Nile. His name might go back to ASI REO meaning honor dignity ASI, to flow river REO, the venerable ASI river REO, the Nile as majestic river.

 

10)  SIG and derivatives appear in the Icelandic Volsunga Saga and the German Nibelungenlied, Song of the Nifelungs, namely Vol-sung-a Sag-a Song Sig-mund Sig-urd Sieg-fried. The goddess of the signs carved in rock SIG was also a healer, testified to by many votif gifts deposited in the pond of the main source of the river Seine, above Alesia, in a lonely valley west of Dijon. If the goddess promised one a long and healthy life one could undergo any risk, and hope to return victorious, German Sieg meaning victory. Now the original Volsungs might have been the people of the Ile-de-France called KAL SIG, those who worship the goddess of the signs carved in rock SIG in over two-thousand quartzite caves KAL

 

   KAL-SIG  KwAL-SIG  wAL-SInG  voL-SunG – Volsungs

 

Their bards would have summarized the events of the transition from the Stone Age to the Metal Age in their songs, in a story of a cursed treasure guarded by a dragon, the dragon being a serpent, symbol of a river, and the cursed treasure gold found in river beds, by then in larger quantities than today (there are still gold washers on the Upper Rhine), gold being the metal of metals, its possession causing envy and treason and fights and murder. Sigurd Siegfried was made invulnerable by taking a bath in the river, alas, a leaf covered a tiny spot of his body and left it vulnerable, so he got killed. Now those cycles of bardic songs might have been picked up by the Burgundiones who had left their home in northeast Germany in the fifth century AD, crossed the Rhine and settled in central France, in the region called Burgund in German, Bourgogne in French, which would have resulted in the German Nibelungenlied, the Nifelungs being Burgunds, and the same songs could have been picked up by the Vikings who attacked Paris in 945 AD, which would have resulted in the Icelandic Volsunga Saga from the 13th century. Both the older Volsunga Saga and the younger Nibelungenlied would have been adaptations of a general motif to specific events, in the case of the Nibelungenlied the Varius battle in the Teutoburger Wald (relying on an interpretation from a TV documentary).

 

11)  The Divine Hind CER -: I -:  or CER LIL (pronounce the sound given as  -:  by touching both lips with the tip of the tongue) licked moon bulls into life, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days. Her main sanctuary is the wonderful Altamira cave in northern Spain, where she licks the horns of a small bison under her  hind1.JPG  The goddess was also worshipped as Hind Woman, appearing in the constellation of ORE EON Orion, on the beautiful ORE bank or shore EON of the CA LAK, the heavenly CA river or lake LAK we know in the form of galaxy or Milky Way. She is present ex negativo between the pair of opposing ibices in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery of Lascaux, the opposing ibices being the symbol of midwinter according to Marie E.P. König. The Hind Woman released moon bulls from Aldebaran in Taurus. The Divine Hind or Hind Woman was also the goddess of vegetation, and she granted a second life to the souls of worthy people in the beyond, along the banks of the heavenly river CA LAK. The Divine Hind was worshipped in wide parts of Eurasia, probably also in Uppland, Sweden, on the morainic hill between Gästre and Härkeberga, the latter name from CER CA BIR RAG, stag or hind CER sky CA, celestial hind CER CA, while BIR means fur, and RAG means to tower, loom, German ragen, originally naming the line of head and back of an animal in cave art, strongly evocative of the whole animal (Leroy-Gourhan), a word of very many derivatives, among them Greek rachos 'back, mountain ridge', Old English ryc and German Rücken 'back', German Bergrücken English mountain ridge (also Latin rex and regina 'king and queen', Sanskrit raj 'king', English regal and royal, English right, German Recht 'law', and so on). BIR RAG accounts for German Berg 'mountain', seen as back of a furry animal, for example a bear ... Later on the Paleolithic goddess of time and vegetation and of a second life in the beyond was replaced by REO Rhea, goddess of life and flowing time and streaming water, filling the world with her fecund presence, worshipped with a double sanctuary, one on the river near Gästre, the other with a rock bearing almost five-hundred cup marks at Härkeberga – in Uppland have been counted 30,000 cup marks, and the rock at Härkeberga is the richest of all cup marked stones perhaps in the entire northern world. Gästre would originally have been called GES DAL REO AC CA, a long name that makes an ingenious double use of REO AC CA and means: place of the boulders in the valley DAL on the river REO belonging to the land AC under the sky CA, boulders indicating or gesturing GIS the way to the other sanctuary of REO, daughter of the earth AC (Gaia) and the sky CA (Ouranos) … Gästre was known as Gestharen Gestereke kunxby Gestrene Gesthren Gestring Gestriken Gestrikebynn Gestringen Gestringe Gästre while fifteen fields were called Gestilren, perhaps also Gestilsren (?). GIS became Ges- Gäs-, DAL became tha(l) th(al) t(al) til, REO became ren sren (?) rin (?) r re, AC CA became eke iken ike ingen inge ing g (?), in other parts of Europe also -acum, -ac, -ikon, while kunxby might indicate property of the king, and -bynn might be related to Old High German biunt Middle High German biunde Swiss Bünte 'what winds around', naming a fenced in area separated from the common land. The short form Gästre is comparable to Embra for Edinburgh. REO Rhea had an alter ego in the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona. Horses are being bred in the region of Gästre and Härkeberga and Enköping (kunxby = king’s bynn, fenced in area used for breeding the king’s horses?). The name of REO Rhea might account for English to run German rennen, running horses. The distance between the hypothetical sanctuary on the river near Gästre and the other at Härkeberga might have been covered on horseback in summer, and on sleds drawn by reindeers in winter, REO Rhea this time accounting for rein-deer German Ren.

 

12)  Härkeberga is famous for the medieval church paintings by Albertus Pictorius from 1480. Churches were often built on places of pagan worship. In the Swiss Alps we have the famous of Zillis on the Upper Rhine, with wonderful paintings in the cassettes of the wooden ceiling, from the second half of the 12th century. On the other side of the Upper Rhine is a Roman cult cave, probably already used in pre-Roman times. The village next to Zillis, meanwhile fusioned with Zillis, is called Ruschein, another reminder of REO Rhea. May the church of Zillis have been built on the place of a former rock bearing signs? among them cup-and-ring marks with radial crosses, the main sign of REO Rhea? The Cretan Rheia was also worshipped on mountains. Zillis and Ruschein are at the base of a steep mountain. Perhaps there was another sanctuary somewhere up the slope? The name of Zillis might indicate as much – if it comes from SAL LAS, watery ground of a valley SAL mountain LAS. Double sanctuaries in honor of this goddess could then have been the rule, one on the river, the other on land, on a hill or a mountain, connected by a procession way. From Zillis down the Rhine you get into the dangerous ravine called Via Mala, Bad Way, then you come to Thusis and Sils in the Domleschg, in the valley Nisellas, the cliffs above Salatschas, and further up the rocks of Carschenna. Sils and Nisellas and Salatschas might be further derivatives of SAL LAS. Again further down the Rhine, opposite of Liechtenstein, is a village by the name of Salez, at the base of the steep mountain range called Alpstein, Salez being another possible derivative of SAL LAS, indicating a further possible double sanctuary of REO Rhea, as we found one at GIS DAL REO AC CA Gestilren Gästre and CER CA BIR RAG Härkeberga in Uppland, the richest archaeological region of Sweden.

 

13)  Below the biggest cup-and-ring mark (nine rings around the hollow) with a radial cross on a rock of Carschenna (slab II) appears an archer on a horse  reo06.JPG  reo07.JPG  Magdalenian RYT for spear thrower and archer, Greek rhytaer 'archer', inverse of TYR for the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give. An emphatic form of TYR became Middle Helladic Sseyr Doric Sseus Homeric Zeus, an equally emphatic form of RYT may have become German Ross English horse, while normal RYT may account for German Reiter English rider, German "Ross und Reiter" being an item. Zeus was a son of Rhea, while the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona would have been one of her guises, Epona and Greek hippos and Latin equus coming from AC PAS, earth AC everywhere PAS – riding on the back of this animal you get everywhere PAS on earth AC ... Rhea was identified with Cybele, from CA BEL or longer CA BEL IAS meaning sky CA warm BEL healing IAS, name of the sun horse of spring, the warm spring sun healing the ailments of a long and harsh winter, wherefrom AFelios Helios, name of the Greek sun god directing the sun wagon drawn by a quadriga of horses. CA BAL, sky hot, was the name of the summer sun horse, wherefrom Spanish caballo 'horse', Latin cavallus French cheval, while German Ritter for chevalier comes again from RYT for an archer, now an archer riding a horse. CA LAB, sky cold, was the name of the winter sun horse, wherefrom galopp and German Klepper English clopper. Hear them run across the sky

 

     CA LAB  CA LAB  CA LAB  CA LAB  ...

 

     CA BEL  CA BEL  CA BEL  CA BEL  ...

 

     CA BAL  CA BAL  CA BAL  CA BAL  ...

 

Cybele got pregnant on the festival of the spring equinox and gave birth to the Kouros, the Cretan Zeus, in the Idaean cave on midwinter (my interpretation). REOs connection to the sun horse confirms her function as goddess of time. (Measure out a rectangle in the wide plain of Härkeberga, let the longer sides run from south to north and make them measure three units, let the shorter sides run from east to west and make them measure two units, mark the corners with boulders, and the four stones would have provided sighting lines for the rising and setting sun on the equinoxes and solstices. Uppland 3x2, Anglesay 1x1, Carnac 3x4. In a wide plain of Northern Crete or Upper Mesopotamia you would have drawn a circle, marked north, divided the circumference into 6 or 12 equal arcs using the radius, marked the half dozen or dozen points with poles, and used them for sighting lines indicating the rising and setting sun on the equinoxes and solstices.)

 

14)  On the rock at Backa near Brastad in Sweden appear many ships and horses (in one case a horse above and a ship under a straight line, suggesting a visual equation of ship and horse). One of the ships is combined with a ring-cross, emblem of REO Rhea  reo08.JPG  A prophesy in the legend of Jason and the Argonauts links the sea goddess of Libya with both a huge horse of a golden mane and the ship Argo that is called a mother, testifying to an early identification of streaming water, horse and ship via the goddess of life. In Homer's Odyssey, sheep and goats can symbolize ships of various nations gathering in the Trojan harbor of the Besik Bay (Polyphem's cave), oxen freight ships on the Black Sea, and horses the swift Achaean ships. Odysseus reaches pleasant Scherie riding a beam like a horse, and leaves it sleeping, the ships starting like stallions. Eberhard Zangger identified pleasant Scherie with an early Troy (and the hero's arrival there as a time travel). The name of Scherie may then go back to ShA REO, Troy as ruler ShA presiding over the strong and rapid waters REO of the Dardanelles or Hellespont. Horse-loving Troy would name both the living horses grazing in the fertile plain called Troas, and the metaphorical horses on the water, ships, perhaps with prows in the shape of horses' necks and heads. In the Odyssey, horses are mentioned for the first time in book 2 line 18, Ilion eis eupolon ebae koilaes naeuesin, 'Ilion of the good horses' followed by the 'hollow ship' of Odysseus. And the Trojan horse? was of course another ship ... A snake appears on the rock of Aspebeget near Tannun, Bohuslän, Sweden. Snakes often symbolize flowing water. The famous fayence figurines of the snake goddess from Knossos in Crete may represent Rheia. In the Odyssey, REO Rhea Rheia is mentioned indirectly, in the name of the harbor Rheithron (book 1 line 184) where Athene's ship anchors, revealing early Athene as an emanation of REO Rhea, the more so as her name contains the generic formula for streaming water, a flowing river, also a trading route: AD DA NAI, a good place for a camp NAI on a river that flows toward AD the sea while coming from DA the hills and mountains, or a good place for a camp on a crossing of trading routes that run toward AD some places while coming from DA other places. The form NAI AD DA would account for naiade, and perhaps also for Neith, Egyptian equivalent of Athene. Prow and rear end of symmetrical ships in Swedish rock carvings are sometimes rendered as raised hands, then imploring the help of REO Rhea, the goddess of life worshipped in wide parts of Eurasia, also the goddess who granted a second life in the beyond, on the banks of the celestial river or lake CA LAK we know as galaxy or Milky Way. Along the shores of Scandinavia, the dead were placed on rafts or in boats and buried on the water – prow and rear end in form of raised hands would then implore the goddess for a second life in the beyond for the soul of a dead person delivered to her on a funeral raft or in a funeral boat.

 

15)  Scandinavian water burials may have invoked the Paleolithic triple goddess, namely the fire giver PIR GID and the fur giver BIR GID and the fertility giver BRI GID. The raft or boat carrying the body was set on fire, so we have the presence of PIR GID. Magdalenian BIR means fur, especially the fur on which a newborn was placed, preferably a bear fur, the best fur, thick, longhaired, soft and warm. Also a dead body was placed on fur, in the hope of a second birth in the beyond, wherefrom bier German Bahre, so that also the fur giver BIR GID was involved, and the fertility giver BRI GID would have granted a worthy soul a second life along the celestial river or lake CA LAK we know as galaxy or Milky Way ... The Divine Hind was an emanation of BIR GID, while her successor REO was an emanation of BRI GID. Her emblematic ring-cross, a cross inside a circle, may have had a double meaning we can now read: AC PAS Epona hippos equus 'horse' and PAS CA Paskha Pasqua Pâques 'Easter'. AC means earth, an expanse of land with water, while inverse CA means sky. PAS means everywhere in a plain, here, south and north of me, east and west of me. Earth AC and sky CA are present in the ring, symbolic circle of the horizon. PAS is present in the cross, 'here' in the center and the other places in the four arms. AC PAS – riding a horse you can get everywhere on earth ... PAS CA – may the soul of a worthy dead be born again in the beyond and roam the sky in his next life as he roamed the land in this life ...

 

16)  If the names of the Birch island Birca Birka Björko and Oak island Ekerö (ek 'oak', eker an old plural, ö 'island') go back to the Late Neolithic, they may refer to the Divine Hind and Divine Stag in their guise of trees. The birch was named with a word meaning bright, shine, also pure and virginal. On a deeper level I recognize BIR meaning fur in the case of animals, and bark in the case of trees. The bark of the birch tree was most important in the Stone Age, serving many purposes, while birch pitch was used for fixing flint blades to handles of stone, horn, bone, or wood. The Divine Hind was an emanation of the fur giver BIR GID. She was the goddess of life and time, of animals and vegetation, as Hind Woman appearing in Orion, worshipped by hunters, and honored with arbors made of fir branches and twigs in winter, and, why not, birch branches and twigs in summer. Her consort was the Divine Stag CER KOS, helper of the fire giver PIR GID who resided in the Underworld KAL. The Divine Stag guarded the western entrances to and eastern exits from the Underworld, passed by the fiery sun horse and moon bull. KOD means tent, hut, and the comparative form KOS means heavenly vault – the giant antlers of the Divine Stag held up the sky, the heavenly canopy or vault. His sacred tree was the oak, a majestic tree whose branches fork off in a similar way as the ends of a stag antler, CER KOS Latin quercus 'oak' Gaulish érkos 'oak-forest'. REO Rhea succeeded the Divine Hind. Her sacred tree or rather bush may have been the hazel Corylis avellina, from Greek korhyon 'nut', containing REO in the form of rhyo, also present in Lithuanian ruoshutys 'nut'. Several islands may have been named for the birch and oak, also in later times, carrying on an old custom, and finally two islands near Stockholm, perhaps newly emerging, or cut off from the land, would have been named for the birch, Birca Birka Björkö, and for the oak, Ekerö.

 

17)  Where was Arinna? Arinna was the sacred town of the Hittite sun goddess, in the neighborhood of Hattusas in Anatolia, a rather small town of one gate, visited by the king and his people on the occasions of the spring and autumn festivals, but unlike other towns it hasn't yet been located, so let us try to find out more about Arinna via Paleo-linguistics. Arinna has been read as Town of the Spring or Well, from ura 'spring, well', in toponyms also uri ari. When the sun goddess settled on Arinna, she spread her gown over an apple tree next to a well. I recognize in Arinna a form of the very ancient AAR RAA NOS, mind NOS of the one composed of air AAR and light RAA, the sky god of the Göbekli Tepe who had been implored for rain. Snakes are the most frequent animals on pillars, those heading skyward representing prayers for rain, and the smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain, while snakes heading downward symbolize falling rain rewarding the prayers and sacrificial fires, filling the riverbeds and the subterranean passages of the karst landscape that make the springs and wells overflow. Thus the ancient sky god would also have been the god of wells and springs, before this role was taken over by his daughter REO. The Greek version of the sky god was Ouranos, and the one of his daughter Rhea, Cretan Rheia. The sun goddess of Arinna was called Wurushemu, a name I read as AAR RAA ShA MmOS, offspring MmOS of the ruler ShA who is composed of air AAR and light RAA, hence the daughter of the sky god AAR RAA NOS. She was identified with Hebat or rather Hépatu, a name I read as CA PAD, sky CA activity of feet PAD, she who wanders across the sky. Her hieroglyphic name contains a sign known as horizon in ancient Egyt, a pair of round hills with a round valley in between; above the valley of the Hittite sign hovers the solar disc (while resting smug in the valley of the Egyptian hieroglyph). The Hittite sun goddess is standing on a panther who places his paws on a pair of double mountains which are again 'horizons' but this time with rectangular tops and narrow vertical valleys. From this we may glean more about the location of Arinna: a small town in a rather flat basin between an eastern and a western pair of hills between which the sun rose in spring and fall (eastern pair of hills) and set in spring and fall (western pair of hills), attended by the king from Hattusas and his people who traveled there in spring, perhaps around March 21, and in fall, perhaps around September 22/23, which are the dates of the spring and autumn equinoxes. This particular topography might perhaps help locate the sacred town of the Hittite sun goddess, Arinna, town of the daughter of the ancient sky god AAR RAA NOS, in a basin, with a well or spring, and a pair of hills in the east, and another pair of hills in the west, not very far from Hattusas (perhaps about fifteen or twenty kilometers).

 

18)  First postscript. Intelligence a form of energy? / In 1963, at age fourteen, I gained my first scientific insight: If I do a chore in a clever way I save energy, so intelligence might perhaps be some equivalent of energy? In the early 1970s I asked a professor of physics, he said no, the one being an intensive category, the other an extensive one. The first confirmation came from Eric J. Chaisson, Cosmic Evolution, The Rise of Complexity in Nature, Harvard University Press 2001: "... for to us, information basically is a form of energy, whether flowing, stored, or realized." Entropy dissolves the past into fragments; I restore parts of the past by connecting fragments. Coping with entropy requires energy, I do it with intelligence, so intelligence might be a form of energy? But I still try in vain to formulate my early insight in terms of physics. Also in 1963 I posed questions regarding language – what is language? – and answered it in 1974/75: Language is the means of getting help, support and understanding from those we depend upon in one way or another, and every means of getting help, support and understanding may be called language, on whatever level of life it occurs ... I am tempted to call language the intelligence of life. Life copes with entropy, doing so costs energy, this price can be paid in the form of intelligence, and language in the basic sense might be life's intelligence.

 

19)  Second postscript. Mother Berka, White Hind / The Divine Hind (Altamira being her main sanctuary) licked moon bulls into life, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 .. days. The goddess made all animals emerge from clefts and niches in the rock. She was an emanation of the fur giver BIR GID, worshipped by hunters, appearing as Hind Woman in Orion. She was also the goddess of vegetation, BIR meaning fur in the case of animals, bark in the case of trees. In her honor arbors were built, winter arbors made of fir branches and twigs, and summer arbors made of birch branches and twigs. The goddess provided meat and fur and trees for the humans to use, then she provided a second life for the hunted and killed animals in the beyond (a symbol of which may be the animal bones stuck in walls of a cave of the Comtes Bégouin in the Ardèche valley), and she gave a second life to worthy humans on the beautiful bank ORE EON of the celestial river CA LAK ... The goddess lived on in many forms. Here just two of her later emanations. Norse mythology or folklore knows a Mother Berka ("Birch") who carried a bundle of birch twigs and rode a goat whose flesh nourished hungry families while the bones served to restore the goat, a reference to the Paleolithic goddess who made animals emerge from rock, the mythological bone of the Earth. In Celtic mythology we find a gentle White Hind guiding worthy people to the fairy land of the beyond, her color going along with the white bark of the birch. PIE claims that the birch is named for a word meaning bright, shine, gleam. The White Hind would have been a shining appearance, but I rather assume that the aspect of bright and shine comes from BIR RAG, the first word BIR meaning fur, Greek byrsa 'skin, fur', the second word RAG having derivatives in Greek rachos 'back, mountain ridge', Old English ryc 'back', in German ragen 'to tower, loom' and Rücken ‘back’ and Bergrücken English mountain ridge – BIR RAG would then be a metaphor explaining a wooded mountain ridge as the back of a furry animal, for example a bear. The aspect of bright and shine would come from dawn, the brightening sky above the eastern mountain ridge in the early morning, also from bright mountain tops in the first and last sunshine of the day, when the valley below is still or already in the dark, and also from snow capped mountain tops shining a brilliant white, so very bright it hurts the eyes. If you ever spent winter holidays in the Swiss Alps you know what I am speaking of ... The Birch island in Lake Mälaren is called Björkö, the former name was Birka, and the still older Latin form Birca. The original Norse form is not known, but it might well have been close to the Latinized form, why not even BIR CA, the island honoring the Divine Hind whose sacred summer tree, the birch, held up the sky? (Hungarian mythology has a White Stag while the Tree of Life held up the tent of the sky.) The consort of the Divine Hind was the Divine Stag, his sacred tree was the oak, and he may have been worshipped on the Oak island Ekerö near the Birch island Björkö. The Divine Hind and the Divine Stag may have been worshipped on the present islands Björkö and Ekerö, or on a pair of neighboring islands of the past.

 

20)  Third postscript. A Late Neolithic trading place? / Another etymology explains Björkö as market place, which might ultimately also go back to the goddess BIR CA, a trading place of fur, and of birch products made from bark and sap and pitch, and of boats made from tree trunks or wooden frames with mounted hides, barge and bark barque being further derivatives of BIR. Chicago, literally Wild Onion, was built on the site of a former Indian market place; New York had once been a Dutch fur trading place; Stockholm was an iron trading place. Much earlier, an island in the wider area of Stockholm could have been a marked place governed by the Divine Hind, emanation of BIR GID, worshipped as BIR CA in the area of Stockholm, and as CER CA on top of the morainic hill between GIS DAL REO AC CA Gestilren Gästre and CER CA BIR RAG Härkeberga.

 

21)  Fourth postscript. Ring, ring-cross, wheel of time, Yin and Yang / AAR RAA NOS Ouranos had a daughter by the name of REO Rhea who had a son by the name of TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr Doric Sseus Homeric Zeus. The emblem of AAR RAA NOS is a ring whose hollow consists of air and light (remember the big limestone ring on the Göbekli Tepe  ouranos.JPG ). One of the emblems of REO was the ring-cross, a circle around a cross, phonetical values AC PAS and PAS CA in the meanings explained earlier. Now the ring-cross might also be regarded as a wheel of four spokes representing a year of the four seasons spring summer autumn winter, each ninety days, while the center may account for five and occasionally six more days. A wheel of a dozen spokes would correspond to the lunisolar calendar of the Göbekli Tepe, where a year had 12 months of 30 days, plus 5 and sometimes 6 more days (three days of midsummer, two and occasionally three days of midwinter), while 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months, mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime. The phonetic value of such a wheel of time could have been TYR PAS wherefrom Latin tempus 'time' and French temps meaning both time and weather, overcomer TYR everywhere PAS, Zeus overcoming everybody in the form of time and weather ... The wheel word comes from another compound, CO OC LOP, attentive mind CO right eye OC enclosing fence or wall LOP, in the center of a stronghold the ruler of the attentive mind, along the 'cyclopic' wall guards looking out, watching over the surrounding plain. A recently deciphered version of the wheel word from the Val Camonica is hohlu (Adolfo Zavaroni), it can easily be derived from this compound: CO-OC-LOP  CO-OC-LO  hO-Oh-LO  hohlu. The Magdalenian culture spread from Northern Spain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. Around Lake Baikal and in Mongolia are found place names evoking KOD for tent, hut. Magdalenian reasoning might also have influenced China. Chinese philosophy knows the empty circle Wu that gave way to the complementary principles of Yin and Yang, visualized as pair of drops in a circle, the drops indicating a fluid concept. Each Yin has a Yang, each Yang a Yin, and each contains a trace of the other. If the sky is Yang, the earth is Yin. If man is Yang, woman is Yin. But these are relative categories, a woman can be Yang in many aspects, a man Yin in many others. It is a deep concept we also find in western philosophy, for example in the question about the free or bound will. Do we have a free will? if so, we are responsible for our lives, and can become guilty. Or is our will bound to a higher will? are our lives determined by a variety of biological, psychological, economical and further laws? some of which we know, while others may be discovered in the future? if so, we are not really responsible for our deeds, and free of guilt. We can't understand the world as one, there are always two perspectives we can't unite but neither can we give up one or the other, both are needed, as they complement each other. Niels Bohr: "There are two sorts of truth: trivialities, where the opposite is obviously impossible, and deep truths, which are characterized by their opposite also being a deep truth.“

 

22)  Fifth postscript. PAD and PAS / Magdalenian PAD means activity of feet, while the comparative form PAS means everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, all in all five places, wherefrom Greek pas pan ‘all, every’ and pente penta- ‘five’. PAS can be represented by the sole of a foot or a sandal, by pairs of feet, and by feet indicating a direction, while PAS can be visualized as domino five, as cross, and as ring-cross. On a slab at Hemsta, Boglösa socken, Sweden, are carvings of both ideograms, soles of feet or shoes, alone, or as pairs, already close to a ring-cross, and actual ring-crosses  reo09.JPG / reo10.JPG / reo11.JPG  testifying to the common origin of PAD and PAS – walking gets one from here to south or north or east or west … It’s very nice to see how one ideogram morphs into the other, PAD into PAS, the ring-cross being the emblem of REO Rhea, goddess of life whose fecund presence fills the world, AC PAS and PAS CA, everywhere on earth and in the sky, and, as wheel-cross, the emblem of her son TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus, TYR PAS wherefrom Latin tempus ‘time’ and French temps meaning both time and weather, the supreme god overcoming everybody everywhere in time and weather … Hemsta Boglösa is near Enköping, some ten kilometers south of Härkeberga, so the hyptothetical procession way could have been longer: from the river near Gestilren Gästre to the sanctuary of the Divine Hind on top of the morainic hill to Härkeberga to Hemsta Boglösa to a place on the bank or shore of Lake Mälaren (or from Lake Mälaren to Gästre). – A more elaborate version of the ring-cross, the bronze amulet from Hauterive-Champréveyres from Western Switzerland, total height 5.6 centimeters  reo12.JPG / reo13.JPG

 

23)  Sixth postscript. Uppsala / The etymology of Latin insula ‘island’ is not clear, says my dictionary, mentioning the ancient explanation *en salo ‘being in the sea’, Greek hae in hali ousa. Magdalenian LAD means hill, the comparative form LAS means mountain; the inverse DAL means valley, dale German Tal, and the comparative form SAL means watery ground of a valley. The original compound of insula may have been EN SAL LAD, in EN the watery ground SAL a hill LAD emerging from the surface of water. EN-SAL-LAD  EN-SAL-LA  iN-Su-LA  iNSuLA, also EN-SA-LAD  iN-S-LAnD  i-S-LAnD  iSLAnD (iegisland accounting for Old English igland iland Middle English eyland). The Late Neolithic form of Uppsala might have been AD SAL LAD, toward AD the watery ground SAL of the many ermerging hills LAD rising over the wide surface of water. Two of these islands would have been the Birch island and Oak island, consecrated to the Divine Hind and the Divine Stag respectively. LAD with an infixed nasal may account for land, landscape, an expanse of rolling hills, as it were. English hill, as Latin collis ‘hill’ and Lithuanian kalas ‘mountain’ would go back to KAL for cave, Underworld, referring to the well know fact that caves are often found in hills and mountains.

 

24)  Seventh postscript. A glimpse of early Norse mythology / PAD meaning activity of feet has many literal and metaphorical derivatives, among them Latin pedes English feet, Latin vado ‘I go’ (in composita) and venire ‘to come’, but also video ‘I see’, the act of seeing understood as rays of vision going out from the eyes (while English see German sehen come from CO OC, with an attentive mind CO right eye OC, German gucken kucken, imperative guck kuck). PAD TON AS, he who goes PAD and makes himself heard TON up above AS, might explain the chief Norse god *wodanaz *wodinaz Odin Wuotan Wotan as early personification of wind – a gentle whispering wind associated with inspiration (Hebrew ruach Greek pneuma Latin spiritus have each the meaning of breath and wind and spirit, *wotis ‘god-inspired’) and knowledge (“the answer, my friend, is blowing in the wind” Bob Dylan), a singing wind (the singing rocks outside of Smyrna Izmir might have given rise to the legend of the sweetly singing Sirens, deadly because they lured sailors into dangerous waters), a crying wind (“and the wind cries Mary” Jimmy Hendrix), a wind fanning a fire (Germanic wat ‘to fan into fire’), a howling and roaring wind (Odin as war god), a raging storm (Wuot- Wot- akin to German Wut ‘rage’), and finally the dying wind, sighing in a tree (Odin sacrificing himself). Old Norse áss, plural aesir, might come from AS SA, upward AS downward SA, ascending descending, moving between earth and sky. If Edda doesn’t come from Latin Credo Icelandic Kredda ‘creed’ we might think of AD DA, toward AD from DA, generic name of rivers and trading routes. Vanr Vanir Wane might be explained via PAS EOR, everywhere PAS feasts and celebrations EOR, harvest festivals in honor of REO (perhaps involving poles with flags on hills). PAS-EOR  PAn-ER  vAn-R  vAnR  vAniR  vAeneR would also explain the name of Lake Väner, while Götaland, especially Västergötland between Lake Väner and Lake Vätter would have been the good arable land, from GADh meaning good, also present in the name of the island Gotland (in the center of this island a village called Roma, Italian Roma from REO MAN, place of those who carry out the will of REO Rhea with their right hand MAN). REO as emanation of the fertility giver BRI GID would survive in Norse Freya, goddess of love and fertility, in her brother Frey or Freyr, god of peace, prosperity, and marriage, and in Frigg, wife Odin’s. TYR may have become Thor Thorr, and, in the form of TYR AS, overcomer TYR up above AS, *tiwaz Tyr (their genealogies differing from the Greek one). Gullveig, the goddess guarding treasures, evokes KAL meaning cave, Underworld, indicating precious ore found in mines. KAL is present in the name of mining peoples like the Hellenoi Hellenes, keltoi Celts, Gallii, Helvetii (the latter from KAL PAD, those who walk the Underworld, working in mines). Beautiful Helen of the white arms in Homer’s Odyssey is a symbol of tin; her husband xanthos Menelaos a symbol of copper, the color xanthos covering all hues of copper ore, yellow, brown, red; and their daughter, lovely Hermione resembling golden Aphrodite, a symbol of the copper-tin alloy bronze, of a golden shine when freshly cast.

 

 

 

 

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