What is language? / Homer’s Odyssey / Making sense of the Bible / and much more © Franz Gnaedinger 2014 (test version)
Magdalenian would have been the lingua franca of the last Ice Age, preserved for a long time in shamanic double formulae that were actif until the Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. In the spring of 2005 and mainly in the spring of 2006 I mined a good four hundred words along four laws
1) inverse forms have related meanings
2) permutations yield words around the same meme
3) D-words have comparative forms in S-words
4) important words can have lateral associations
Test cases from August 2008 onward
bear as the furry one vs bear as the brown one
deus theos / Zeus vs deus Zeus / theos
words for horse
first Indo-European homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya,
center the triangle of Termez and Kunduz and Kurgan-T'upe,
second IE Homeland Uralic steppes east of the Rha Volga,
third IE homeland Pontic steppes west of the Rha Volga,
long double formula naming the supreme sky and weather
god of the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age and Iron Age ...
I carried out and coumented every step of my Paleo-linguistic experiment since early 2005 in sci.lang on the Usenet (Wild Wild West of the World Wide Web). Here are some new messages from 2014. I worked an average of a day on each message (now short chapters) but they are still drafts noted in my limited English.
triangular definition of language
Probably the most important scientific flair is a feeling or sense for the complexity of a problem. It makes us look out for solutions of matching complexity patterns and narrows down the range of possible answers. We train it by looking and going in many directions. Machines can support but not replace it (computers won't really take over). I discovered that sense in primary school where it helped me solve mathematical exercises with a minimum of calculating. Then it guided me for half a century in piecing together my definition of language.
What is language?
Here my definition from 1974/75:
Language is the means of getting help, support and understanding from those we depend upon in one way or another -- and every means of getting help, support and understanding may be called language, on whatever level of life it occurs.
Language, in my opinion, is a basic feature of life, and may be considered the intelligence of life: using language we achieve more than all on our own, or the same with less energy.
Language mirrors life. The more things we use, the more words we need.
Word language can be understood as a triangle whose corners are life with our needs and wishes; mathematics, logic of building and maintaining, based on the formula a = a; and art, human measure in a technical world, based on Goethe's world formula and ever turning key 'all is equal, all unequal ...'
Equations of the mathematical corner become symbols and metaphors in art , and the maintaining of a dynamic and productive balance in life.
Calendars, I believe, were the beginning of mathematics, joining the Earth on which we live and the sky above seen as canopy or ceiling or vault, making the world our home, the house of humankind, as it were.
Language, one might say, makes this house habitable. We lead uncertain lifes in an unstable world, yet owing to language that balances uncertainties we feel at home and save.
We ride logs in a mountain river, yet believe to sail peacefully across a lake. Language performs that miracle for us.
We read the Odyssey in school. I liked the Greek language and the colorful adventures of the hero, especially his dramatic arrival at the coast of the Phaeacians, followed by an idyllic morning in pleasant Scherie (end of book five, beginning of book six). But I never understood what the epic is about. Until Eberhard Zangger published his Atlantis book, wherein he identifies pleasant Scherie as an early Troy, and the arrival there as a time travel 'avant la lettre'. When Odysseus realizes where he is, and what a lovely place he destroyed, or will destroy in the time perspective of the natives, he can't help weeping ... This gives the epic a perspective. Maybe there is a story line we can follow? Could Polyphem be Troy VIIa seen through Achaean eyes? The one-eyed giant resembles more a wooded mountain top than a man who eats bread. So his eye might have been the acropolis overlooking the river plain? And all the strange places Odysseus encounters might again be Troy, Troy in disguise, blended with other places and periods of time? visited in a long series of dreams? A further
major insight was the Homeric family of metals (Helen tin, Menelaos copper, Hermione bronze). By and by the epic made sense. Below a list of symbols and Magdalenian readings.
Polyphem -- Troy, his one eye the acropolis overlooking the river plain, his body downtown Troy VIIa providing protected shelter for five to ten thousand people, vulnerable after the Hittite empire collapsed
his cave -- Trojan harbor in the Besik bay
his goats and sheep -- foreign ships waiting in the harbor for favorable wind, asked for high fees and tributes, tolls on their cargo
horses -- ships of the early Trojans (Phaeakians), and of the Achaeans who avoided the harbor in the Besik bay and instead maintained an improvised harbor in the mouthing area of the Trojan rivers near the mosquito infested swamps (malaria episode)
Helen and her extended family -- tin, copper, bronze, andrasit and brass; Mycenaean bronze containing twelve or even fifteen per cent of tin, no tin in Greece, tin came from Central Asia, bound to pass the Hellespont where the Trojans laid hands on the precious cargo, abducting Helen, as it were
Trojan horse -- a beautiful and apparently abandoned Achaean ship dragged into the Besik harbor by Trojan sailors, Achaean soldiers hide within, leave the ship in the dark of the night, overcome the Trojan guards, acropolis alarmed via a chain of signals, Trojan troops hasting to the Besik bay, meanwhile Achaean troops storm the acropolis of Troy, probably in the summer of 1184 BC, blinding Polyphem, the one eye of the Much Famous cyclops who resembles more a wooded hilltop than a man who eats bread (Homer)
oxen of Helios -- freight ships on the Black Sea
transgression of Odysseus' men -- a raid on the Crimean fleet, prolonging the series of conflicts in the east
travels to strange places -- Odysseus dreaming, reaching Troy in disguise and blended with other places and periods of time (Homer anticipating Freud's dream logic)
pleasant Scherie -- early Troy, Phaeakians able pilots offering their good service to foreign sailors in the perilous waters of the Hellespont (Eberhard Zangger), Odysseus recognizes where he is, what a lovely place he destroyed, or will destroy in the time perspective of the Phaeakians, and can't help weeping, then arrives home for good (Zangger) where another task awaits him, taking it up with the shameless suitors of his faithful wife Pnelope
Penelope -- Peloponnese
her shameless suitors -- those who profit from the land without meeting their obligations
Athene -- history personified
Telemachos -- Far-away-war, far away from the Trojan war in time, Messenin wars, Homer of the Iliad living in the time of the first Messenian war, Homer of the Odyssey in the time of the second Messenian war, both compiling rich bardic material, both fearing for the unitiy of Greece
Plagues befalling Egypt in the Bible -- invasion of the Sea Peoples, testifying to turmoils in the time of the Trojan war.
Homeric family of metals. Beautiful Helen was the symbol of tin, by then most precious, her white arms tin ingots, her long glittering robes she made herself the glittering tin ore cassiterite, her thread tin wire, by then cut out of hammered tin sheet. Her husband xanthos Menelaos was the symbol of copper, the color xanthos covering all hues of copper ore, yellow brown red. Their daughter was lovely Hermione who resembled golden Aphrodite, Homeric symbol of bronze, of a golden shine when freshly cast. Menelaos had a slave woman for a mistress, andrasit, a natural alloy of copper and zinc found in the Troas - zinc in enslaved form, as it were. Their son, strong late come Megapenthes, was the symbol of brass, harder than bronze, arriving late in the 'family' of metals.
When the world mountain was swept away in the deluge the beautiful reliefs on the walls and ceilings of the hall within, made of metals and gems, became loads and veins in our present-day mountains
(Magdalenian reading help)
ITA CA, young bull ITA sky CA, under the sky of the young Zeus bull, ancient name of the Peloponnese, Ithaca, surviving in the name of a relatively small island
ATI CA, mature bull ATI sky CA, under the sky of the mature Zeus bull, Attica
POL PAS and PAS LOP, fortified settlement POL everywhere in a plain PAS enveloping wall LOP, fortified settlements everywhere enveloped in walls, ancient name of the Peloponnese and especially the Argolis personified in Penelope
AD LAS, toward AD mountain LAS, land oriented toward the former mythical world mountain, Atlantis or Eurasia, world mountain swept away by deluge, became present-day mountains, possible Atlantis epic by Trojan bard Demodokos 'Teacher of People', warning Trojans of hubris
KAL LAS, cave Underworld KAL mountain LAS, mythical hall inside former world mountain, home of metal people, Hellas, mythical home of the Greeks
KAL KOS, cave Underworld KAL heavenly vault KOS, beautiful hall inside former world mountain mirroring the heavenly vault, a memory of this hall surviving in the lofty hall of Menelaos (Odyssey book 4), Greek kallos 'beautiful' chalkos 'copper, bronze'
KAL EN, cave Underworld KAL in inside EN, Helen, beautiful Helen of the white arms, Homeric symbol of tin; Hellenes, originally miners from the banks of the Amu Darya in Central Asia, first Indo-European homeland
MAN LAS, right hand MAN mountain LAS, Menelaos who got rich by commanding copper miners who got the precious ore with their right hand MAN from mountains LAS
GRA KOS, painted cave GRA heavenly vault KOS, Graekoi Greeks, named for the beautiful hall in the former world mountain according to a myth of the early miners in Central Asia, 'paintings' carried out in metals, reliefs along the walls
TYR, to overcome in the double sense of rule and give, emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth)) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus
PAS, everywhere (in a plain), here, in the south and north, east and west
TYR PAS, overcomer everywhere, Zeus overcoming everybody everywhere in weather and time, TYR PAS temps, French for weather and time, also TYR PAS Taruwisa Troy, the mightys town once ruled by Zeus, itself an overcomer, exerting power over the Troas, fertile plain of Troy
POL LAD and POL LAs, fortified settlement POL on a hill LAD heightened by awe to a mountain LAS, consider the Palatin of Rome, also Pallas Athene, former patroness of POL LAS Wilusa Ilios Ilion, alternative name of Troy; Athene became a fierce enemy of Ilion and was the Homeric personification of history; her name from AD DA NAI, to find a new home on a river that flows toward AD the sea while coming from DA the hills and mountains, also a new home on trading routes that lead to one place while coming from another place, NAI AD DA accounting for Naiades, genitive and plural of naiax 'Naiade'
AD POL LOP, toward AD fortified settlement POL enveloping wall LOP, Apollo shooting an arrow of light or a sun beam toward the place of the gate of a future settlement, marking the place for a seer; faithful patron of Troy
PAD AD DA PAS TON, activity of feet PAD toward AD from DA everywhere in a plain PAS to make oneself heard TON -- he who follows PAD rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills and mountains, wherefrom Doric Poteidas, and everywhere PAS he and his horses come to they make themselves heard TON, wherefrom Greek Poseidon, originally the god of rivers, creator of the horse, faithful patron of Troy, although angry with Trojans for having been too hospitable, way more angry with Odysseus for blinding Polyphem, Homeric symbol of Troy, especially Troy VIIa
CO OC LOP, attentive mind CO right eye OC wall LOP, naming the organization of a fortified settlement, ruler of the focused mind in the center surrounded by watchful guards along the wall, Cyclops, cyclopic wall, the most famous Cyclops having been Polyphem 'Much Famous' who resembled more a wooded mountain top than a man who eats bread, Homeric symbol of Troy
PIR RAG, fire PIR towering RAG (a word of many meanings and derivatives, originally naming the line of head and back of an animal in cave art), signal fire on the hill Montmartre in Paris, France, guiding Neolithic boats on the Seine, while Paris prince of Troy overlorded the smiths and kept the signal fire on top of the acropolis, abducted beautiful Helen of the white arms, wife of Menelaos, confiscated Mycanean tin and thus caused the Trojan war.
making sense of the Bible (very long)
foreword) Hebrews, named by a Magdalenian double formula
BIR SAP named Beersheba in present-day Israel. BIR means fur, a word of very many derivatives, among them Hebrew beer 'well' in reference to fur and leather bags filled at wells, while SAP means everywhere in space, here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, in all seven places wherefrom words for seven in many languages including Hebrew sheba, also accounting for Greek sophia 'wisdom' and Latin sapientia 'worldly wisdom' acquired by exploring the world in all seven places.
BIR SAP Beersheba was a place of seven wells, inhabited by people who found water everywhere. The Chalcolithic culture of Beersheba comprised Meggido in the north, Beersheba in the south, and Telelilat Ghassoul across the Jordan in the east. You can find pictures of the amazing art of this culture in books by Jean Perrot who led several archaeological campaigns in that region. The elegant figurines and symbols are similar to the ones from Predynastic Egypt, raising the question whether the mysterious people of the Beersheba culture contributed to the rise of Ancient Egypt?
Consider the parallels between ShA SAP Joseph, ruler ShA of the (BIR) SAP (Beer)sheba people and Imhotep, vezir of King Djoser. Beersheba people might have been among the founders of the school of Imhotep. "Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall" (Genesis 49:22). Joseph called his second son Ephraim "For Godhath caused me to be fruitful" (Genesis 41:52). The name Ephraim contains BRI meaning fertile.
SAP BIR apiru named descendants of the BIR SAP Beersheba people in the Nile Valley who worked on water projects, led by Aaron in the time of Ramesse II. Aaron was a believer in the ancient sky god from the Göbekli Tepe, AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, implored for rain. Aaron's rod turned into a snake, ancient water symbol, meaning he surpassed the water engineers or magicians of Ramesse II.
We can't read an epic or the Bible in the way we read modern books of history and sociology and geography. We have to understand the symbols. For example the plagues that befell Egypt symbolize the invasion of the Sea Peoples in the time of Ramesse II. DA PAD David, away from DA activity of feet PAD, was the generic name of the early rulers of Judaea and Israel, delivered from the paw of the lion (Egypt) and bear (Hattusas), and from the 'paw' of Goliath (Sea Peoples). Another generic name would have been SAL MAN Solomon, overseer of water works, of those who worked in the watery ground SAL with their right hand MAN.
Israel derives from AS RAA ) or AS RAA L, the Lord up above AS in an aureole of light RAA has the say ) or L, while Judaea derives from ShA DhAG, the ruler ShA is able DhAG, meaning the heavenly ruler ShA CA DhAG CA Jahwe, abbreviation of the double formula naming the supreme weather god of the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age and Iron Age
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
Now we might look out for a double formula naming the Hebrews
SAP PIR NAM
SAP BRI MAN
'They find water everywhere'
is their name NAM
'and make the land fertile'
working with their right hand MAN
Israel (aleph) Göbekli Tepe and Beersheba
First part of the Göbekli Tepe creation myth, as told by the hieroglyphs on the 'throat' of the female central pillar of temple D, 11 600 BP
)OG BIR AC CA or LOG BIR AC CA
The fire giver PIR GID called out to her sister the fur giver BIR GID. This one took her cosmic fur and scooped the primeval hill out of the primeval sea. PIR GID called out to her sister the fertility giver BRI GID. This one took the primeval hill and formed it into a ring, the ring itself being the primeval earth AC and the hollow in the middle the primeval sky CA. In the hollow of the ring appeared a male face, the sky god whose eyes were moon and sun, AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS ...
The big limestone ring on the Göbekli Tepe shows him ex negativo, in the round hollow, as a head or face with ears on the sides, consisting of nothing than air and light.
The archaeological excavation of the Göbekli Tepe began in 1996. Ten years earlier a large karstic cave was discovered in Samaria, in the middle between Beersheba and Hazor (almost exactly in the middle of their connecting line), a mysterious cave, rich in stalagmites and stalactites, used as a burial cave, the ossuaries containing bones of more than twenty people, and then, in Grave X, in the passage from the main hall to the lower cavities, eight heavy rings, two of pure gold, one of a darker and five of brighter electrum (natural alloy of gold and silver), earliest gold artefacts in theChalcolithic period of the Beersheba or culture, some 6,000 years old. In my opinion, these rings are connected to the above creation myth, representing the stage when BRI GID formed the primeval hill into a ring, the boss marks on the hammered surfaces of the eight rings suggesting the impressions of her fingers, the rings themselves representing the earth AC andthe hollows the sky CA, together AC CA, alternative name of the fertility giver BRI GID who formed the primeval earth around the primeval sky and planted the seeds of life -- AC CA Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve.
An ivory figurine from Safadi near Beersheba, between 6,000 and 5,500 years old, shows a pregnant woman, her womb a hemisphere. Instead of a navel she has a hole in the form of an exact circle, indicating that she is the fertility giver BRI GID alias AC CA Hawwa Eve.
Israel (beth) Jacob and Joseph
Jacob left Beersheba, heading for Haran (forty kilometers south of the Göbekli Tepe), and sleeps on a hill, under the open sky, at a place called Luz, then Beth-el 'House of God'. In a dream he sees the Lord on top of a heavenly ladder, we may assume in an aureole of light, and the Lord speaks to Jacob, appointing him ruler of this wilderness, and making the promise that he will have many children and become the father of a people (Genesis 28:14)
And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth,
and thou shall spread abroad to the west,
and to the east, and to the north, and to the south;
and in thee and thy seed shall all the families be blessed.
An angel gives Jacob a new name, Israel, Jacob Israel
ShA AC ABA
expanse of land with water AC
AS RAA ) or AS RAA L
to have the say ) or L
Jacob saw the Lord up above AS, we may assume in an aureole of light RAA (consider the former place name Luz, from Magdalenian LIC for light and luck, Latin lux), and the Lord spoke ) or L to Jacob
ShA AC ABA Ja'aqob Jacob
AS RAA ) AS RAA L Israel
Jacob Israel would have been the founding father of the Chalcolithic Beersheba culture, while the eight heavy gold and electrum rings found in the cave Nahal Qanah may have been the Israel rings of his followers - average weight 124 grams, average outer diameter 45 mm, average inner diameter 27 mm. Imagine to hold one of those rings in your hand, to hold it upward AS to the light RAA of the sky, and imagine the Lord speak to Jacob, appointing him ruler of a wilderness and promising him to become the father of many children that will be called Children of Israel ...
Israel (gimel) water of life
Jacob owned a deep well at Sychar, from which he and his children and his cattle drank, so it was a big and yielding well, near a parcel of land Jacob gave his son Joseph. Sychar is near the Nahal Qanah cave. The name Sychar may go back to SAI GAR, life SAI fissure in rock GAR, water of life SAI from a hole in the ground GAR (allowing Jesus the metaphor of living water, John 4).
Pebbles with red ocher signs were found on floors of subterranean houses at Beersheba, Abu Matar and Safadi, arranged in arcs that evoke fur bags filled with water at a well. BIR meaning fur named a well - Hebrew beer - as place where fur and leather bags were filled. So the pebbles might represent wells, and the ocher signs inform about their size and quality, for example the frequent cross might indicate a big well over which a cross of beams was placed, allowing to fix ropes. We may imagine the same signs on rocks by the actual wells (long faded, of course).
Jacob would have been the mythical founder of the Chalcolithic BIR SAP Beersheba culture, and Joseph the leader of the SAP BIR 'apiru engaged in water works. "Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall" (Genesis 49:22). Joseph called his second son Ephraim 'the fertile one'. This name would go back to SAP BRI MAN, everywhere SAP he makes the land fertile BRI working with his right hand MAN. The short form SAP BRI would have become Aramaic 'Ibhraij gentilized Ibri English Hebrew, and would have been confounded with a word meaning across - they across the Jordan (from the perspective of Assyria), they who came across the Jordan (from the perspective of Palestine).
Israel (daleth) Asherah and her tree of life
Jacob Israel would personify the Chalcolithic Beersheba culture, and his son Joseph the contributions of this culture to the rise of Egypt. Ivory figurines from Beersheba and Safadi resemble Predynastic Egyptian figurines. Less obvious are the numerical connections.
The original Göbekli Tepe sanctuary would have been a circle of a dozen poles around a pair of larger poles in the center, each pole representing a month of 30 days, and the space between the central poles 5 and occasionally 6 more days, in all a year. 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months (count 15 and 17 lunations in the 30 29 30 mode each, and double the numbers).
Replace the central poles by a tree of life in the middle of the circle and an altar of four horns beside the tree and you get the Asherah sanctuary encoded on pendants from Teleilat Ghassul and on a curved ivory box from Safadi, showing either a circle of 12 or 9 poles around the tree of life in the center, branches pointing upward, and an altar near the tree, slightly off the center. The circle of 12 poles represent the Göbekli Tepe calendar, numbers given above, while the 9 poles represent long months of 40 days and lead to another and even better definition of the lunation that was found as follows, the ratios meaning lunations to long months
11/8 (plus 4/3) 15/11 19/14 23/17
19/14 (plus 23/17) 42/31
23/17 (plus 42/31) 65/48 107/79 149/110
110 contiunous periods or 4,400 days are an excellent value for 149 lunations.
Asherah was a fertility goddess. Her calendar sanctuary would have been called
ASh AAR RAA
AS AAR RAA
Enter the sanctuary of the fertility goddess and her tree of life ASh whose branches point upward AS to the one of air AAR and light RAA ...
Asherah would have personified the tree of life, as the Egyptian sky goddess Nut personified her sycamore.
The month of 30 days was adopted by Egypt while the lunisolar relation was conveyed by the story of Horus and Seth and wise Thoth. AAR RAA CA Horus, he in the air AAR and light RAA of the sky CA, was a falcon, his left eye the moon and his right eye the sun. Seth destroyed his lunar eye. Wise Thoth healed it, adding up the numerical parts '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64 to The Whole One. Multiply a month of 30 days by the series of the Horus eye '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64 and you obtain 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes for a whole lunation of 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.9 seconds (modern average from 1989 AD).
Israel (he) fable of Moses
The Desert Princes known as Hyksos kings ruled Egypt from Avaris in the eastern part of the Nile delta, where they employed Minoan artists, why not also a Hebrew workforce?
Centuries later, Pi-Ramesse was built on the runis of Avaris. Merenptah recorded his victory over Canaan on a stele. "Israel is ruined, and has no more seed." Ideograms of a man and a woman make clear that Israel is a people, not a country, the people of Israel in Canaan, which would also have affected the Hebrews or children of Israel in Goshen.
Ramesses III is inthroned. A Hebrew child is born in the outskirts of Pi-Ramesse, abandoned by his desperate mother, placed in an ark of bulrushes in the flags by the river's brink, found by a princess, raised at court, and simply called ms(w) 'child', Magdalenian MmOS meaning offspring.
MmOS ms(w) Moses believes to be a son of Ramesses, but this one wouldn't know him. Once the boy hides on a stairway, and sees the great man pass by, but only from behind. Why doesn't he know me and allow me to come near and see him in the face? am I a bad boy? in some way guilty of the problems that absorb him?
The so-called Sea Peoples invaded Egypt in year eight of Ramesses' reigning time, soldiers and refugees coming along the shore of Asia Minor and across the sea. I believe that the consequences of their invasion are symbolized by the drastic plagues that befell Egypt. In the Bible, these plagues are effected by Moses in the name of the Lord who planned to free the children of Israel via Moses. We may then assume an imaginary guilt of the child Moses, later turned into a divine mission.
Moses discovers affinities with the Hebrews, finds a 'brother' in Aaron, commits an act of compassion and rebellion, flees via the Sinai to Midian, sees how seven (!) maiden draw water from a well, protects them from an assault, marries Zipporah - whose name might be one more derivative of SAP BIR -, daughter of a priest, and learns about Jahwe, storm god and rider of clouds from Mount Seir.
He returns to Egypt, meets Aaron, and together they gather a few families that are willing to leave Egypt. Moses and Aaron regard them as founders of a future people of 600,000 men - seeing the tree in the seed, as it were, a seed they hope to plant in the promised land, where it may grow to a tree of twelve boughs, a people of twelve tribes ...
430 years after a Hyksos king engaged a Hebrew workforce, Moses and Aaron and a few families and scholars and priests left Egypt, Goshen, and wandered toward the southern tip of the Sinai. Moses got water out of the rock or mountain Horeb.
Ramesses III died, the last one of the great pharaohs.
The heavenly Lord appears above Mount Sinai, in a glory of brightness, and speaks to Moses. He combines Jahwe and Ramesses III. This time he knows Moses, invites him to climb the mountain, where he shall see him from close, but he must hide between rocks, and look at the him through a cleft, and only from behind. The Lord reveals that he sent the plagues that befell Egypt in order to free the children of Israel. Moses realizes that he has a chance to free himself from his guilt by obeying the Lord and making the children of Israel obey the Lord as well. He receives the laws, and the ten commandements, which he writes on two tables, five one each table. He spends forty days and forty nights on Mount Sinai. Then he descends. All children of Israel see him come, his face shining. Still above them, up above AS, his face a light RAA, he talks to them ) or L ... He became the voice of AS RAA ) or AS RAA L Israel, leader of the children of Israel, the rightful successor of Jacob and Joseph.
Israel (vav) ark of wisdom
The Israel ring symbolized creation (primeval earth AC around primeval sky CA), birth and rebirth, AC CA Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve, consider also the Indo-European earth goddess akka mentioned by Julius Pokorny, and CA AC Gaia the Greek earth goddess), mother and child, present and future, body and soul, realitiy and hope ...
The children of Israel, spending time in the desert, made an ark that was 2.5 cubits long, 1.5 cubits broad and again 1.5 cubits high. Use these measurements for an Israel ring, inner diameter 1.5 cubits, outer diameter 2.5 cubits
0.5 - 1.5 - 0.5 sum 2.5 cubits; proportion 1 3 1 sum 5
It has the same proportion as the average of the eight Israel rings from the Nahal Qanah cave
9 - 27 - 9 sum 45 mm; proportion 1 3 1 sum 5
Use the numbers 5 and 3 from the proportion of the ring. Draw a circle of radius 5. Draw the horizontal axis and the vertical axis. Draw parallel lines to the axes in the distance 3. The lines will cross the circumference of the circle in eight rational points defined by the Sacred Triangle 3-4-5. Draw a circle of radius 25. Eight more rational points of the circumference are defined by the triple 7-24-25. Draw a circle of radius 125. Eight more rational points o the circumference are defined by the triple 44-117-125. Draw a circle of radius 625. Eight more rational points of the circumference are defined by the triple 336-527-625. And so on. The subsequent triples can be obtained via a linear algorithm. If you connect the points, you get a sequence of rounder and rounder polygons that never really exhaust the circle but provide good values for pi, symbolic of human wisdom that can get closer and closer to the divine wisdom without ever really reaching it.
Israel (zayin) combined measures
Consider the following measures of length based on the fingerbreadth or simply finger of 1.875 cm from the New Kingdom of Egypt
Jacob cubit 21 fingers or 39.375 cm
Joseph cubit 22 fingers or 41.25 cm
Moses cubit 35 fingers or 65.625 cm
Combine these measures and you can get several practical formulae
If the diameter of a circle measures 1 Jacob cubit
the circumference measures 3 Joseph cubits
If the radius of a circle measures 1 Jacob cubit
the area measures 3 Joseph cubits by 1 Jacob cubit
If the diameter of a sphere measures 1 Jacob cubit
the surface measures 3 Joseph cubits by 1 Jacob cubit
If the diameter of a sphere measures 2 Jacob cubits
the volume 2 by 2 Jacob cubits by 1 Joseph cubit
If the diameter of a circle measures 1 Moses cubit
the circumference measures 5 Joseph cubits
If the radius of a circle measures 1 Moses cubit
the area measures 5 Joseph cubits by 1 Moses cubit
If the side of a square measures 4 Moses cubits
the diagonal measures 9 Joseph cubits,
and if the side measures 9 Joseph cubits
the diagonal measures 8 Moses cubits
The ark was 2.5 cubits long, 1.5 cubits broad, and again 1.5 cubits high, in Joseph cubits 55 by 33 by 33 fingers. Assuming the boards were 2 fingers thick or strong, we get 51 by 29 by 29 fingers for the capacity which would correspond to a cube measuring 1 by 1 by 1 Moses cubit, with a very small mistake
51 x 29 x 29 equals 35 x 35 x 35 plus 16
Use the Jacob cubit and the Moses cubit as inner and outer diameters of an Israel ring
inner diameter 1 Jacob cubit or 21 fingers
inner circumference 3 Joseph cubits or 66 fingers
ring 7 fingers
outer diameter 1 Moses cubit or 35 fingers
outer circumference 5 Joseph cubits or 110 fingers
area 1 Joseph cubit by 1 royal cubit of 28 fingers
(the sum of 1 Joseph cubit and 1 Moses cubit being
2 royal cubits or 56 fingers)
proportion 7 21 7 sum 35, or 1 3 1 sum 5
The resulting ring has again the same proportion as the average of the eight rings from the Nahal Qanah cave. One might say the ark, by its own numbers, contained a virtual Israel ring.
Israel (cheth) numbers and names
The children of Israel in the desert lived by the two calendars of Jacob (Chalcolithic Beersheba culture). A year had 12 months of 30 days, plus 5 and occasionally 6 more days, while 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days - or 270 weeks of 7 days, the week given to Moses by the Lord on Mount Sinai - and correspond to 64 lunations. Or a year had 9 long months of 40 days, plus 5 and occasionally 6 more days, while 110 continuous periods of 40 days are 4,400 days - or 440 long weeks of 10 days - and correspond to 149 lunations. 12 also numbers the tribes of Israel, 40 the days Moses spent on Mount Sinai and the years the children of Israel spent in the wilderness - 40 years or 25 Venus years or 495 lunations -, avoiding the heat of the day, watching the moon by night.
The Magdalenian way of counting lunations was: 3 nights of the young moon, 6 nights of the waxing moon, 9 nights of the full moon, 6 nights of the waning moon, 3 nights of the old moon, alternately 3 and 2 nights of the empty moon. NEG for the old moon could have named the Negev, inverse GEN for the young moon the desert of Sin or Zin, and GEN NAI, young moon GEN to find a good place for a camp NAI, the Sinai.
The children of Israel were a few families and scholars, regarded as the seed of a people to come: may they reach the promised land of milk and honey, prosper, multiply, and grow to a people of 600,000 men ... The big number, a dream number, as it were, has many meaningful factors: 2 of earth and sky / 3 of Jacob and Joseph and Moses and their cubits / 4 cardinal directions / 10 commandments, 5 on each table / 12 months in a year, poles of the Asherah sanctuary, tribes of Israel, corners of the polygon of rational corners in the circle of radius 5, four corners defined by the cross of the axes, eight more by the Sacred Triangle 3-4-5 sum 12 / 30 days of a month / 40 days of a long month / 64 lunations in the shorter lunisolar cycle / radii 5 25 125 625 3125 of the circles with inscribed polygons of rational corners.
The children of Israel spent a long time at Kadesh-barnea. From there they reached a place called Beer "... the well whereof the Lord spake unto Moses, Gather the people together and I will give thee water. Then Israel sang this song, Spring up, O well ..." (Numbers 21:16,17). Beer might have been a well near Kadesh-barnea whose original name might have been CA DhAG BIR NE, sky CA able DhAG fur BIR out of NE - the heavenly one CA who is able DhAG spoke from a well, from a place where bags of fur BIR are filled with water, out of NE a well spoke the Lord.
BIR NE KAL, fur BIR out of NE cave Underworld KAL, might have been the full version of -barnea, BIR Beer as place where the bags of fur BIR were filled with water out of NE a hole KAL in the ground, NE KAL Hebrew Nahal (pronounce the h like the ch in Scottish loch) naming a river or brook that springs from a well German Quelle.
Another name of Kadesh-barnea was or still is En Mishpat, perhaps from MmOS PAD, Moses walked.
South of Kadesh-barnea is a mountain that was or still is called Sapher or Shapher or Shepher, perhaps one more derivative of SAP BIR, the mountain at whose base the SAP BIR 'apiru camped.
Israel (teth) Polyphem and Goliath
Polyphem was a cyclops, a one-eyed giant, wearing his eye on the forehead. He resembled more a wooded mountain top than a man who eats bread. His name means Much Famous. He lived from sheep and goats he milked in his cave. Polyphem was the Homeric symbol of Troy, his one eye the acropolis overlooking the river plain of the Troas, his body downtown Troy VIIa that provided protected shelter for 5,000 to 10,000 people, his cave the Trojan harbor on the Besik bay, the sheep and goats foreigns ships, and the milk he lived on were high fees asked from foreign sailors waiting for favorable winds in the Trojan harbor on the Besik bay.
Polyphem has a parallel in the Bible, Goliath, mentioned in 1 Samuel 17, a giant Philistine from Gath. He stood on a hill and shouted across the valley to another hill on which the army of Israel gathered. Young David, herding sheep, was ordered to join the army of the Israelites. His weapon was a sling and stones. Goliath asked him whether he considers him a dog he can chase away by throwing stones? Then Goliath cursed David, and attacked him. David slung a stone, hit Goliath in the forehead, the giant fell, David severed his head and brought it home, as trophy and sign of victory, while the Philistines fled.
Now the same story deciphered along the symbols.
The Philistines were a Sea People that settled on the southern shore of Asia Minor. Gath was their forteress highest up in the hills, where the Israelites lived, semi-nomads dwelling in small tents that may have looked like grazing sheep. The Philistines planne to conquer the hills of Palestine. They built a camp on a hill, opposite a hill of the Israelites. The main tent had four corner posts or legs and was compared to the 'sheep' tents of the Israelites a 'dog'. It had sort of a tower for a neck, and a standart of shining metal for a head, visible from afar, shouting the message WE COME AND CONQUER THE HILLS ... Around the 'neck' of the big tent was wound a long strip of leather with 5,000 shekel of mail, some fifty kilograms of metal, contributing to the message, and naming the main tent, GO) IAT or GOL IAT Goliath, GO) for mouth or neck and IAT for a strip of leather. The weapon of David was a sling and clay bottles filled with a burning liquid, perhaps on the basis of asphalt and sulphur which set
the Goliath tent afire and made the Philistines flee, whereupon David got the standart, former 'head' of the big tent, and brought it home as trophy and sign of victory. His name goes back to DA PAD, away from DA activity of feet PAD - David delivered from the lion, delivered from the bear, and delivered from the hand of Goliath. While the lion symbolizes Egypt and the bear Hattusas, Goliath symbolizes the Philistines who planned to conquer the hills of Palestine.
As the story of Polyphem summarizes the Trojan war from the viewpoint of the Achaeans, the story of David and Goliath summarizes the failed expansion of the Philistines into the hills of Palestine from the viewpoint of the children of Israel.
Israel (yod) house of the Lord
And it came to pass that Solomon began building a house of the Lord (1 Kings 6), 60 cubits long, 20 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high. Remember the three combined measures
Jacob cubit 21 fingers or 39.375 cm
Joseph cubit 22 fingers or 41.25 cm
Moses cubit 35 fingers or 65.625 cm
If the basic numbers of the temple are Jacob cubits we have a room measuring 60 by 20 by 30 Jacob cubits, or 36 by 12 by 18 Moses cubits, or 23.625 by 7.875 by 11.8125 meters, diagonal exactly 70 Jacob cubits or 42 Moses cubits or 27.5625 meters.
Floor and ceiling might have been consecrated to Moses, diagonals practically 38 Moses cubits; the long walls to Joseph, diagonals practically 64 Joseph cubits; and the short walls to Jacob, diagonals practically 36 Jacob cubits.
The ark was kept in the so-called oracle, a cube measuring 20 by 20 by 20 Jacob cubits or 12 by 12 by 12 Moses cubits, occupying the hind third of the temple, diagonal square 27 Joseph cubits, diagonal cube 33 Joseph cubits. No walls were needed for the oracle, just a curtain, 20 Jacob or 12 Moses cubits long and high and away from the rear wall, a curtain of precious material, a pair of cherubs embroidered on them with gold thread, charged with static electricity as magic protection of the ark behind the soft wall.
The entrance was in the short eastern wall, a Jacob wall. The window above the entrance may have been an Israel ring of these numbers
height of center 20 Jacob or 12 Moses cubits
inner diameter 1 Jacob + 1 Joseph + 1 Moses cubit
circumference 7 Moses cubits
ring 1 Jacob cubit
outer diameter 120 fingers
c. 35 22 35 22 35 22 35 22 35 22 35 22 35 sum 377 f
The implicit pi values 245/78 (7 Moses cubits divided by the sum of the three cubits) and 377/120 are found as follows
4/1 (plus 3/1) 7/2 10/3 13/4 16/5 19/6 22/7
3/1 (plus 22/7) 25/8 47/15 ... 245/78 ... 377/120
Jacob saw the Lord up above AS in a glory of light RAA and heard him speak ) or L, together AS RAA ) or AS RAA L Israel that became Jacob's byname. Luz was renamed into Bet-el 'House of the Lord'. From the hill of Luz or Bet-el one sees down on the hill of Jersualem, where the hous of the Lord was actually built, commemorating the dream vision of Jacob Israel, marking the northeastern corner of a triangular prozession way, the other two corners having been a pair of columns commemorating Joseph in Egypt and his dreams of seven fat and seven meagre years, to the southwest of the temple, and a flat rock with a carved stone ring and a carved basin in the hollow of the ring, commemorating the miracle at Beer near Kadesh-barnea in the wilderness, also on the temple hill, to the south of the temple. The procession way led back to the house of the Lord, which, this time, celebrated the united kingdom of Israel and Judah in the era of Solomon, heir of the combined legacy of Jacob and Joseph and Moses.
Israel (kaph) pair of pillars and molten sea
From the house of the Lord on the Temple Mount at Jerusalem, in the northeast of the sacred precinct, where the dream vision of Jacob at Luz or Bet-el had been commemorated, the pilgrims walked to a pair of columns in the southeast of the sacred precinct - one column bright, the other dark, each crowned by a band of brass, commemorating Joseph in Egypt and his dreams of seven fat and seven meagre years; in 1 Kings 7 a pair of pillars, 18 cubits high apiece, while the cirumference measured 12 cubits, and they were entirely made of brass by the skilled metal worker Hiram of Tyre. Here a modified and more realistic version
height 18 Moses or 30 Jacob cubits
circumference 12 Joseph cubits
diameter 4 Jacob cubits
height of brass band at top 2 Jacob cubits
remaining height 7 times 4 Jacob cubits
for the fat (bright) and meagre (dark) years
Then the procession went to a flat rock south of the house of the Lord, gathering together around a stone ring carved on the top, the vertical rim decorated with the carved horns of 3 and 3 and 3 and 3 oxen marking the cardinal directions. In the middle of the horizontal stone ring was carved a basin, and coated with brass by Hiram, called the molten sea. 1 Kings 7 gives 10 cubits for the diameter of the molten sea, and 30 cubits for the circumference, yielding 30/10 or 3 for pi. Here again a more realistic version
diameter stone ring 10 Jacob or 6 Moses cubits
circumference 30 Joseph cubits
660/210 or 22/7 for pi
diameter basin 6 Jacob cubits or 236.25 cm
circumference 18 Joseph cubits
The basin, coated with brass, and filled with water, commemorated the miracle of Beer in the wilderness, near Kadesh-barnea. The Lord spoke out of the ground, telling Moses to gather his people together, whereupon he will provide them with water. Israel (the children of Israel) gathers together and sings a song, Spring up, O well. The nobles dig a hole, and really, it fills with water and becomes a well from where the people and the cattle drink. The story is told in Numbers 21.
Now imagine the pilgrims on the temple mound at Jerusalem gathering together around the molten sea, around the stone ring framing the basin filled with water, watching the sky up above AS and its light RAA mirrored in the surface of the water, listening to the voice ) or L of a priest reciting the words the Lord spoke out of the well at Beer, and singing the song of Beer: Spring up, O well ..., feeling as children of AS RAA ) AS RAA L Israel.
Why a sea and not a well? The sea is filled by rivers that begin as brooks that spring as wells, and in like manner the numerous people of the united kingdom of Israel and Judah descended from the children of Israel who gathered together around the well at Beer in the wilderness.
Israel (lamed) pool below Gihon spring, menorah
The molten sea with a diameter of 10 cubits, a circumference of 30 cubits, a brim of one hand, a depth of 5 cubits, and an enormous capacity of 2,000 baths might combine two places: a ring and basin carved in a flat rock on the Temple Mount, commemorating the miracle of the well at Beer near Kadesh-barnea in the wilderness, and the pool below the Gihon well in the Kidron Valley, east of the citadel, "unto the place against the sepulchres of David" (Nemehia 3:16).
The cubit of the pool might combine the three measures of length in yet another way
3 Jacob and 2 Joseph and 1 Moses cubits
21 21 21 plus 22 22 plus 35 sum 142 fingers
outer diameter 10 combined cubits
inner circumference 30 combined cubits
outer diameter 32 1356 32 sum 1,420 fingers
brim or 'hand' 32 fingers (60 centimeters)
inner diameter 1,356 fingers (25.425 m)
inner circumference 4,260 fingers (79.875 m)
pi value 355/113
3/1 (plus 22/7) 25/8 47/15 ... 355/113
depth 5 Joseph or 3 Moses cubits or 105 fingers
bath 2 by 2 by 2 or 4 by 2 by 1 Jacob cubits
(filling of a tub, 488 liters)
capacity a little more than 2,000 baths
(brimful 2,047 baths)
A circle on the brim (dividing it from the outside into seven and eleven parts) has a circumference in fingers that equals 12 years in days. Imagine a dozen poles marking the New Years, indicating the poles of the Asherah sanctuary, the months in a year, and the tribes of Israel - each pole the standard of a tribe, bearing a torch by night.
An emblem of the Asherah sanctuary would have been the menorah in the house of the Lord, MAN AAR RAA menorah, right hand or simply hand MAN air AAR light RAA, symbolizing the children of Israel led by Jacob and Joseph and Moses, rising their arms and hands MAN toward the heavenly one of air AAR and light RAA, upward AS to the light RAA from where the Lord spoke ) or L ...
Numbers of the (brazen) menorah
height 1 Jacob and 1 Joseph and 1 Moses cubit
21 22 35 sum 78 fingers (146.25 cm)
radii semicircles 7 14 21 fingers
arcs 1 2 3 sum 6 Joseph cubits
poles and arcs 10 Jacob or 6 Moses cubits
Israel (mem) royal pool and orchard
Between the Gihon spring (or springs) and the large pool of the 12 tribes of Israel, each represented by a brazen standard on the brim, their circle in fingers 12 years in days, might have been a small royal pool of these numbers
diameter 10 Jacob or 6 Moses cubits
circumference 30 Joseph cubits
(393.75 and 1,237.5 cm respectively)
depth 6 Jacob or 3 Moses cubits
capacity 2,000 times 12 liters
(half an amphore of 23.8 liters)
The royal pool might have been surrounded by a wall in the shape of a dodecagon, inner numbers
diameter 510 fingers
3 Jacob 6 Joseph 9 Moses cubits
or 4 Jac 3 Jos 6 Mos 3 Jos 4 Jac
height 99 fingers
2 Jacob 1 Joseph 1 Moses cubits
side 132 fingers or 6 Joseph cubits
diagonal side 165 fingers
2 Jacob 4 Joseph 1 Moses cubits
proportion side 99-132-165 or 3-4-5
periphery wall 72 Joseph cubits
area wall 18 by 18 Joseph cubits
Imagine the pool surrounded by the wall of twelve sides in an orchard of pomegranates, Punica granata, a shrub or small tree, with red blossoms of six petals followed by 'love apples' of six chambers rich in seeds, branches hanging over the wall. Genesis 50:22 and Solomon's Song 8:2
Joseph is a fertile bough,
even a bough by the well;
whose branches run over the wall
I would make thee drink spiced wine
of the juice of my pomegranates.
Israel (nun) Solomon
DA PAD David, away from DA activity of feet PAD, named the David people in the hills of Palestine, delivered from the paw of the Egyptian lion, from the paw of the Hittite bear, and from the hand of the Philistine Goliath.
SAL MAN Solomon, watery ground SAL right hand MAN, named those who worked in the watery ground SAL with their right hand MAN, also the overseers of waterworks, and personified the united kingdom of Israel and Judah between around 900 and 835 BC.
Ahab ruled from 871 to 852 BC. He was a great builder. We may assume that he employed the best achitects. Among them the unknown genius of the Temple Mount at Jersualem?
In 867 BC, year four of his reigning time, Ahab might have given order to plan a temple. The first ideas might have been rather trivial and little satisfactory. Then the 'unknown genius' might have presented an appealing and convincing new concept: a house of the Lord commemorating Jacob's vision at Luz or Bet-el 'House of the Lord' in the wilderness; a pair of pillars commemorating Joseph in Egypt and his dreams that prophesized seven fat and seven meagre years; and a molten sea commemorating Moses at Kadesh-barnea and the miracle of the well at Beer in the wilderness ...
The building of the temple might have begun in 854 BC, toward the end of Ahab's reigning time. This would have been 480 years after the Exodus (1 Kings 6:1) - a first Exodus occurring in 1334 BC, at the end of Akhenaten's reigning time?
Israel (samekh) fable of Ezekiel, heavenly Jerusalem
Ezekiel was a priest, astronomer and mathematician from Jerusalem, deported to Upper Mesopotamia in 597 or 587 or 582 BC, held captive by the river (channel) of Chebar, east of Haran and the Göbekli Tepe.
One late morning he witnessed a rare phenomenon, a double rainbow high in the sky, the inner bow a full circle around a sun veiled and unveiled by thin clouds - up above AS a glory of light RAA wherefrom the Lord spoke to Ezekiel in the divine voice ) or L of an inspiration, together AS RAA ) or AS RAA L Israel: he may regard the double rainbow as a heavenly Israel ring, a heavenly Jerusalem composed of time-space, of days and years and lunations and Venus years, heavenly cycles revolving within each other, wheels in wheels ...
He then calculated a model of the heavenly Jersualem, based on a flexible unit of time, a measure that slightly varied around 63/64 of a day. 30 measures were one lunation or synodic month, 371 measures a year, and 1,484 measures were 1,461 days or 4 years.
The wall around the heavenly Jerusalem was 4 times 4,500 measures or 18,000 measures long, with 12 gates, one for each tribe of Israel, each gate 12 measures wide, framed by a pair of gateposts, each gatepost 2 measures strong, while the arcs of the wall from one to the next gate were 1,484 measures or 1,461 days or 4 years long. Three arcs and gates yielded 1484 2 12 2 1484 2 12 2 1484 2 12 2 sum 4,500 m, The circumference of the outer circle (wall) had a length of 18,000 measures or 600 lunations, while the diameter had a length of 191 lunations
6/2 (plus 22/7) 28/9 50/16 72/23 ... 600/191
Four opposite gates marked a square of the side 135 lunations
3 7 6, 10 13 20, 23 33 46, 56 79 112, 135 191 ...
Turn the area of the square into the circle around the Temple Mount. Its diameter will be 4,500 days.
The 12 gates defined a dodecagon whose periphery was 30 Venus years, nearly 48 solar years, while the dozen arcs of the wall between neighboring gates had a total length of 48 solar years, mirrored in the 48 chapters of Ezekiel's book.
May the heavenly Jerusalem descend on earth, and may the measure of time turn into a measure of length, a Jacob or Joseph or Moses cubit. May the divine Jerusalem become real, with an outer wall of 12 gates around the city mentioned at the end of Ezekiel's book, and an inner wall around the Temple Mount ...
The ark is not lost. It survives in the Bible, a book of symbols, a treasure of memories.
Homer and the Bible had been taken literally, then rejected as mere fiction. Now the time has come for a middle way. We may look out for symbols and study the logic of oral tradition.
Israel (ayin) heavenly Jerusalem on earth
Let one measure be one Moses cubit (M) or 35 fingers or 65.625 centimeters, and combine it with a Moses rod (R) of 125 centimeters, defined as follows
35 fingers or one Moses cubit
40 Moses cubits are 21 Moses rods
200 fingers are 3 Moses rods
finger(breadth) 1.875 cm
measure or Moses cubit M 65.625 cm
Moses rod R 125 cm
The combined measures allow again practical definitions
diameter circle 20 M circumference 33 R
side equilateral triangle 20 R height 33 M
edge cube 20 R diagonal volume 66 M
double square 27 by 54 R diagonal 115 M
The Moses rod also turns the heavenly Jersualem of Ezekiel's vision into an ideal earthly Jerusalem
circumference outer wall 18,000 measures
or 9,540 Moses rods or 11.8125 kilometers
diameter outer wall 3,008 R or 3.76 km
side inscribed square 2,127 R or 2.65875 km
diameter inner wall 2,400 R or 3 kilometers
circumference inner wall 7,540 R or 9.425 km
If the outer wall was 4 R or 5 meters strong (at the base), 300 R or 375 meters remain for the ring, area nearly four square kilometers. Guards would have walked along the top of the outer wall, whose 12 gates were named for the tribes of Israel. Guards would have lived and workers and artisans and traders worked inside the ring, where also stores and magazines would have been found, while most people would have lived inside the inner wall, around the Temple Mount. Above the 12 smaller gates of the lower inner wall could have stood 12 towers for the poles of the Asherah sanctuary, while the tree of life would have grown on the Temple Mount - a tree whose branches pointed upward to the light wherefrom the Lord spoke.
Israel (pe) logic of the Bible
Oral tradition fixed in early writing loved symbols, telling names and numbers, turned inner qualities into outer decoration, inner features into attributes, blended similar events and places, and, if possible, encoded built structures in telling numbers that were easily memorized (like the Magdalenian double formulae of the Ice Age, surviving until the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age and Iron Age) and allowed their basic reconstructions, turning embellishments, finery and flourishes back into the beauty of ingenious and meaningful solutions along the formula 'simple yet complex'. While we enjoy the luxury of gigabytes, the early scribes had little writing space for saying it all.
God created the world in six days - not at once, but step by step by step, which is a hallmark of evolution. Moreover the number six ikeeps a memory of the female triad and male triad engaged in the process of creation according to (my interpretation of) temple D on the Göbekli Tepe. The Bible is deeply rooted in the past. Reading it properly we can regain the wisdom, and reconcile it with modern science and historiography.
(note for the ethnomathematical community)
What is mathematics? In my opinion the logic of building and maintaining. And what is ethnomathematics? I use a wide and pragmatic definition: mathematical ideas, approaches and methods from all over the world, and from all periods of time; simple yet complex; admirable and intriguing; helpful and useful one way or another. When asked for examples I mention the beautiful African fractals, patterns of the Sona, or two African fans of wickerwork I have at home, one made of a palm leaf, the other from colored plastic strips - I never tire studying them. Concerning Bible maths I'd say we can profit from studying the artful combination of systematic early methods based on addition, of exact results and approximations, which, in a way, denote our human condition: we know some things, of many others we have rather vague ideas and hunches, yet when we combine them in an artful way we manage to feel at home in the world ...
Israel (sadhe) Gihon spring, markings
You may remember the fertility giver BRI GID who shaped the ring of the primeval earth AC and the hollow of the primeval sky CA wherein the sky god AAR RAA NOS appeared, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, visualized by the big limestone ring on the Göbekli Tepe.
BRI GID in her emanation of AC CA, she of the earth AC who made the sky (god) CA appear, became the Indo-European earth goddess akka mentioned by Julius Pokorny, and Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve, while inverse CA AC named the Greek earth goddess Gaia.
Priestesses of BRI GID in her AC CA emanation asked the sky god for rain. Prayers for rain and the smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain were symbolized by snakes heading upward, while falling rain rewarding the sacrificial fires, filling river beds and water holes, was symbolized by snakes heading downward. Snakes are by far the most frequent symbols on Göbekli Tepe pillars. AAR RAA NOS had a believer in Aaron whose rod turned into a snake, meaning that he excelled at finding water, and even surpassed pharaoh's water engineers (magicians). AC CA in this context accounts for Latin aqua 'water' Spanish agua.
The four large signs carved in a floor of the Gihon spring may read AG V'
AC CA akka AG V' Hawwa Eve
AC CA aqua AG V' agua
They indicate a zigzag band, ideogram of water, abstract version of a winding snake, ancient water symbol. Moreover the signs reading AG in the lower line, from right to left, evoke a pair of mountains, while the V sign of the upper line V' again from right to left is inserted into the space of the 'mountains' along the ancient idea of AAR RAA NOS filling the empty space between hills and mountains with air and light, accounting for valley names like Val d'Aran, Arundel, and Val d'Hérens in the Swiss Alps, while the short vertical line ' would add falling rain to the picture.
We may then assume that the Gihon spring was consacrated to Hawwa 'mother of all life', and this would explain how it became the source of the river of life in Ezekiel 47: "... and everything shall live whither the river cometh."
Israel (koph) Adam and Eve, a heavenly fish
AD DA MAN belonged to the male triad of the Göbekli Tepe and participated in the creation of the world. He made rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills and mountains, and made them with his right hand MAN. His byname SAL MAN says that he worked in the watery ground SAL with his right hand MAN. His favorite guise was a fish that swam in the heavenly river or lake CA LAK overformed by Greek Galaxy 'Milky Way', a SAL MAN salmon in the northern regions, or a LAK *loks 'salmonid, salmon (trout)' Old Norse lox Old English leax New English lox and German Lachs for salmon, Tocharian B laks 'fish', and a simply a fish in the southern regions, PIS meaning water in motion but also bodies moving in water, fish, while the constellation of the heavenly fish in the celestial river was called
KOS OC CO
heavenly vault KOS fish PIS right eye OC attentive mind CO, together something like: wise fish in the heavenly vault, looking down on creation. The fish became the Salmon of Knowledge in Celtic mythology, separated from the creator of rivers, now a being of its own; and LAK Loki in the Norse AD DA Edda, a trickster and shape shifter, once a great help to the gods, then mocking the gods, fleeing, turning himself into a salmon, hiding beneath a waterfall, but discovered, caught, and held in a firm grip by Thor, which is why the salmon's tail is tapered. In southern regions, KOS PIS KOS OC CO became Cassiopeia, queen of Ethiopia.
AD DA MAN and the fertility giver BRI GID whose alter ego was AC CA were consorts. AD DA MAN Adam as human being was the early farmer digging irrigation channels, while SAL MAN Solomon was the overseer of waterworks. BRI GID in her emanation of AC CA akka AG V' Hawwa Eve cultivated cereals. Next to the AG V' sign carved into the floor of a cave in the Gihon spring at Jerusalem was found a cereal press. The deep grooves of the AG V' sign evoke irrigation channels. CA for sky became V' in the upper line of the Gihon spring markings, written ' V (from right to left), reminding of the Cassiopeia constellation near the zenith, in a narrow passage of the heavenly river.
Israel (resh) Bath-sheba
Here is how the constellation of Cassiopeia can be seen as a fish
beta Cas (right eye)
alpha Cas pectoral fin (breast of Cassiopeia)
gamma Cas spineous dorsal fin
delta Cas anal fin
eta Cas caudal fin (eye of Cassiopeia)
This would have been the Celtic Salmon of Knowledge.
One of the Jewish personifications of Cassiopeia was Bath-sheba, mother of Solomon, wise king Solomon whom the Lord loved.
Bat or bath 'house' may derive from PAD for the acitvity of feet. We go out of the house and return to the house that is in a way the center of our steps. Making a bed and building a house require a flat ground, achieved in the simplest way by padding around.
Sheba derives from SAP meaning everywhere (in space), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, in all seven places, wherefrom words for seven in many languages including Hebrew sheba, also Greek sophia 'wisdom' and Latin sapientia 'worldly wisdom' acquired by exploring the world in all seven places.
Bath-sheba combining the two words would name the heavenly (spiritual) abode of Solomon's mother, in the apex of the heavenly river CA LAK Galaxy Milky Way, a river that passes the four horizons, south and north, east and west, changing with the revolving sky, descending toward AD the Underworld KAL, then again emerging from DA the Underworld, and in the middle of the wide circle of that river is the world in which we live, Jerusalem ruled by wise king Solomon.
Picture Jerusalem in the era of Solomon, at midnight of the spring equinox. Cassiopeia, abode of Bath-sheba, is in the zenith, while the heavenly river rises from the eastern and descends to the western horizon. At midnight of the summer solstice it rises from the northern and descends to the southern horizon.
In the Celtic belief rivers and lakes and the Underworld were connected, so the Salmon of Knowledge, epitome of knowledge and wisdom, SAP sophia sapientia, swum both in the earthly rivers and lakes and in the heavenly river, his image in Cassiopeia representing the 'above ' among the SAP seven places of the world.
Israel (shin) Solomon Jedidiah
Bath-sheba, wife of David and mother of Solomon, had been the wife of Uriah the Hittite whose death was instigated by David (2 Samuel 11,12) - in my opinion one more symbolic story, perhaps combined with a real occurrence. The name Uriah the Hittite reminds of AAR RAA (NOS) from the Göbekli Tepe in Anatolia. David taking away his wife may refer to the collapse of the Hittite empire and rise of the David people in the hills of Palestine, another heir of the Göbekli Tepe culture.
The Lord gave Bath-sheba and David a son who was called Solomon. His byname was Jedidiah 'whom the Lord loves'
SAL MAN ShA -: I -:
ShA accounting for Je- in Jedidiah is the beginning of a double formula invoking the widely worshipped supreme weather and sky god of the Bronze Age
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
ruler ShA activity of feet PAD to overcome
in the double sense of rule and give TYR
upward AS sky CA,
The ruler ShA goes ahead PAD and overcomes
in the double sense of rule and give TYR
up above AS in the sky CA,
the able one DhAG ...
The formula contains many names, for example ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove; DhAG PAD TYR Dis pater, byname of Jupiter; TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus; DhAG Dios, genitive of Zeus, perhaps a former byname; ShA CA DhAG CA Jahwe, storm god and 'rider of clouds' from Mount Seir (!) in the Negev; ShA PAD Shiva ...
ShA CA DhAG CA Jahwe ShA Ja- Je-
The lip lick -: I -: or LIL (produce the consonant given as -: by touching both lips with the tip of the tongue) is present in the name of the Divine Hind or Hind Woman who called life into existence, her main sanctuary being Altamira where she appears as a large and very beautiful hind, licking the horns of a small bison under her , calling moon bulls into life, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 ... days. CER -: I -: has a derivative in herd, series, another in the name of Hera, cow eyed Greek goddess. Among the derivatives of -: I -: are lyoba, call of herdsmen to their cattle in the Swiss canton of Fribourg, from a similar Celtic call; German Leben English life, German Liebe English love, Latin libido 'desire', English lip (licking the lips may once have been a sign of love and desire, still can be a sign of appetite and lust), Latin bibere 'to drink' (thirst being a mighty desire), the female given name Lily and the flower lily, Ukrainian lyalka 'doll', Ugaritic dd 'loved (by)', Phoenician Dido 'Loved one', dadu- of dadumatha 'loved by the heavenly master' (Linear A tablet Hagia Triada 95 deciphered by Walther Hinz in the wake of Cyrus H. Gordon) and d-d in the Hebrew form of the same name or title d-d-ym-sh (on a Hebrew seal from Tell Djemmeh, found 1960 by Yigael Yadin), the ending -dida in Jedida (2 Kings 22:1), and -didiah in Jedidiah (2 Samuel 12:25)
SAL MAN ShA -: I -: Solomon Jedidiah
MAS named the Magdalenian master hunter, then any master, also the heavenly master, Linear A ma-tha, Hebrew m-sh, while inverse SAM named a Magdalenian hunting group, then any company, also a gathering in the name of the heavenly Lord, SAM ) or SAM L Samuel the speaker of a gathering in the name of the heavenly ruler and master who has the say ) or L, the word )OG or LOG.
Israel (sin) etymology of Jerusalem
Jerusalem was inhabited from the fourth millennium BC onward (Gofel south of the old part of town), called Urusalim on clay tablets from Ebla, between ca. 2 400 and 2 150 BC, a name composed of uru 'town' and salim 'hail'. The origin of uru 'town' might have been AAR RAA, naming an acropolis as place of air AAR and light RAA, while salim 'hail' might go back to SAL MAN, watery ground SAL right hand MAN, indicating those who worked in the watery ground and cared for clean water on which the well-being of a town depended and still depends. We have then AAR RAA SAL MAN Urusalim jrwshljm Jerushalajim Hierosolyma Jerusalem, place of air AAR and light RAA belonging to those who work in the watery ground SAL with their right hand MAN (note that AAR RAA would have one more derivative in Greek hieros 'holy')
AAR RAA SAL MAN uR u SAL iM
This would go along with the inscription of the Gihon spring, the four large signs that may read AG V' and name the ancient fertility giver BRI GID in her emanation of AC CA akka AG V' Hawwa Eve, in the context of AC CA aqua AG V' agua, consecrating the well to Hawwa 'mother of all life' and thus explain how it became the source of the majestic river of life in Ezekiel 47.
Egyptian and Biblical mathematics (here omitted)
defining the meter, a historical joke (new version, written while working on the Bible series, contribution for the ethnomathematical project My 100m)
David Eugene Smith wrote and compiled one of my all time favorite histories of mathematics (1925, 1953, Dover New York 1958) and says in the chapter on the Metric System (pages 648ff in volume II of the Dover reprint from 1958) that the meter was originally conceived as 1 / 40,000,000 of the Earth's circumference, but "Owing to a slight error in finding the latitude of Barcelona, the original idea of the unit was not carried out, but a standard meter was fixed ..."
How did this happen? Let me tell you a fable.
Napoleon in Egypt was accompanied by a trail of 167 great scholars, among them 21 mathematicians, and among them several royalists who either hid their opinion, or were tolerated as long as they kept silent because they were needed for the ambitious project of the "Description de l'Egypte." Now imagine the royalists among those mathematicians, returned to France, holding a secret meeting, and discussing the new measure of length:
-- Measuring the distance from Dunkirk to Barcelona failed, so we need another idea to fix the new unit of length. How about using the royal cubit we found in the measurements of the Great Pyramid at Giza, monument of the sun king of all sun kings, and thus honor our own late sun king? Let me define the unit as diameter of the circle the circumference of which measures 6 royal cubits of the Great Pyramid, and call it mčtre 'meter', short for diamčtre 'diameter' ...
The royal cubit of the Great Pyramid measures 52.36 cm (confirmed to me by Prof. Dr. Rainer Stadelmann in a letter from the 1990s). If the circumference of a circle measures 6 of these cubits or 314.16 cm, the diameter 100,00023 cm or 1.0000023 meters or simply 1 meter.
6/2 (plus 22/7) 28/9 50/16 72/23 ... 600/191
If the circumference of a circle measures 600 of those cubits or 314.16 meters, the diameter practically 191 cubits or 100.0076 m or simply 100 meters.
(By the way, my experimental reconstructions of early and very early mathematics paved the way for Magdalenian.)
African invention of mathematics - Lebombo bone, Ishango bone, Blombos cave (see the first chapter on my homepage)
Magdalenian and modern understanding of the soul
KA in thge language of Southern Africa in the Middle Stone Age would have named what is beyond, in the sky, inside rock, in a well, and deep inside ourselves, accessible to a shaman or shamaness in a trance induced by a spezial breathing technique (hypothesis from the late spring and early summer of 2005). Animals in European cave art and in the rock art of Southern Africa are often shown as if emerging from or disappearing into clefts and niches in the rock, anticipating Vladimir Vernadzky's famous dictum of life being the metamorphosis of stone.
The very ancient KA would have become Magdalenian CA for sky, inverse AC for an expanse with land, and KAL for cavity, cave, Underworld, inverse LAK for lake, in the ancient belief connected with the Underworld.
PIR GID the fire giver lit the solar eye and lunar eye of the sky god from the Göbekli Tepe, and warmed the seeds of life her sister the fertility giver BRI GID had planted in the primeval earth, whereupon animals emerged from clefts and niches in the rock. PIR SAI KAL named the soul as spark from the fire PIR of life SAI in a cavitiy KAL of rock, then in the hull of body and womb (kalyx 'hull of the fruit, capsule), and became Greek psychae Gothic saiwala
Old English sawl New English soul
PIR SAI KAL P SAI KA P Sy chAe psychae
PIR SAI KAL SAI KAL SAI wALa saiwala
PIR SAI KAL SAI KAL SA wL sawl soul
Psychae also names a shadow on the wall, cast by a fire in the cave or hall. Psychein 'to breathe, blow' and psychos 'winter, frost' may have been named thus for they prove that a fire PIR of life SAI in the hull KAL of the body exists: we inhale cold air and exhale warm air, heated by the fire within (actual fire, slow and controlled combustion of oxygene).
I am not really certain about this etymology, but fairly sure that SAI for life is part of psychae sailwala sawl soul, and that English sex derives from the emphatic doubling SAI SAI life life ...
DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, is the Magdalenian word of by far the most numerous and most widely varied derivatives, indicating that life may be seen as a bundle of abilities, and the soul as halo around them.
Sigmund Freud explained the soul via three basic biological abilities: nourishing oneself (gaining energy); getting rid of waste (shedding entropy); and procreating (multiplying and shuffling genetic combinations, genes being enablers).
The soul, we may say, coordinates abilities. Why can music affect and move us, even touch the soul? rhythms and melodies coordinate activities of our brain, connecting (I presume) the modern human areas with the ancient animal cores of the brain.
animus atman pneuma spirit
Latin animus 'breath, soul, spirit' may derive from ANI MmOS, spirit of a place ANI offspring MmOS, naming the spirit or better spirits of a place approaching a newborn child.
Sanskrit atman 'breath, self, soul' may derive from IAD MAN, healer IAD right hand MAN, naming a shamaness or shaman inviting a good spirit of the place to approach the newborn child and wake up the young soul, while warding off the bad spirits of the place, and doing that with the right hand MAN.
Greek pneuma of the same meanings may derive from RIP ANI MAN, to fan RIP spirit of a place ANI right hand MAN, naming a shamaness or shaman in the same function, fanning good spirits toward and bad ones away from a newborn child, and doing so with the right hand
RIP ANI MAN RIP NI MA IP NI MA P Neu MA pneuma
Latin spiritus covers the same range of meanings and includes high spirit, fire, and liquid. The word may derive from SAI PIR RYT, life SAI fire PIR archer RYT, referring to the fire archers PIR RYT of the fire giver PIR GID who provided the fire of life PIR SAI, the fire givers PIR RYT shooting 'fingers of light and luck' DIG LIC along the rivers PIR RYT Firat Euphrates and DIG LIC Dicle Tigris in the night of the fire giver in the wider region of the Göbekli Tepe, on New Year's Eve, also in rituals invoking the rain from the sky god. The resulting compound has affinities to the fire PIR of life SAI in the hull KAL of the body, accounting for Greek psychae (also for Gothic saiwala Old English sawl New English soul)
SAI PIR RYT S PIR RYT S PIR iT spirit
PIR SAI KAL P SAI KA P Sy chAe psychae
ANI has a derivative in German Ahne 'ancestor'. The spirit or rather spirits of a place would then have been ancestors. Our ancestors are still present in our genomes. Inviting some spirits to approach a newborn child and warding off other spirits has a counterpart in the epigenetic switches turning on and off genes. A variety of shamanic rituals performed around a newborn child would have supported the parents, perhaps even on the epigenetic level. The name given to a child could have mentioned a spezial feature of the place, providing a link between the child and the good spirit who had been invited by the shamaness or shaman to animate the young soul. A well chosen name could then have become a lifelong spiritual guide and help.
(I was named for Francesco d'Assisi who spoke with the animals. As boy I read a book about him, and was impressed. It may well have stimulated my interest in the basic features of language.)
origin of the gods
Worshipped ancestors, remembered for a long time, revered, implored for help from the beyond, became divine beings, deities, gods and goddesses, good ones in the sense of able DhAG, Latin deus dea, Greek theos thea (incompatible with deus dea in PIE, well compatible
in Magdalenian), Sumerian dingir, the early deities from the sacred Duku mountain of Sumerian mythology, and the supreme Celtic god Dagda, the good god in the sense of the able god, from DhAG DhAG able able. Now the ancestors have a real presence in our genome, in our genes that can be seen as enablers. When reading The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins (second edition from 1989) I had the impression that he might as well be describing Homeric deities ...
Dawkins mentions a gene that is helpful to the young body but can turn obnoxious to the old body, so he proposes that we might find a way to fool that gene into believing we were still young. I might have experienced such a instance, my body talking to the genes on the epigenetic level. Once I got a bad medical diagnosis, fainted, and had a dream visiion. I was a boy, with my family on a Sunday pleasure walk in the nearby wood, all very pecaeful, the sun slanting between the tall and slender trunks of the firs … Then I woke up, lying on the floor, surrounded by nurses. The fir trunks of my vision were the vertical blinds, between them the sslanting sun of zhe summer afternoon. Why was I a boy again? Years later I got my anwer in Dawkins, a gene useful to the young but potentially harmful to an old body. So my brief moment on the floor might have been a message to my genome: This body is still young, got many ideas, and a lot to do, let him live … The doctor gave me two years, the report siad highly recidive. Meanwhile I survived for nearly twenty years, no recidive. Shamanic rituals may work in a similar way, imploring the able ones in nature and the beyond, reaching the enablers within. Religion can make sense even in the hard light of science.
The problem with religion, in my opinion, is a betrayal of transcendence We know exactly who God is and what He wants. He wants what we want. He is our mighty henchman ... However, the betrayal of transcendence also occurs in the sciences, where successful paradigmata are all too often turned from hypotheses into the truth, eternal and complete truth, nothing beyond.
love and work, our place in the world
The possibility of life may be ingrained in the fabric of the cosmos, allowing life to bud where the conditions are right, in a balance of the cosmic powers, maintaining and expanding a comfort zone by means of what we may call the intelligence of the lock - a small amount of energy needed for opening and closing the gates can lift a heavy ship from the lower to the higher level of a channel.
What Freud said of the conscious mind - a little king awake among slumbering giants, "ein kleiner wacher König unter schlummernden Riesen" - may also hold for life, no longer in the center of the world but still in the eye of the cosmic powers, visualized by the Sumerian pair of antithetic seropards (combining serpent and leopard), the long intertwined necks leaving a small free cirlce for the world of colors and warmth of life in between the blinding heat of the sun and freezing darkness of deep space.
DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, is the Magdalenian word of the most widely varied derivatives, indicating the harsh conditions of the Ice Age that challenged Homo sapiens, triggered inventions and asked for a range of new abilities on top of the basic abilities of life in the beautiful but mostly hostile vastness of space.
Freud summarized the human abilities in love and work. Love holds life together and secures the succession of generations, work maintains and expands our place in the world, our comfort zone where the cosmic powers are almost perfectly balanced, love and work themselves a balance among our abilities.
oscillations within the verbal morphospace
Magdalenian is a novel approach to early language and introduces a couple of new concepts, for example the verbal morphospace, a loan from evolutionary biology. There are no woodpeckers on the Galapagos islands, whereupon one of the finches took over the free place in the biological morphospace, developed a long beak and a cushioning of the brain, and hammers away at the bark of trees in search of larvae. Some fish became amphibia, then reptiles, then mammals, and some of the mammals returned to the sea and the life of fish, became dolphins and whales, explored and conquered new places in the marine morphospace.
Magdalenian KOD meaning tent, hut, and the comparative form KOS naming the heavenly vault as metaphorical ceiling of the world, have many derivatives, among them English cot cottage hut shed, German Kate 'hut' Hütte 'hut', German Haus English house, French château English castle, French cité English city, French cosme English cosmos, then also English coat as casing of the body, hood and hat as casings of the head, and head as casing of the mind, German hüten 'to guard' Hüter 'guard', and many many more. English neighborhood became hood among hip hoppers and rappers, which can be seen as an oscillation within the verbal morphospace, Magdalenian KOD returning to a close variant in hood.
Another example of an oscillation within the verbal morphospace is English fur. Magdalenian BIR means fur, especially the fur on which a newborn was placed (a Greek custom reported by Porphyry in the second century AD, surviving in parts of the Slavic world until the twentieth century according to Marija Gimbutas). BIR has very many derivatives, among them Greek byrsa 'hide, fur, leather', Latin pella German Fell and Pelz English pelt, also English wool, a younger word from a time when furs were replaced by woven textiles. Also wear and weave derive from BIR. The bear was a furry one. The ancient custom of placing a newborn on a bear fur was replaced by the bearing-cloth in which a barne (bairn, child) was carried to be christened (Edward de Vere alias William Shakespeare in The Winter's Tale, Act 3 Scene 3 where also a bear is encountered). As the many derivatives of BIR drifted away, the place of the original word was left empty, but then French fourrure was borrowed into English and shortened to fur, with a general meaning, contrary to the specialized meaning of the French word, so that we can speak of another oscillation within the verbal morphospace.
My explanation is that Magdalenian words like KOD and BIR are still active in an unconscious layer of the English mind, where they are able to trap words in order to fill a vacant place within the verbal morphospace.
The branching of words is a genuine concern of the Magdalenian approach to early language. We can hope for more insights in the coming years, or even decades?
etymology of English fur
Eric Hamp (?), in the Webster's Unabriged, gives this etymology of English fur: Middle English furre (noun), derivative of furren 'to trim with fur', from Anglo-French furrer, Old French fo(u)rrer originally 'to encase', derivative of furre 'sheath', from Germanic; akin to Old English fodder 'case, sheath'.
I see two Magdalenian words
BIR fuerre fo(u)rrer furren fur
PAD pad feet --- feed food fodder
BIR meaning fur has a derivative in Greek byrsa 'hide, fur, leather', naming the material out of which a fuerre 'sheath' was made. Another derivative is French bourse English purse German Geldbörse, also French bourse German Börse 'stock exchange', originally fur and leather bags filled with precious goods and tokens.
PAD means activity of feet, while the comparative form PAS means everywhere (in a plain). Close derivatives are to pad and foot feet, distant ones feed fodder food, referring to cattle grazing on a pasture, moving on their feet, and to hunters, gatherers, farmers, herdsmen, traders, and so on, gathering and gaining their food on their feet as well. German füttern 'feed' also has a metaphorical sense: placing something into something else, for example glasses into a Futteral 'case', or you can füttern 'feed' the inside of a coat with a soft and silky cloth, and you can füttern 'feed' a parkingmeter with coins, the old sense kept alive in a humoristic parlance.
Fuerre 'sheeth' and fodder 'case, sheath' are then not akin but derive from different words, one mentioning the material out of which a sheath was made, the other the function of placing something smaller into something bigger, in analogy to food gathered and gained on the feet, animals grazing, humans working, both walking around. The biological reason for evolving legs and feet has been the gathering of food. PAD accounting for both feet and feed is not just a coincidene or a superficial parallel.
comment for beginners
Magdalenian words come in pairs and groups. I mined them along my four laws of Magdalenian in the spring of 2005 (using my first pair of laws) and mainly in the spring of 2006 (using two more laws)
inverse forms have related meanings
permutations yield words around the same meme
D-words have comparative forms in S-words
important words can have lateral associations
BIR means fur, especially the fur on which a newborn was placed - a bear fur in Hellenistic Greece (Porphyry) and in parts of the Slavic world until the twentieth century (Marija Gimbutas). The special meaning is own to the meme of the permutation group of six words. BIR has very many derivatives, for example English bear as the furry one (versus bear as the brown one, first Magdalenian test case, from August 2008). An important permutation is BRI meaning fertile, naming the fertility giver BRI GID, also present in Greek Aphrodite
BRI GID a BRI GID e Aphrodite
while the powerful Celtic triple goddess Brigit combines the fire giver PIR GID and fur giver BIR GID and fertility giver BRI GID.
PAD PAS belong to a permutation group of a dozen words. PAD means activity of feet (look out for derivatives), inverse DAP activity of hands. PAD has a comparative form in PAS meaning everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta- 'five'. Inverse SAP means everywhere (in space), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, in all seven places, wherefrom words for seven in many languages, also Greek sophia 'wisdom' and Latin sapientia 'worldly wisdom' acquired by exploring the world in all seven places. English sap names the fluid circulating in plants, in a tree: here, in the trunk we can touch, below in the roots and above in the crown, in the branches and roots that point and grow toward south and north, east and west. A tree seen that way inspired the ancient idea of a world tree.
genetics and word language
Drawing parallels between genetics and word language
stasis and oscillations
occasional branching of species and words
genetic 'words' of three 'letters and Magdalenian
words of three phonemes
double helix and shamanic double formulae
that may have anticipated our rhymes
power of compounds
Word language might be what Richard Dawkins calls an extended phenotype.
Stasis in biology was the big topic of Stephen Jay Gould ("stasis is data") who marveled that certain features persisted in phyla basically unchanged although they were separated five-hundred million years ago. The analog in language might be micro- and macro-oscillations, both keeping language stable. As example of micro-oscillations you may consider the following spellings of the annual item 'Gaol and Hospital' by the Constables of Bozeat in the late 17th century: Gel and Aspitol, Jeal and Quartridge, Jail and Hospittle, Gayll and Ostetall, Gele and Asptol, Jayl and Aspetell (from the charming booklet Bozeat - Your Village History, kindly sent to me by Marc Logan who wrote hilarious parodies in sci.archaeology). Words oscillate while their phonetic 'centers of gravity' remain fairly stable. Vacant places in the verbal morphospace filled by loans are then examples of macro-oscillations.
We still don't know how words are stored in the brain. And we don't really know how stasis works. A vague idea of mine is a genetic masterplan, a biological computer, internal equations checking on variants and guiding evolution to some degree from the inside, going beyond mere chance and preventing life from being thrown against every cliff.
missing from the picture
The problem with religion is a betrayal of transcendence
We know exactly who God is and what He wants.
He wants what we want. He is our mighty henchman ...
And the problem with science is that successful paradigmata are generalized, absolutized, turned into dogmata and imposed as the only truth. Consider the most successful paradigm of mechanics that led to the clockwork universe, and to animals as mere automata unable of feeling – every child knows better. Now for evolution. Darwin discovered gradual evolution by natural selection. His model was highly successful but not complete. A friend informed him about the fossile record of crocodiles that survived unchanged for hundred-and-fifty million years, through all the slow and cataclysmic changes of the environment over that long period of time. Darwin could not explain this, and ignored the problem. He had a right to focus on the mechanism he had discovered. However, Ernst Haeckel and others made selection the only principle of evolution and thus paved the way for the eugenic programs of the past century.
Darwin ruled out Lamarck. Meanwhile Lamarckism is partly rehabilitated by the great discovery of epigenetics. What else will be discovered in the coming decades and centuries? Richard Dawkins and others should not make fun of everybody who looks beyond the fence of the current understanding. "Stasis is data" wrote Stephen Jay Gould. As long as it remains unexplained, something very big is missing from the picture.
oscillations in early mathematics
Word language can be seen as a triangle of the corners life with needs and wishes, mathematics as logic of building and maintaining, based on the formula a = a , and art as human measure in a technical world, based on Goethe's formula ‚all is equal, all unequal ...’
We encountered oscillations in language. They also occur in mathematics, right from the beginnings in Africa.
Lunations were counted by laying out patterns of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... pebbles, later on by adding groups of 17 15 17 15 17 lunations counted in the 30 29 30 mode each.
The lunisolar calendar of Lascaux was laid out as a syncopic square of 365 pebbles (14 13 14 ...), subdivided into nine small syncopic squares, five of 41 pebbles each (5 4 5 ..., center and corners of the big square) and four of 40 pebbles each (4 5 4 ...). Begin with the center and midsummer, go to the top corner on the right side, and proceed in clockwise direction. Any eight subsequent periods correspond to eleven lunations counted in the 30 29 30 mode (325 days) or in the 29 30 29 mode (324 days).
Early definition of the regular square
if the side measures 5 paces
the diagonal measures 7 paces
and if the side measures 7 paces
the diagonal measures 10 paces
From there you can get a number column
1 1 2
2 3 4
5 7 10
12 17 24
29 41 58
70 99 140
based on an oscillation - compare the squares of the central numbers with the products of the lateral numbers.
Oscillations are fundamental in modern physics where they appear in the form of quantum fluctuations of the vacuum. Such a fluctuation might even have been the origin of our universe.
I have a hunch that oscillations of proteins could play a role in biological computing. Decoding the proteome is way more challenging than was the one of the genome. We might profit from correlating different realms also in this task.
is mathematics a language?
Word language can be seen as a triangle of the corners life with needs and wishes, mathematics as logic of building and maintaining based on the formula a = a , and art as human measure in a technical world based on Goethe's formula ‚all is equal, all unequal ...’
Galilei famously wrote that the book of nature is written in the language of mathematics ... God may understand all of nature in mathematical terms whereas we just deciphered the first lines on the first page, so to say. For our understanding the world falls apart into contrary perspectives that mutually exclude each other while each one is indispensable.
Between the logic of mathematics (a = a) and the wider logic of nature and life and art (equal unequal) appear paradoxa, the infinite that is equal and unequal itself, and can't really be tamed, there is always the other side of logic.
Mathematics per se is no language, but it can be seen as a corner of language in the above map of word language.
(several mathematical chapters omitted)
Magdalenian revival (part1)
Magdalenian would have been the lingua franca of shamans and shamanesses in the last Ice Age, fully developed stage of an older shamanic language that goes back to Chauvet (32 000 BP) and the earliest level of Altamira (41 000 BP) and perhaps to northern India and the Aran Valley in Nepal (60 000 BP ?) where Homo sapiens sapiens, having left Africa (100,000 years ago) and slowly traversed Arabia felix (a resting place dated to 75,000 years ago), coming from the hot south, encountered the cold and icy north, which would have triggered both technological and cultural progress including the one of word language.
Cave art and rock art and mobile art are essential for Magdalenian. The oldest element of cave art identified so far is a red ocher dot on a wall of the Altamira cave, dated to around 41,000 years ago. Ceilings and walls of a cave often represented the sky, Magdalenian CA, while dots, especially red ones, had the meaning of SAI for life, existence. The oldest red ocher dot on a wall of the Altamira cave would have claimed a new life SAI in the sky CA for a worthy soul
SAI CA pSAI CA psychae 'soul'
A more elaborate version of the same claim is the large inscription in the Brunel chamber of the Chauvet cave, some 32,000 years old, a domino five and an additional dot in elevated position, in all six dots, big red ocher dots applied with a palm. Around Easter 2006 (as I remember) one Holly identified the domino five with Magdalenian PAS for everywhere (in a plain). The additional dot in elevated position may then read CA for sky. Together, and combined with the scene on a stalactite in the rear hall of Chauvet: May the bull man, the supreme leader of the Lower Rhone Valley, be born again by the goddess above, may he roam the heavens in his next life as he roamed the land in this life, may he get everywhere PAS in the sky CA ...
PAS CA Paskha Pascua Pâques
Russian Italian French for Easter
Magdalenian would have been preserved - conveyed, commited to memory, and kept stable - in shamanic formulae, often double formulae that remained active until the Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, and even Iron Age, accounting for many words we are still using today.
Magdalenian revival (part 2)
The amazing lunisolar claendar of Lascaux, reconstructed from ideograms in early 2005, asked for a matching language. I remembered Richard Fester and his five ur-words BA KALL TAL ACQ TAG, and his map of villages in the Guyenne whose names end on -ac and -acq, for example Rouffignac and Cognac. ACQ has the meaning of water. I modified it to AC for an expanse of land with water, inverse CA for sky, Old Latin caelum.
In the beginning I merely played. What can be said with very short words? For example I invented a love formula, OC LIC MA OC, I see light and am lucky, apple of my eye, I love you and see the light in your eye ..., OC meaning eye and to see, LIC meaning light and luck, MA meaning my mine. Already Richard Fester noticed how close the words for light and luck are. I postulated LIC for light and luck, with a derivate in Latin lux lumen for light, lumen explaining -lum in Old Latin caelum Latin coelum for sky, so that we may assume the original form CA LIC sky light, while the second meaning luck (Latin felix 'lucky') may tell us how much daylight was valued in early times when there was no eletric light, and the nights pitch black.
Richard Fester gave each ur-word a wide range of meanings, occasionally noticing that inverse forms and permutations have related meanings. I made the same observations with my words, and postulated a pair of Magdalenian laws
inverse forms have related meanings
important words can have lateral associations
Using these laws I mined words in the spring of 2005. Two more laws followed in early 2006
D-words have comparative forms in S-words
important words can have lateral associations
These laws, together with the first ones, allowed me to mine some four hundred words in the spring of 2006, many groups of a dozen words, and a very large group of seventy-two words around DAI for protected area and SAI for life, existence.
Consulting Richard Fester again I see how much I owe him. His ur-words have many meanings, and some hold in the Magdalenian form, KALL = Höhle 'cave' while Magdalenian has KAL for cave, Underworld, or TAG and the gods, Magdalenian DhAG for able, good in the sense of able, accounting for very many derivatives, among them Greek theos and Latin deus (incompatible in Proto-Indo-European, well compatible in Magdalenian), English deity and divine, Sumerian dingir announcing a deity, also naming the sacred Du-ku mountain of Sumerian mythology where the early gods came from (identified with the Göbekli Tepe by Klaus Schmidt), and the supreme Celtic god Dagda, the good god in the sense of the able god, from the emphatic doubling DhAG DhAG able able.
Magdalenian revival (part 3)
In all I mined a good four hundred words that allow many meaningful compounds, power and pride of Magdalenian.
Test cases from August 2008 till March 2014
bear as the furry one versus bear as the brown one
deus theos / Zeus versus deus Zeus / theos
DhAG deus theos Dis Dios
TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus
words for horse
AS PAC aspa asva PAC AS AS Pegasos Pegasus
AC PAS *h1ekwos hippos equus, Epona
RYT Ritter, Ross und Reiter, horse and rider
fist IE homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya
center the triangle Termez - Kunduz - Kurgan T'upe
second IE homeland Uralic steppes east of Rha Volga
third IE homeland Pontic steppes west of Rha Volga
double formula naming the supreme sky and weather
god of the Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
etymology of English fur
BIR ... fuerre fo(u)rrer forre fur
PAD ... fodder
BIR meaning fur has a derivative in Greek byrsa 'hide, fur, leather' and another in fuerre 'sheath' made of these materials, while the general meaning and short form of BIR is regained in English fur via an oscillation. PAD meaning activity of feet named the feet, Latin pedes Greek podoi, then also the food gathered and gained on our feed, fodder in the case of grazing animals, while fodder 'case, sheath' names a small container 'fed' with an object. From the vantage point of Magdalenian fuerre 'sheath' and fodder 'sheath' are not akin.
Magdalenian works best for thematic and epic complexes. The novel approach to early language requires a change of perspective, along the flow of time. Helpful are stories that reveal impossibilities and gaps of a historical hypothesis. Everybody loves a story, a fable, a fairy tale. They represent the way our brain works most easily.
Magdalenian revival (part 4)
I mined Magdalenian words in the springs of 2005 and 2006, wondering whether spring was my linguistic season? Now I saw a tv documentary on song birds from which I learned that not only male but also female birds whistle or sing, and that a certain bird grows more neurons in the song area of the brain in spring ...
Then there was another tv documentary on a neurological phenomenon. When we watch an action the same neurons are activated as if we carried out that action ourselves. A woman neurologist (discoverer of that phenomenon?) asked an experimental archaeologist to first fabricate a simple hand axe, universal tool for millions of years, and then a fine symmetrical hand axe as we know them from the Upper Paleolithic, and filmed the farbrication of each hand axe. Then she showed the films to probands in the MRI (tube). When they watched the fabrication of the simple hand axe, their Broca area lit up to seven per cent, and when they watched the fabrication of the fine symmetrical hand axe, their Broca area lit up to fourteen per cent ... This proves what I claimed in 1974/75, that word language develops together with the fabrication of tools and other objects, and that symmetry plays a role not only in mathematics but also in language (sentences being basically equations). Now, watching this report, I thought of symmetry in Magdalenian, inverse forms having related meanings and permutations yielding words around the same meme. For the first time I see a glimpse of neurological evidence for the pair of Magdalenian laws from the spring of 2005.
Magdalenian revival (part 5)
The time was ripe for Magdalenian.
In 1996 Derk Ohlenroth published his decipherment of the Phaistos Disc - of the Elaia disc and Tiryns disc baked together.
A real decipherment is a window on the past (contrary to a window painted on the wall) and offers surprises.
The Elaia disc led me to Old Europe in the sense of Marija Gimbutas while the Tiryns disc allowed me to link the Middle Helladic Argolis personified in eponymous Tiryns with Lord Laertes the gardener and father of Odysseus in Homer's epic.
The big surpise for me is the name of Zeus in the center of the Tiryns disc, Sseyr. oldest version of the Zeus name known so far, from around 1 650 BC.
Douglas G. Kilday wrote many inspiring messages and replies. One of them helped me establish TYR for overcomer, as verb to overcome in the double sense of rule and give. TYR is present in Greek tyrant (- a tyrant in our sense when he turns the maxime 'rule and give' into the strategy 'rule and take'). Inverse RYT meaning spear thrower, archer, named a Greek rhytaer 'archer, protector'. TYR would have become emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr, Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) and Homeric Zeus
TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus
while DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able - the Magdalenian word of by far the most varied derivatives - became Latin deus and Greek theos, also Latin Dis and Greek Dios, the latter the genitive of the Zeus name, perhaps originally his byname
DhAG deus theos Dis Dios
(essentially my second Magdalenian test case).
Magdalenian revival (part 6)
In the same year 1996 Klaus Schmidt began excavating the Göbekli Tepe, archaeological sensation of my lifetime.
Among the many sculptures is a big limestone ring. The inner circle is minimally sculpted, in such a way that if you place the ring against the sky, the hollow evokes a male head en face, confined by the arc of the skull, a pair of ears, and the arc of the chin, a male face composed of air and light, AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS ...
AAR RAA NOS became the Greek sky god Ouranos (whose name inspired the above reading) and Varuna, the sky god of the Indus Valley later relegated to the Underworld. AAR RAA, he of air AAR and light RAA, presided over AAR RAA AD DA Harappa on a river that flows toward AD the Arab Sea while coming from DA the Himalayas. AD DA became a river formula, a generic river name, also accounting for Indus.AAR RAA CA, he in the air AAR and light RAA of the sky CA named the golden boy muruku, Tamil Murukan, and the Egyptian Horus falcon whose left eye was the moon and whose right eye was the sun, while AAR RAA AC, he in the air AAR and light RAA on the earth AC named Horus Horakhty, Horus on the horizon. RAA became the supreme god manifesting himself in the solar disc. AAR became German Aar, König der Lüfte, Aar a name of the eagle, king of the sky, literally of the airs. AAR RAA is found in English aura, and in Rumantg aura 'weather' (language of the eastern Swiss Alps). AAR RAA NOS named valleys like the Val d'Aran, Arundel, or the Val d'Hérens in the western Swiss Alps, a valley being a hollow between hills or mountains filled with air and light ...
Magdalenian revival (part 7)
One of the hieroglyphs on the Göbekli Tepe is a lying H whose horizontal bars represent earth and sky, earth AC and sky CA together AC CA - where earth and sky are meeting, or where they had been separated in the act of creation ...
The Egyptians recorded a Syrian province by the name of aqa, not yet identified, perhaps the region of the Göbekli Tepe in southeast Anatolia and northern Syria?
AC CA named the Indo-European earth goddess akka mentioned by Julius Pokorny, earth AC under the sky CA, the Egyptian earth god Aker, Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve, and via the form CA AC the Greek earth goddess Gaia, under the sky CA the earth AC.
The slim vertical bar of the lying H indicates exchanges between earth and sky, especially prayers for rain and sacrificial fires imploring rain, symbolized by snakes heading upward, and falling rain rewarding the prayers and sacrificial fires, symbolized by snakes heading downward, rain filling water holes and river beds, rivers symbolized by snakes undulating horizontally. Snakes are the most frequent symbols on the Göebkli Tepe. AC CA in the context of water related exchanges between earth and sky became Latin aqua 'water'.
12,000 years ago the region of the Göbekli Tepe was a paradise of lush meadows, groves, and game galore, heading for the cool Anatolian hills in spring, returning to the warm Syrian plains in fall. Agriculture was invented in the area and era of the Göbekli Tepe. However, that
region was on the southern margin of the Fertile Crescent, rain not always granted.
A drought gave way to a heavy rain that fell for forty days and forty nights, washed away the fertile soil, made rivers swell and overflow, fords unpassable, drowned people and animals. NOS AAR RAA Noah, he who knows and obeys the mind NOS of the one of air AAR and light RAA, left the Göbekli Tepe region. One NOS AAR RAA Noah tribe followed the Euphrates upward and settled north of the AAR RAA RYT Mount Ararat, abode of the one of air AAR and light RAA who was the sun archer RYT (and later became the Armenian sun archer Tir from inverse TYR in the Bronze Age), while the other NOS AAR RAA Noah tribe followed the Euphrates downward and founded AAR RAA CA Uruk, a settlement presided over by the one of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA, Uruk of the cattle enslosure that became the ark in the Bible, contracted with the Noah settlement north of Mount Ararat for the sake of brevity and poetical vigour that helped a story survive.
Magdalenian revival (part 8)
AD means toward, inverse DA away from. AD DA named a river flowing toward the sea while coming from the hills and mountains. DAL means valley, dale, inverse LAD hill, accounting for English land as rolling hills. AD has a comparative form in AS for upward, inverse DA in SA for downward, DAL in SAL for watery ground of a valley, and LAD in LAS for mountain, Greek laas 'stone, rock, cliff'.
AD LAS named the Eurasian plains oriented twoward the very long mountain range from northern Spain and southern France via the Alps to the Himalayas, in reference to AD LAS Atlantis, an oral epic and moralic tale about the beginnings of the Bronze Age in the Alai Mountains, where copper and tin is found associated in the same mines, above the banks of the Amu Darya, first Indo-European homeland.
TYR who became Sseyr Sseus Zeus and his eagle resided on top of the primeval world mountain. Inside the mountain was a beautiful cave or hall, KAL LAS, cave KAL in the mountain LAS, decorated with reliefs of metals and precious stone, also known as GRA KOS, decorated cave GRA under a ceiling of shining metals and glittering gems evoking the heavenly vault KOS. The beautiful hall was inhabited by the metal people, while the humans of the first world lived around the mountain, in the plains and hills oriented toward the world mountain, AD LAS Atlantis.
The epic told how the good life was ended by rebellion and transgression, followed by a terrible flood drowning all people, sparing one single couple, tearing apart the world island, stretching the world mountain into the long Ripaean mountain of Eurasia, and the precious reliefs into veins and loads in our mountains of the second world ...
Two miner tribes left the Alai Mountains and first Indo- European homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya some 5,500 years ago, wandered westward, settled in the southern Balkans, and called the land KAL LAS Hellas and GRA KOS Greece, themselves Hellenoi Hellenes and Graekoi Greeks. The beautiful hall is also remembered in the magnificient hall of Menelaos mentioned in book four of Homer's Odyssey, inhabited by a family of metals. Beautiful Helen is the Homeric symbol of tin, her white arms are tin ingots, her long glittering robes she made herself is the glittering tin ore cassiterite, her thread tin wire cut out of hammered tin sheet. Her husband xanthos Menelaos is the Homeric symbol of copper, the color xanthos covering all hues of copper ore, yellow brown red.Their daughter lovely Hermione who resembles golden Aphrodite is the Homeric symbol of bronze, alloy of copper and tin, of a golden shine when freshly cast. Menelaos had a slave woman for a mistress, andrasit, a natural alloy of copper and zinc found in the Troas - zinc in enslaved form, as it were.
Their son strong late come Megapentes brass, harder than bronze, arriving late in the family of metals. KAL EN Helen, tin found inseide EN caves or mines KAL. MAN LAS Menelaos,
commander of copper miners working with their right hand MAN in mountains LAS. CER MAN Hermione, shamans CER manipulating MAN the precious ores from the Alai mountains, copper and tin associated in the same mines, thus obtaining bronze, which was a historical achievement of great consequence.
Magdalenian revival (part 9)
Copper and tin associated in the same mines of the Alai Mountains above the banks of the Amu Darya, first Indo-European homeland, allowed to cast bronze, make bridles, tame horses, and use them for transporting loads up a hill or a mountain slope, AS PAC aspa asva, Avestan and Sanskrit for horse, upward AS horse PAC, emphatic PAC AS AS Pegasos Pegasus, horse up up, winged horse of poetry, originally personifying the hot summer wind Afghanetz blowing from the Aral Sea along the Amu Darya up to the AD DA KOS Hindu Kush, mountain of many rivers AD DA under the heavenly vault KOS ...
The horse of the second IE homeland in the Pontic steppes east of the Rha Volga and of the third IE homeland in the Pontic steppes west of the Rha Volga was named by a phonetically similar but semantically different compound, AC PAS *h1ekwos hippos equus, expanse of land with water AC everywhere (in a plain) PAS - riding a horse you can get everywhere on earth ...
AC PAS also accounts for the name of the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona. Her main sanctuary was Alesia / Alise St. Reine at the base of Mont Réo, near one of the sources of the River Seine. Epona rode a horse in lady fashion, accompanied by a bird, a foal, and a dog. She was an alter ego of the river goddess REO Rheia Rhea (Rha Renus Rhine Rodanus Rhone), mother of Zeus Poseidon Hades, their emblematic animals eagle horse dog.
TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus overcame in the double sense of rule and give, and overlooked the land in the guise of an eagle. PAD AD DA Poteidas PAS TON Poseidon named the Doric and Greek river god (who only later became the god of the seas), he who walks PAD along rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills or mountains, and everywhere PAS he and his horses come to, they make themselves heard TON. Hades would have been the proto-type of a metal worker, from KOD DhAG, hut KOD German Hütte, here Hütte in the sense of smelting works, verhütten 'to smelt', a demanding sort of work requiring an able one DhAG, the percious ores and ingots protected by watchful dogs, also English dog from DhAG.
Magdalenian had PAC for horse, PEC for cattle, PIC for bird. CA LAB named the winter sun horse, accounting for gallop, and for German Klepper, an old and tired horse. CA BEL named the spring sun horse, sky warm, in a longer form CA BEL IAS, sky warm healing, the warm sun of spring healing ailments of a long and harsh winter, ABelios AFelios Helios, Greek sun god with a quadriga of horses. CA BAL named the summer sun horse, sky hot, Latin caballus and Spanish caballo. Hear them run
CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB ...
CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL ...
CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL ...
Magdalenian revival (part 10)
Altamira belongs to my favorite caves. By far the largest painted animal therein is a beautiful hind, three meters long, licking the horns of a small young bison under her, while the walls and ceilings are covered with bisons in rounded, compact forms.
The beautiful hind is the Divine Hind CER -: I -: or CER LIL (pronounce the consonant given as -: by touching both lips with the tip of your tongue). She called life into existence, also moon bulls, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days. Her name has a derivative in Hera, cow-eyed goddess, another in *kerdeh- 'herd, series', -: I -: alone in the loba call of Celtic herdsmen to their cattle, surviving in the locally famous lyoba call of herdsmen in the Swiss Canton of Fribourg.
The Divine Hind was the goddess of life and love, -: I -: having further derivatives in German Leben English life, German Liebe English love, German Lippe English lip (licking the lips once was a sign of love and desire, can still indicate appetite and lust), Latin libido 'desire', Ugaritic dd 'loved one' and Phoenician Dido 'Beloved one', Ukrainian lyalka 'doll', the female given name Lily and flower lily, German Laub 'foliage' and Laube 'arbor, bowery', indicating arbors made in honor of the goddess. While some bisons have reular tail in the form of 'paint brushes' others have tails in the form of 'fir twiglets'.
The Divine Hind Woman had been worshipped in the winter constellation ORE EON Orion, she on the beautiful ORE shore or bank EON of the heavenly lake or river CA LAK overformed by Galaxy 'Milky Way'. Her husband was the Divine Stag or Stag Man CER KOS, the stag or shaman CER of the heavenly vault KOS, his proud antlers seen in the summer constellations we know as Sagittarius and Scorpio, his tree the oak, Latin quercus, Gaulish érkos 'oak-forest'.
How can we hope to not only receive but also decipher signals and messages from an extra-terrestrian civilization if we don't even understand the legacy of our ancient forebears?
Magdalenian began as an experiment, became an adventure, and is now a revival. I see the Magdalenian spirit still at work. We cast out verbal filaments around which ideas materialize.
Ararat Masis Judi
The male triad of the Göbekli Tepe region would have been AAR RAA NOS and GIS BAL CA MmOS and AD DA MAN. He of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS would have been the sky god residing on the Karacadag at whose base the oldest breeded einkorn was found, 10,000 years old. The sky god was implored for rain. One of his helpers would have been the gesturing GIS hot(headed) BAL heavenly CA offspring MmOS who became GISh.BIL.GA.MISh Gilgamesh in Sumer, BAL Baal, and CA MmOS Kemosh in Moab. His other helper would have been AD DA MAN who created rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills and mountains, and did so with his right hand MAN.
The sky god in the form of the (sun) archer AAR RAA RYT would have resided on the mountains of Ararat mentioned in the Bible, overlooking the region called Ayrarat north of the beautiful mountain where the AAR RAA MAN Armenians dwelled, carrying out the will of the one of air AAR and light RAA with their right hand MAN, while the worshippers of the AAR RAA Hurri bull wandered from the northwest to the south of the mountain range where they settled on the shores of Lake Van, calling themselves Hurrites and their land Urartu, again for the sun archer AAR RAA RYT. Another name of Mount Ararat was mountain of the beautiful king Ara, AAR RAA MAN Araman Ara. North of the range flows the river Araxes, from AAR RAA KOS, filled with rain sent by the one of air AAR and light RAA who dwells in the heavenly vault KOS.
If the Armenian name of the mountain, Masis, doesn't go back to a personal name, it may derive from a short form of GIS BAL CA MmOS, MmOS Masis, the more so as Mount Ararat is a volcano.
Semitic / Arabic Judi Dagh may go back to the double formula invoking the supreme sky and weather god of the Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
ShA CA DhAG CA named Jahwe - ruler ShA in the sky CA, able one DhAG in the sky CA - while ShA DhAG would have named the mountain as abode of the ruler ShA who was able DhAG, together ShA DhAG Judi.
DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, accounts for mountain dag dagh dagi, also present in Judi Dagh, and for the sacred Du-ku mountain of Sumerian mythology where the early deities came from, identified with the Göbekli Tepe by Klaus Schmidt.
Azzi Hayasa Armenia
AC CA named the Göbekli Tepe as hill where the earth AC and sky CA were meeting, or where they had been separated from each other in the act of creation.
AAR RAA NOS was the sky god, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS. He was implored for rain with prayers and the smoke of sacrificial fires. Water was most important, a synonym of life SAI. Prayers for rain and the smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain rose upward AS while the rain rewarding the prayers and sacrificial fires fell downward SA, together we have SAI AS SA for the Göbekli Tepe, where the rain imploring rituals took place.
NOS AAR RAA Noah knew and obeyed the mind NOS of the one of air AAR and light RAA, he recognized the signs, a series of droughts followed by heavy rains, and decided to leave the region of the Göbekli Tepe some 9,500 years ago. Several Noah tribes followed the Euphrates downward, others upward.
AC CA Azzi and SAI AS SA Hayasa were Bronze Age tribes and vassals of Hattusas, the former dwelling north of the Euphrates and the latter south of Trabzon. King Hayk, named for the Hayasa tribe, united the neighbors and founded a nation that was called Armenia by the Iranians and Greeks in the middle of the first millennium BC. Hayk was a descendant of Noah and had himself a descendant in Aram named for the ancient AAR RAA MAN people, they who carried out the will of the one of air AAR and light RAA with their right hand MAN, a compound also naming the Aramaeans.
AAR RAA NOS became the Greek sky god Ouranos, and Varuna of the Indus Valley, originally a sky god, then relegated to the Underworld (comparable to the sun god Sol of Latium who became a chthonic god). He named valleys like the Val d'Aran and Arundel (Crown's evidence of the Vasconic theory of early language) and the Val d'Hérens in the western Swiss Alps, a valley being a hollow between hills and mountains filled with air and light ... The Val d'Hérens is joined by the neighboring Val d'Hérémence whose name I derive from AAR RAA MAN
AAR RAA NOS Ouranos Varuna Aran Arun- Hérens
NOS AAR RAA Noah
AAR RAA RYT Ararat Ayrarat Urartu
AAR RAA Hurri
AAR RAA KOS Araxes
AAR RAA MAN Aram Armenia Aramaean Hérémence
What are now isolated names had once been elements of a widespread and long lasting religion. Several religions followed each other while the basic pattern remained remarkably stable considering the opening lines of the Swiss national anthem that invokes God high up in a sea of light rays ...
NOS AAR RAA Noah became in our days a climatologist who watches for telltale signs, droughts followed by heavy rains, revealing that we change the climate, only that we can't leave our home, the planet on which we live. - show quoted text -
land of Kar-da (etymology of Kurd)
The Divine Hind of Altamira called life into existence, out of clefts and niches in the rock, also moon bulls, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days. KAL means cave, Underworld, and GAR named clefts and niches in rock where animals emerge from and disappear into, both in the cave art of Europe and rock art of Southern Africa, anticipating Vladimir Vernadsky's famous dictum of life being the metamorphosis of rock. DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, named mountains as abode of the able ones, deities, in the form of da dag dagh dagi.
GAR DhAG Kar-da Qurda Kurd
The Kurds are from western Asia. A Sumerian text mentions the land of Kar-da which is read as mountain da of Kar. In the light of Magdalenian we can read this name as GAR DhAG and translate is as follows: they who (or land of those who) worship the life giving goddess in a cave, and the able sky god on a hill or mountain.
The sky god may have been LIC AAR, he of light LIC and air AAR, counterpart of AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, and would have beome Lur, naming the Kurdish tribe called Lur, and Luristan as land of the Lurs, worshippers of LIC AAR Lur
LIC AAR LI AR L u R
KAL named the Kurdish tribes Kalhor and Kulmani, and GAR the Guran.
A bronze disc from a grave in Luristan, diameter 11.5 cm, around 1 000 BC, goes along with the above readings. A seated woman wearing a roof-like hat of twigs gives birth to a man whose round head and face emerge from her womb, from her vagina, under her, upside down. She is flanked by six star-flowers in the Orion pattern, and by a pair of antithetic ibices, midwinter emblem according to Marie E.P. König. In my opinion the goddess is a descendant of the Divine Hind Woman who called life into existence, also moon bulls, was honored with arbors and boweries, worshipped in the winter constellation of Orion, and flanked by a pair of antithetic ibices. The round head and face of the man may indicate the moon, or the sky god whose eyes were moon and sun. The life giving goddess would make the promise of a next life in the beyond for a worthy soul, equating the beginning of a life with the one of a year.
New Year followed the two and sometimes three days of the midwinter festival in the lunisolar calendar of the Göbekli Tepe, and is the main festival of the Kurds, although not - or no longer - coinciding with midwinter.
(on the reception of new ideas)
The so-called Impressionists (originally an abusive name) were banned from the Salon de Paris. A French art critic famously warned people from looking at their paintings: a labile person will have a fit, and a pregnant woman loose her child ... I can The so-called Impressionists (originally an abusive name) were banned from the Salon de Paris. A French art critic famously warned people from looking at their paintings: a labile person will have a fit, and a pregnant woman loose her child ... I can imagine what he would have posted on Usenet: A decent painter works in the atelier, only a fool goes and paints en plein air where the glaring light ruins his eyes. These morons claim they paint what they see. Hell yes, they ruined their eyes and now smear on their canvasses what sickness befell their retina, an eye sore for normal people, and a shame pour la Grande Nation, such a bunch of pseudos imposing themselves on us who know what real art is and wot is not, merde alors ...
Meanwhile most Salon painters are forgotten, their paintings lost, or banned to museum cellars, whereas the paintings of the Impressionists (now a name of honor) yield highest prices at auctions and belong to the most beloved art in the world. The public learned to see in a new and most rewarding way, learned that the Salon paintings were for the most part shadows of shadows of shadows of Rembrandt and other geniuses of the past, while the once ridiculed and despised Impressionists really painted what they saw, in the open light of a day in the field, with healthy eyes and a clear mind.
Turning things around one might say that a novelty is only really new and of consequence if it can make some people foam at the mouth, in the way of the above art critic.
While the Impressionists left the sombre ateliers and painted in the open light and fresh air, I change the perspective on language development. Instead of looking back on early language from the height of our time I make an educated guess about a remote past and then proceed forward in time, along the flow of time, and report what I see and encounter on my linguistic journey.
perception and language recognition,
We open the eyes and see. We wake up and hear. Very simple ...
Actually, perception is far from being simple. We don't just see and hear but we rather construct an image of the world in our mind on the basis of knowledge and a minimum of information we pick up from the senses, just enough so that we can fabricate a coherent image.
I remember an afternoon on an alp in the Engiadin. We sat in the grass, on a fairly steep slope, looked down on the valley, and made a funny discovery. When we used our binoculars, in turn, and found the sawmill far below us, we heard the noise. When we handed the field glasses over the noise disappeared, and when we got them back again and found the sawmill in the small vision field of the lenses it was back!
Apparently we reduce what we hear to a minimum, economy of perception. In the case of language recognition we reduce consonants to not much more than micro-pauses, and vowels to 'colors', and we do so without noticing. Most often the various agents of perception work together very well, only sometimes we get a glimpse of what really happens, and then most often in the form of a mild and temporary puzzlemment we can even find amusing.
If you delve deeper, as I did and do for meanwhile forty years, you can only marvel. We don't just wake up and hear, we don't just open the eyes and see. We construct an image of the world in our mind. We form the world according to our inner measure, each of us an artist. Remember the best and happiest and most hopeful moments in your life. Those are masterpieces in the museum of your memory, alive and real, and bearing a promise of eternity, for others will be born and see or form the world in the same way as we do or did.
Ebla in the wheat growing land of Minut
founded a colony at Knossos ruled by Minos
A double formula named Ebla in the land of Minut
SAP BIR LAC
MUC NOS DAI / SAI
They who find water everywhere SAP (here, in the south and north, east and west, below and above, in all seven places) and fill their bags of fur BIR (the SAP BIR apiru Hebrews from BIR SAP Beersheba) came here and built an irrigation system and ponds and a lake LAK
SAP BIR LAK A BI LA e B LA Ebla
here, in the land of astronomers who observe the bulls MUC of the moon and sun, and study the lunar and solar cycles with their mind NOS in a proteced area DAI, within the massive wall of Ebla / under the tree of life SAI
MUC NOS DAI MU Nu tI mu-nu-ti-um mnt Minnit
MUC NOS SAI Mi Nu the Min-Nu-The Minos
MUC NOS SAI C NOS SAI Knossos
Ebla was inhabited from around 3 500 BC onward and in full bloom under Abur-lim in 2 520 BC who might have been Eber mentioned in the Bible (Genesis 10:24) whose father Salah might have commanded waterworks in the watery ground SAL of the land AC
SAL AC SAL Ah Salah
SAP BIR AP BIR A BuR Abur Eber
SAP BIR AP BIR AP IRu apiru Hebrew
Wheat was grown in the region of Ebla since 9,000 years ago. A region called mu-nu-ti-um is mentioned at Ebla in around 2 200 BC, Ugaritic mnt, while the Bible speaks of wheat from Minnit (Ezekiel 27:17) and Linear A tablet Hagia Triada deciphered by Walther Hinz lists up amounts of wheat from Mi-Nu-The given to the priests of Adu and the priestesses of Dadumatha, she loved by the master.
Ebla was the trading center of Syria, with connections to far away countries like Egypt. We may assume that Ebla founded a colony on Crete, Knossos, ruled by Minos
MUC NOS SAI C NOS SAI Knossos
MUC NOS SAI Mi Nu the Mi-Nu-The Minos
Mi-Nu-The is given the same way in Hieroglyphic Minoan (ca. 2 800 BC) and Linear A and B (considerably younger), Mi by the head of a bull, Nu by the visual pun of a bull leaper standing on the feet hands feet, and The by a tree of life. Mi derives from MUC for bull, here the bulls of moon and sun; Nu derives from NOS for mind, here the mind of an astronomer coping with lunar and solar cycles; and The derives from SAI for life, here a tree of life.
DAI for protected area named Daidalos, builder of the labyrinth at Knossos, home of Minotaur. The legend of Minotaur and Theseus encodes a lunisolar calendar which anticipated the Metonic cycle of 19 years or 235 lunations (as explained in my previous Magdalenian thread, in a message of the long series 'tying up loose ends -- epic mind of the past', you may also consult my old page on very early calendars, a page I should work over calendar.htm ) while Ariadne's thread was an additive number sequence relating years and lunations and days
3-37-1092 8-99-2944 11-136-4016 19-235-6940 30-371-10956
The above may be seen as a further Magdalenian test case, one that offers a real, physical test. Ebla is being excavated since 1964, no longer than fifty years. We may expect more findings. I predict remains of an artifical lake in the vicinity of Ebla.
Ur Ebla Knossos
An inlaid front panel of the Great Lyre with bull's head from Early Dynastic Ur shows a belted hero grasping a pair of human-headed bulls. "The concept of the intertwined hero and human-headed bulls is not fully understood today, but here the image is related to the deceased" (Julian Reade, in: Art of the First Cities, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 2003).
My assumption is that one round-headed animal represents the moon, the other the sun, and their hair time, lunations and months of 30 days respectively, gained by the hero for the dead in the beyond.
Each bull has a beard of four tresses, plus a pair of locks hanging from the ears, in all 6 hair elements, while the hero has again a beard of four tresses, plus three and three large locks on his head, in all 10 hair elements
6 10 6
Additive number sequences may tell us what intervals of time the hero gains from the moon bull and sun bull
10 times 4 (plus 9) 13 22 31 40 years
from the moon bull
6 times 41 (plus 92) 133 225 317 409 lunations
and from the sun bull
6 times 41 (plus 92) 133 225 317 409 months
Longer periods of time
10 times 9 (plus 31) 40 71 102 133 164 195 years
from the moon bull
6 times 92 (plus 317) 409 726 1043 1360 1677 1994 l
and from the sun bull
6 times 92 (plus 317) 409 726 1043 1360 1677 1994 m
10,062 lunations plus 10,062 months of 30 days are 1,640 years minus ten hours, a tiny mistake on such a long period of time.
The magnificient lyre dates from between 2 550 and 2 400 BC. Abur-lim ruled Ebla in 2 520 BC where the same belted hero grasped a human-headed bull. The human-headed bull became Minotaur in Knossos, half bull half man, the hero Theseus, and the additive number sequences became Ariadne's thread.
What is now mythology had once been science at the fore front.
seminal year (answering a question)
1974/75 (summer to summer) was my seminal year. I outlined a book abc on perception, language, and culture.
We see what we look at with open eyes, we see really and magnified what we cover with our mobile attention, and we see clearly with a tiny spot of vision the size of moon or sun in the sky (central ray of vision according to Leonardo da Vinci, fovea in retina). We construct an image of the world in our mind based on knowledge and 'colored' by emotion.
Mona Lisa an allegory of seeing. John the Baptist in the work of Leonardo da Vinci the symbol of the artist who praises nature, work of God, greatest artist of all.
Marcel Duchamp understood Leonardo, wondered why nobody else did, made this the topic of his own work, developed a language of symbols.
Language is the means of getting help, support and understanding from those we depend upon in one way or another, and every means of getting help, support and understanding may be called language, on whatever level of life it occurs ... Word language evolving with tools and all the other human made things.
Visual language in art. John the Baptist in the last painting by Leonardo da Vinci addressing his pupils: I arrive at the end of my career and life, already half swallowed by a dark wall of dense air. But don't be sad when I go from you, and if you loose a great artist in me, look at nature, which I observed and studied and drew and painted, but my work is incomplete, and only a weak reflex of nature, brillant work of God above ...
The word culture names a both natural and artificial circle of life, way of life, and the task of integrating our human made things and the conditions we create into life and nature. Mathematics based on formula a = a (logic of building and maintaining). Nature and life and art based on Goethe's wider formula 'all is equal, all unequal ...' (art as human measure in a technical world).
My various interests came together in Magdalenian that relies on visual language and on symbols, cave art and rock art and mobile art, and on calendars for the mathematical part.
symmetry in art
Word language can be seen as a triangle defined by the corners language with needs and wishes, mathematics as logic of building and maintaining based on the formula a = a , and art as human measure in a technical world based on Goethe's formula and ever turning key, exemplified in his metamorphoses of plants and animals, also in his interpretations of art works: all is equal, all unequal ...
Here a passage from his essay Heidelberg (my translation)
All that should please must be structured, in a higher sense,
in such a way that it consists of parts which are mutually
correlated. This requires a center, an above and below,
an over here and over there, out of which arises symmetry,
decoration on the lowest level if completely understood.
The more varied the parts become, and the more that first
symmetry - intertwined, hidden, alternated in contrasts -
stands as an open secret before our eyes, the more we are
pleased, and completely so if we don't think of those first
prinicples anymore but are surprised as if by something
arbitrary and coincidental.
This wonderful passage (marvellous in the original) helped me understand compositions of the Renaissance and other periods of art history. You may try yourself. Name the center of a composition, then what is equal on either side, or above and below, then what is unequal in the equal, and then how the differences complement each other.
Mathematical symmetry based on the formula a = a holds a composition together, variations - unequal in the equal - render it lively, and the way the differences complement each other may be considered a symbol of love, Eros once having been a cosmic principle.
The name Eros goes back to Magdalenian ERO, inverse ORE meaning beautiful, and the permutation REO naming a river, personified in Rheia Rhea.
Considering symmetry in Magdalenian word forming one might wonder whether the principle of equal unequal and complementation also played a role in language development and the filling of the verbal morphospace, perhaps also for oscillations that mediate between the shifting of words and the requirement of a stable language?
Lascaux in the light of equal unequal
Marie E.P. König identified the bull of Lascaux and many other caves as moon bull, the horse as sun horse, the line of descending horses in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery as winter sun, giving way to a pair of antithetic ibices, midwinter symbol (December 21).
Applying the principle of equal unequal we may then see the glorious rotunda as midsummer (June 21), the red mare rising above the ledge as midsummer sun rising above the horizon in the early morning, the magnificient bull by her side as a full moon occurring at the same time, and the stags before him as Divine Stag whose proud antlers had been worshipped in our summer constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpio. The Divine Stag guarded the entrances to and exits from the Underworld passed by the sun horse and moon bull.
No moon bull in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery, his absence indicating the contrary of the full moon, the empty moon German Leermond.
No Divine Stag either, but an allusion to his wife, the Divine Hind or Hind Woman whose constellation was Orion, winter constellation across the sky from Sagittarius and Scorpio. The Divine Hind called life into existence, also moon bulls, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days. Orion as constellation of the Divine Hind Woman is indicated by the arcs of the horns and heads of the antithetic ibices, her emblematic animals, midwinter symbol.
The axial gallery connecting the rotunda of midsummer and niche of midwinter is then a year, the pair of lovely 'Chinese' horses in the middle of the axial gallery spring - also they move in clockwise direction, direction of the celestial bodies, heading from the niche of midwinter to the rotunda of midsummer ...
Next messages in sci.lang, also on Lascaux, the principle of equal unequal applied to the rotunda and thge other gangways. You can find sci.lang via Google (mkany thanks for maintaining the archive), also my earlier Magdalenian threads, for example the last one with an American adventure …