A Vision of Early Egypt (3/4) / © 1991-2002 by Franz Gnaedinger, Zurich, fg(a)seshat.ch, fgn(a)bluemail.ch / www.seshat.ch


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Part 3: Evidence in the Great Pyramid / How was the Great Pyramid built? / Chamber shafts, statues, a hidden chamber




11) Evidence in the Great Pyramid


All the required elements and some important numbers of Hemon's method (which I rediscovered in February 1994) are present and preserved in the Great Pyramid.


Jean-Philippe Lauer, who spent seventy years of his long life restoring the Djoser Complex at Saqqara, found a Sacred Triangle measuring 15-20-25 royal cubits (radius inscribed circle 10 royal cubits) in the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid 


  width                 10 royal cubits


  diagonal short wall   15 royal cubits

  length                20 royal cubits

  cubic diagonal        25 royal cubits


Georges Goyon defined the Great Pyramid as follows:


  height / half the base                  =  14 / 11

  height / half the diagonal of the base  =   9 / 10


The combined definitions lead to these numbers and ratios:


  height 63 a   base 99 a   diagonal base 140 a


  diagonal of the base / base  =  140 / 99


  base / half the diagonal of the base  =  99 / 70


The numbers 70-99-140 are provided by my first number column. - The gangway leading down is measured like this:


  vertical distance of ceiling and floor      72 fingers

  horizontal distance of ceiling and floor   144 fingers

  corresponding slope                        161 fingers


These numbers are found in my second number column.


  Height of pyramid   280 royal cubits

  half base           220 royal cubits

  slope   practically 356 royal cubits


  slope / half the base  practically 356/220  =  89/55


The numbers 55 and 89 belong to the so-called Fibonacci sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144 ... which is found in my number column for the approximation of the double square.


  Height of pyramid  280 royal cubits

  double base        880 royal cubits


  double base / height  =  880/280  =  22/7 or 3 1/7


The value 22/7 was provided by the first polygon of the above sequence. Let me use this value for calculating the area of the Taylor circle, an imaginary circle whose vertical diameter is given by the height of the pyramid:


  height = diameter = 280 royal cubits

                      140 royal cubits = radius


    area = radius x radius x 22/7

           140 rc x 140 rc x 22/7 = 61,600 square cubits


Now let us calculate the area of the pyramid's cross-section:


  height x base x 1/2  =  280 rc x 440 rc x 1/2  =  61,600 sc


The triangle of the cross-section and an imaginary circle whose diameter is given by the pyramid's height have the same area.




12) How was the Great Pyramid built?


The Great Pyramid, standing on a former hill sanctuary, was built as follows:



*  The ground around the hill was provisionally leveled


*  Two accurate north-south lines west and east of the hill were drawn using plumb-lines and pairs of circumpolar stars whose connecting lines passed through the pole (near Thuban, alpha Draconis). An astronomer observed such a pair of stars (for example Pherkad in Ursa Minor, and Mizar in Ursa Major) using a 5 royal cubits long plumb-line. When both stars passed the fine thread of his plumb-line, a horn was blown, the lower star near the horizon, now staying exactly in the north, was sighted by means of a series of 12 royal cubits long plumb-lines hanging from high scaffolds, and marks were set on the ground. This proceeding was repeated with several pairs of stars whose connecting lines passed through the pole, and the average of the marks was chosen as the final mark



               o  short plumb-line  (5 royal cubits)


               *  Pherkad


               *  Thuban



               *  Mizar






                                               *  Mizar





   ---m------------------------------------------- horizon

     mark       long plumb-line  (12 royal cubits)



*  Starting from a north-south line, a provisional grid of 50 x 50 squares was laid out. Each square measured 9 by 9 royal cubits (471.24 cm) while the diagonals measured 20 Horus cubits each (666.4 centimeters)


*  On every accessible cross-point of the grid a limestone block was placed, and on every block a piece of wood was fixed


*  The pieces of wood were leveled precisely by means of a large triangle with a plumb line, hereupon the device was turned and  an eventual mistake corrected


*  Now the grid of 50 x 50 squares was measured out precisely using a wooden cross with four nails a, b, c, d:


               a                    d


           d   +   b            c   +   a


               c                    b


  a-b = b-c = c-d = d-a = 9 royal cubits (471.24 cm)


  a-c = d-b = 20 Horus cubits (666.4 centimeters)


A measurement was carried out and marks were set on the wooden tops of the limestone blocks. Now the cross was turned and the marks were checked. If the nails of the turned cross matched the marks, all was fine; if not, the position of the nails were checked at a reference cross carved in stone, and the measurement was repeated


*  A pavement was laid


*  The slowly growing building under construction enveloped in the spiraling ramps was kept in shape by means of an imaginary 3-dimensional grid whose base measured 450 by 450 royal cubits, while its height measured 450 Horus cubits. A module measured 9 royal cubits x 9 royal cubits x 18 Horus cubits (471.24 cm x 471.24 cm x 599.76 cm)


*  Now the first layer of core blocks (local nummulite limestone) and of casing and ramp blocks (fine Tura limestone) was placed on the pavement; height 1/4 module = 18/4 or 9/2 Horus cubits = 149.94 cm or about 150 cm (actual height of the first layer of core and mantle blocks)


*  Four ramps began at the corners and spiraled up around the building, each time ascending by one module (18 Horus cubits or practically 6 m). The angle of the lowest ramps measured less than 1.5 (one point five) degrees. The angle slowly increased higher up; however, most of the blocks were needed for the first layers. At the base, a ramp was 10 royal cubits wide - 1 royal cubit was needed for protecting the building, 1 royal cubit for a balustrade, while 8 royal cubits remained as slide way for the sledges. - Volume of the ramps: less than 1/7 (one seventh) of the pyramid's volume. The ramps were made of fine Tura limestone, which, when freshly broken, is shining pure white. The building under construction, enveloped in the spiraling ramps, was very attractive


*  3 of the 4 ramps were used for climbing the structure; one ramp was used for bringing down the empty sledges. An average load of twenty tons was placed on a specially designed sledge and pulled by oxen


*  Mechanical devices were used for solving special tasks


*  When the pyramidion was placed on top of the pyramid, the blocks of the ramps were no longer needed, and so they were brought down and reused for other buildings in the pyramid complex: temenos wall, temples 
cult pyramid, queen's pyramids, boat pits, mastabas, and so on. The protruding ends of the casing blocks were carved and polished and were beautiful, in pure white.


Building the pyramid was hard work. However, Hemon and his helpers invented several ingenious methods in order to ease the labor involved. The workers were also well paid, and highly motivated, as the pyramid program was the greatest task on earth, promising eternal life not only for the king but also for his people.


What is a king without his people? A flame without a candle, a sail without a wind, a boat without a river, a roof without a house, a pyramidion without a pyramid. In fact, the gilded pyramidion symbolized the king while the millions of blocks making up the giant building symbolized his people, who also gained eternal life if only in the memory of mankind.




13) Chamber shafts, statues, pyramidion, a hidden chamber


The shafts of the King's Chamber and of the so-called Queen’s Chamber represented the raised arms of Shu, god of air and light, and Tefnut, goddess of moisture and fire 

The hands of these deities were symbols of the stars, the 5 fingers of a hand corresponding to the five rays of an Egyptian star.



King's Chamber


Northern shaft, Shu’s arm of air, curving around the upper end of the Grand Gallery, aligning towards Draco:



  vertical part  87 royal cubits above the base, 5rc long

  short slope  rise-run-slope 32-100-105 fingers

  long slope  tangent 2/3

  model triangle  6 rc - 9 rc - 17 Horus cubits

  floor line mouthing at a height of 155 19/32 rc

  ceiling line mouthing at a height of practically 156 rc



Southern shaft, Shu’s arm of light, aligning towards Sahu/Orion, heavenly abode of Osiris:



  vertical part  87 royal cubits above the base, 3 rc long

  short slope  rise-run-slope 71-84-110 fingers

  long slope  tangent 1/1

  floor line mouthing at a height of 157 33/50 rc

  ceiling line mouthing at a height of practically 158 rc




Shu was the god of air and light. His hieroglyph was an ostrich feather. He lifted Pharaoh's ba (soul) to Draco. Thuban, alpha Draconis, the then pole-star, and 10 Draconis nearby were the heavenly abode of Maat, goddess of truth, justice, order, and harmony. Her hieroglyph was also an ostrich feather. The age-old constellation of Draco was the Celestial Serpent. Its many stars were the 42 heavenly judges, namely Osiris and his assistants, among them ibis-headed Thoth, and jackal-headed Anubis. Draco's head was the Hall of Justice or Judgment Hall. Its four corner stars Rastaban, Eltanin, Grumium and Kuma were the four incorruptible sons of Horus: Imsety, Hapi, Duamutef and Kebehsenuf, who live by Maat, lean on their staffs and watch over Upper Egypt - In July, when the Nile rose, the head of Draco stood high in the sky at midnight, watching over Upper Egypt.


In the Judgment Hall of Osiris, Pharaoh's heart was weighed against the Maat's feather. If the king's heart was light, he was permitted to live; but if his heart was heavy with sins he was fed to a crocodile, and his soul and shadow were burnt by the snake Aarutankhut. If the king was true of voice and passed the weighing of the heart, he became a god, and Shu returned him to the pyramid, where he was raised as the sun child. When he had grown, Pharaoh left the pyramid, traveled with Re along the swaying kha-channel (or the band of the ecliptic: Rolf Krauss), and through the liquid fields (the Milky Way) where he, now in godly form, once again encountered the Celestial Serpent. Pharaoh's ba then traveled across the southern sky, to reach the magnificent constellation of Sahu/Orion, heavenly abode of Osiris.



So-called Queen's Chamber


Northern shaft, Tefnut's right arm, bending upwards and towards the northwest:



  vertical part  45 royal cubits above the base, 4 rc long

  short slope  rise-run-slope 20-21-29 rc (triple)

  long slope  bending upwards and towards the nordwest

  run - run - rise - slope  44-44-65-90 rc (peudo-quadruple)



  10 blocks  2/3 Hc by 2/3 Hc by 19/140 rc each

  10 purification chambers  2/3 Hc by 2/3 Hc bx 121/140 rc each

  total length of the ten block and chambers 10 royal cubits


  chest in oblique position, 51 fingers wide, 68 fingers deep,

  diagonal 85 fingers (Sacred Triangle 51-68-85), 132 fingers

  high, cubic diagonal 157 fingers (quadruple 51-68-132-157);

  outer measurements 67 by 84 by 148 fingers; statue of Khufu,

  7 Horus cubits tall, facing Cygnus, Wega and Draco


  total length of blocks, purification chambers and chest

  13 royal cubits, projection on the floor 9 royal cubits,

  cosine NW 9/13 (pseudo-triple 45-47-65)



Southern shaft, Tefnut’s left arm, aligning towards Sirius, heavenly abode of Isis:



  vertical part  45 royal cubits above the base, 3 5/6 rc long

  slope 121 royal cubits (National Geographic), rise 77 rc

  = 121 Horus cubits, run 93 1/3 rc (pseudo-triple 231-280-363),

  model triangle 5Hc - 27 palms - 5rc (pseudo-triple 245-297-245)



  10 blocks  2/3 Hc by 2/3 Hc by 19/140 rc each

  (depth of Gantenbrink block 6-7 cm, National Geographic;

  ideal measurement 17/140 rc = 7.106 cm)


  10 purification chambers  2/3 rc by 2/3 rc by 121/140 rc each

  (length of Hawass chamber some 45 cm, National Geographic;

  ideal measurement 121/140 rc = 45.254 cm)

  vertical distance floor ceiling 11/20 Hc = 7/11 rc

  horizontal distance 2/3 rc


  total length of the ten blocks and chambers 10 royal cubits


  chest, 51 fingers wide, 68 fingers deep, diagonal 85 fingers

  (Sacred Triangle 51-68-85), 132 fingers high, cubic diagonal

  157 fingers (triple 85-132-157, quadruple 51-68-132-157),

  outer measurements 67 by 84 by 148 fingers, containing

  a statue of Khufu, 7 Horus cubits tall, facing Sirius

  (chest and statue in oblique position)



  Imaginary chest of Osiris, standing upright, 84 fingers

  or 21 palms or 3 royal cubits wide, 120 fingers or 30 palms

  deep, 280 fingers or 70 palms or 10 royal cubits high, cubic

  diagonal 316 fingers or 79 palms (quadruple 21-30-70-79);

  outer measurements 4 royal cubits by 37 palms by 11 royal

  cubits; upper southern edge meeting the pyramid's ideal

  southern face at a height of 133 rc or 209 Horus cubits;

  imaginary statue of Osiris, standing upright, 14 Horus

  cubits tall



Cross-section of the shafts:


  2/3 by 2/3 Horus cubits, diagonal 3/5 royal cubits


 (actual cross-section 22 by 22 cm, Rainer Stadelmann;

 ideal measurement 2/3 Hc = 22.21333 cm)



Transforming the hypothetical chest into the pyramidion 


  height               84 fingers = 21 palms = 3 royal cubits

  base                 132 by 132 fingers

  diagonal base        6.666 royal cubits

  slope                6 Horus cubits

  edge                 7 Horus cubits

  area of one face     9 square cubits

  gilded surface       4x9 = 36 square cubits = 6 by 6 royal cubits

  inner surface chest  7 by 7 royal cubits


The mistakes are tiny. - Imaginary chest of Horus 


  72 by 72 by 84 fingers or 18 by 18 by 21 palms

  cubic diagonal 132 fingers or 33 palms,

  quadruple 6-6-7-11, cosine 84/132 = 7/11




Tefnut, in the Great Pyramid, observed the western sky, where Pharaoh was reborn: Nut, the king's mother, gave birth to him in the Occident. Pharaoh was seen in the constellation of Cygnus. Deneb was his head, and Wega his heart in a white alabaster canope. Pharaoh, in Cygnus, traveled through the liquid fields, where he encountered the Celestial Serpent Draco, whose head was the Judgment Hall of Osiris. In this hall Pharaoh' heart would be weighed against Maat's feather. Would he survive and become a god? Would he be true of voice? Would his heart be light, or heavy with sin? Would he be devoured by the crocodile Amemait, his soul and shadow burnt by the snake Aaruthankut? Fortunately the king could rely on the help of Tefnut. She was his purifying fire; she guided him across the sky and protected his heart (Wega) against the heavenly snake (Draco); and if the king were still attacked by the snake, she could save him by wielding Aquila, which follows Cygnus. In the constellation of Aquila was seen the magic device used for the ritual opening of the mouth. According to a modern physician, this mysterious device, a small adze, was actually used by Egyptian doctors to force open the tracheas of scorpion sting or snakebite victims: and if the king were attacked by the Celestial Serpent, Tefnut would employ it to save his life.


When Atair in Aquila rose above the western horizon, Tefnut in the pyramid looked towards Pharaoh's southern hand (zaeta Cygni) while reaching for his northern hand (iota and kappa Cygni): ... and Tefnut takes his hand in order to install him at the head of the two Enneads and the gods 

(Cygnus as Pharaoh, Deneb his head, Wega his heart, Draco as the Celestial Serpent, Atair in Aquila rising above the western horizon; Tefnut reaching out for the king's northern hand, guiding him safely across the sky, protecting his heart, and receiving him back in the pyramid)

(Osiris in the Judgment Hall, together with Maat, further deities, and a large snake; from the funerary papyrus of the priestess Nesitanebetisheru, ca. 900 BC)
(Atair and Aquila as the device used for the ritual opening of the mouth)


Tefnut was the life-giving goddess of moisture, and the goddess of fire. The bronze markings in the stones closing her shafts were hieroglyphs of the four holy torches tekau. A statue of the lion-headed goddess stood in the niche in the eastern wall of the so-called Queen's Chamber.


Nut, the king’s mother ... Nut is present in the imaginary hemisphere whose radius measures 262 Horus cubits (according to the golden sequence 8, 8, 16, 24, 40, 64, 104, 168, 272, 440 ...) or practically 173 royal cubits (according to the golden sequence 9, 16, 25, 41, 66, 107, 173, 280 ...). A chamber was built at the zenith of the imaginary hemisphere, 272 Horus cubits or practically 173 royal cubits above the base (90.6 m). This chamber was the womb of Nut, where Pharaoh grew as the sun child 


  length (E-W)      20 Horus cubits or 666.40 cm

  width  (S-N)      16 Horus cubits or 533.12 cm

  lateral height    12 Horus cubits or 399.84 cm

  axial height      15 Horus cubits or 499.80 cm


In the Sun Chamber, a statue of the young king 7 Horus cubits tall was placed, representing him as the sun child 





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