Lascaux 6 – making sense of Homer and the Bible / © 2014 Franz Gnaedinger 2014    (test version)



Homer’s Odyssey


We read the Odyssey in school. I liked the Greek language and the colorful adventures of the hero, especially his dramatic arrival at the coast of the Phaeacians, followed by an idyllic morning in pleasant Scherie (end of book five, beginning of book six). But I never understood what the epic is about. Until Eberhard Zangger published his Atlantis book, wherein he identifies pleasant Scherie as an early Troy, and the arrival there as a time travel 'avant la lettre'. When Odysseus realizes where he is, and what a lovely place he destroyed, or will destroy in the time perspective of the natives, he can't help weeping ... This gives the epic a perspective. Maybe there is a story line we can follow? Could Polyphem be Troy VIIa seen through Achaean eyes? The one-eyed giant resembles more a wooded mountain top than a man who eats bread. So his eye might have been the acropolis overlooking the river plain? And all the strange places Odysseus encounters might again be Troy, Troy in disguise, blended with other places and periods of time? visited in a long series of dreams? A further

major insight was the Homeric family of metals (Helen tin, Menelaos copper, Hermione bronze). By and by the epic made sense. Below a list of symbols and Magdalenian readings.


(Homeric symbols)


Polyphem -- Troy, his one eye the acropolis overlooking the river plain, his body downtown Troy VIIa providing protected shelter for five to ten thousand people, vulnerable after the Hittite empire collapsed

his cave -- Trojan harbor in the Besik bay

his goats and sheep -- foreign ships waiting in the harbor for favorable wind, asked for high fees and tributes, tolls on their cargo

horses -- ships of the early Trojans (Phaeakians), and of the Achaeans who avoided the harbor in the Besik bay and instead maintained an improvised harbor in the mouthing area of the Trojan rivers near the mosquito infested swamps (malaria episode)

Helen and her extended family -- tin, copper, bronze, andrasit and brass; Mycenaean bronze containing twelve or even fifteen per cent of tin, no tin in Greece, tin came from Central Asia, bound to pass the Hellespont where the Trojans laid hands on the precious cargo, abducting Helen, as it were

Trojan horse -- a beautiful and apparently abandoned Achaean ship dragged into the Besik harbor by Trojan sailors, Achaean soldiers hide within, leave the ship in the dark of the night, overcome the Trojan guards, acropolis alarmed via a chain of signals, Trojan troops hasting to the Besik bay, meanwhile Achaean troops storm the acropolis of Troy, probably in the summer of 1184 BC, blinding Polyphem, the one eye of the Much Famous cyclops who resembles more a wooded hilltop than a man who eats bread (Homer)

oxen of Helios -- freight ships on the Black Sea

transgression of Odysseus' men -- a raid on the Crimean fleet, prolonging the series of conflicts in the east

travels to strange places -- Odysseus dreaming, reaching Troy in disguise and blended with other places and periods of time (Homer anticipating Freud's dream logic)

pleasant Scherie -- early Troy, Phaeakians able pilots offering their good service to foreign sailors in the perilous waters of the Hellespont (Eberhard Zangger), Odysseus recognizes where he is, what a lovely place he destroyed, or will destroy in the time perspective of the Phaeakians, and can't help weeping, then arrives home for good (Zangger) where another task awaits him, taking it up with the shameless suitors of his faithful wife Pnelope

Penelope -- Peloponnese

her shameless suitors -- those who profit from the land without meeting their obligations

Athene -- history personified

Telemachos -- Far-away-war, far away from the Trojan war in time, Messenin wars, Homer of the Iliad living in the time of the first Messenian war, Homer of the Odyssey in the time of the second Messenian war, both compiling rich bardic material, both fearing for the unitiy of Greece

Plagues befalling Egypt in the Bible -- invasion of the Sea Peoples, testifying  to turmoils in the time of the Trojan war.


Homeric family of metals. Beautiful Helen was the symbol of tin, by then most precious, her white arms tin ingots, her long glittering robes she made herself the glittering tin ore cassiterite, her thread tin wire, by then cut out of hammered tin sheet. Her husband xanthos Menelaos was the symbol of copper, the color xanthos covering all hues of copper ore, yellow brown red. Their daughter was lovely Hermione who resembled golden Aphrodite, Homeric symbol of bronze, of a golden shine when freshly cast. Menelaos had a slave woman for a mistress, andrasit, a natural alloy of copper and zinc found in the Troas - zinc in enslaved form, as it were. Their son, strong late come Megapenthes, was the symbol of brass, harder than bronze, arriving late in the 'family' of metals.


When the world mountain was swept away in the deluge the beautiful reliefs on the walls and ceilings of the hall within, made of metals and gems, became loads and veins in our present-day mountains



(Magdalenian reading help)


ITA CA, young bull ITA sky CA, under the sky of the young Zeus bull, ancient name of the Peloponnese, Ithaca, surviving in the name of a relatively small island


ATI CA, mature bull ATI sky CA, under the sky of the mature Zeus bull, Attica


POL PAS and PAS LOP, fortified settlement POL everywhere in a plain PAS enveloping wall LOP, fortified settlements everywhere enveloped in walls, ancient name of the Peloponnese and especially the Argolis personified in Penelope


AD LAS, toward AD mountain LAS, land oriented toward the former mythical world mountain, Atlantis or Eurasia,  world mountain swept away by deluge, became present-day mountains, possible Atlantis epic by Trojan bard Demodokos 'Teacher of People', warning Trojans of hubris


KAL LAS, cave Underworld KAL mountain LAS, mythical hall inside former world mountain, home of metal people, Hellas, mythical home of the Greeks


KAL KOS, cave Underworld KAL heavenly vault KOS, beautiful hall inside former world mountain mirroring the heavenly vault, a memory of this hall surviving in the lofty hall of Menelaos (Odyssey book 4), Greek kallos 'beautiful' chalkos 'copper, bronze'


KAL EN, cave Underworld KAL in inside EN, Helen, beautiful Helen of the white arms, Homeric symbol of tin; Hellenes, originally miners from the banks of the Amu Darya in Central Asia, first Indo-European homeland


MAN LAS, right hand MAN mountain LAS, Menelaos who got rich by commanding copper miners who got the precious ore with their right hand MAN from mountains LAS


GRA KOS, painted cave GRA heavenly vault KOS, Graekoi Greeks, named for the beautiful hall in the former world mountain according to a myth of the early miners in Central Asia, 'paintings' carried out in metals, reliefs along the walls


TYR, to overcome in the double sense of rule and give, emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth)) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus


PAS, everywhere (in a plain), here, in the south and north, east and west


TYR PAS, overcomer everywhere, Zeus overcoming everybody everywhere in weather and time, TYR PAS temps, French for weather and time, also TYR PAS Taruwisa Troy, the mightys town once ruled by Zeus, itself an overcomer, exerting power over the Troas, fertile plain of Troy


POL LAD and POL LAs, fortified settlement POL on a hill LAD heightened by awe to a mountain LAS, consider the Palatin of Rome, also Pallas Athene, former patroness of POL LAS Wilusa Ilios Ilion, alternative name of Troy; Athene became a fierce enemy of Ilion and was the Homeric personification of history; her name from AD DA NAI, to find a new home on a river that flows toward AD the sea while coming from DA the hills and mountains, also a new home on trading routes that lead to one place while coming from another place, NAI AD DA accounting for Naiades, genitive and plural of naiax 'Naiade'


AD POL LOP, toward AD fortified settlement POL enveloping wall LOP, Apollo shooting an arrow of light or a sun beam toward the place of the gate of a future settlement, marking the place for a seer; faithful patron of Troy


PAD AD DA PAS TON, activity of feet PAD toward AD from DA everywhere in a plain PAS to make oneself heard TON -- he who follows PAD rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills and mountains, wherefrom Doric Poteidas, and everywhere PAS he and his horses come to they make themselves heard TON, wherefrom Greek Poseidon, originally the god of rivers, creator of the horse, faithful patron of Troy, although angry with Trojans for having been too hospitable, way more angry with Odysseus for blinding Polyphem, Homeric symbol of Troy, especially Troy VIIa


CO OC LOP, attentive mind CO right eye OC wall LOP, naming the organization of a fortified settlement, ruler of the focused mind in the center surrounded by watchful guards along the wall, Cyclops, cyclopic wall, the most famous Cyclops having been Polyphem 'Much Famous' who resembled more a wooded mountain top than a man who eats bread, Homeric symbol of Troy


PIR RAG, fire PIR towering RAG (a word of many meanings and derivatives, originally naming the line of head and back of an animal in cave art), signal fire on the hill Montmartre in Paris, France, guiding Neolithic boats on the Seine, while Paris prince of Troy overlorded the smiths and kept the signal fire on top of the acropolis, abducted beautiful Helen of the white arms, wife of Menelaos, confiscated Mycanean tin and thus caused the Trojan war.




making sense of the Bible  (very long)


foreword)  Hebrews, named by a Magdalenian double formula


BIR SAP named Beersheba in present-day Israel. BIR means fur, a word of very many derivatives, among them Hebrew beer 'well' in reference to fur and leather bags filled at wells, while SAP means everywhere in space, here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, in all seven places wherefrom words for seven in many languages including Hebrew sheba, also accounting for Greek sophia 'wisdom' and Latin sapientia 'worldly wisdom' acquired by exploring the world in all seven places.


BIR SAP Beersheba was a place of seven wells, inhabited by people who found water everywhere. The Chalcolithic culture of Beersheba comprised Meggido in the north, Beersheba in the south, and Telelilat Ghassoul across the Jordan in the east. You can find pictures of the amazing art of this culture in books by Jean Perrot who led several archaeological campaigns in that region. The elegant figurines and symbols are similar to the ones from Predynastic Egypt, raising the question whether the mysterious people of the Beersheba culture contributed to the rise of Ancient Egypt?


Consider the parallels between ShA SAP Joseph, ruler ShA of the (BIR) SAP (Beer)sheba people and Imhotep, vezir of King Djoser. Beersheba people might have been among the founders of the school of Imhotep. "Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall" (Genesis 49:22). Joseph called his second son Ephraim "For Godhath caused me to be fruitful" (Genesis 41:52). The name Ephraim contains BRI meaning fertile.


SAP BIR apiru named descendants of the BIR SAP Beersheba people in the Nile Valley who worked on water projects, led by Aaron in the time of Ramesse II. Aaron was a believer in the ancient sky god from the Göbekli Tepe, AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, implored for rain. Aaron's rod turned into a snake, ancient water symbol, meaning he surpassed the water engineers or magicians of Ramesse II.


We can't read an epic or the Bible in the way we read modern books of history and sociology and geography. We have to understand the symbols. For example the plagues that befell Egypt symbolize the invasion of the Sea Peoples in the time of Ramesse II. DA PAD David, away from DA activity of feet PAD, was the generic name of the early rulers of Judaea and Israel, delivered from the paw of the lion (Egypt) and bear (Hattusas), and from the 'paw' of Goliath (Sea Peoples). Another generic name would have been SAL MAN Solomon, overseer of water works, of those who worked in the watery ground SAL with their right hand MAN.


Israel derives from AS RAA )  or AS RAA L, the Lord up above AS in an aureole of light RAA has the say  )  or L, while Judaea derives from ShA DhAG, the ruler ShA is able DhAG, meaning the heavenly ruler ShA CA DhAG CA Jahwe, abbreviation of the double formula naming the supreme weather god of the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age and Iron Age





Now we might look out for a double formula naming the Hebrews





  'They find water everywhere'

     is their name NAM

  'and make the land fertile'

    working with their right hand MAN



Israel  (aleph)  Göbekli Tepe and Beersheba


First part of the Göbekli Tepe creation myth, as told by the hieroglyphs on the 'throat' of the female central pillar of temple D, 11 600 BP




The fire giver PIR GID called out to her sister the fur giver BIR GID. This one took her cosmic fur and scooped the primeval hill out of the primeval sea. PIR GID called out to her sister the fertility giver BRI GID. This one took the primeval hill and formed it into a ring, the ring itself being the primeval earth AC and the hollow in the middle the primeval sky CA. In the hollow of the ring appeared a male face, the sky god whose eyes were moon and sun, AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS ...


The big limestone ring on the Göbekli Tepe shows him ex negativo, in the round hollow, as a head or face with ears on the sides, consisting of nothing than air and light.


The archaeological excavation of the Göbekli Tepe began in 1996. Ten years earlier a large karstic cave was discovered in Samaria, in the middle between Beersheba and Hazor (almost exactly in the middle of their connecting line), a mysterious cave, rich in stalagmites and stalactites, used as a burial cave, the ossuaries containing bones of more than twenty people, and then, in Grave X, in the passage from the main hall to the lower cavities, eight heavy rings, two of pure gold, one of a darker and five of brighter electrum (natural alloy of gold and silver), earliest gold artefacts in theChalcolithic period of the Beersheba or culture, some 6,000 years old. In my opinion, these rings are connected to the above creation myth, representing the stage when BRI GID formed the primeval hill into a ring, the boss marks on the hammered surfaces of the eight rings suggesting the impressions of her fingers, the rings themselves representing the earth AC andthe hollows the sky CA, together AC CA, alternative name of the fertility giver BRI GID who formed the primeval earth around the primeval sky and planted the seeds of life -- AC CA Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve.


An ivory figurine from Safadi near Beersheba, between 6,000 and 5,500 years old, shows a pregnant woman, her womb a hemisphere. Instead of a navel she has a hole in the form of an exact circle, indicating that she is the fertility giver BRI GID alias AC CA Hawwa Eve.



Israel  (beth)  Jacob and Joseph


Jacob left Beersheba, heading for Haran (forty kilometers south of the Göbekli Tepe), and sleeps on a hill, under the open sky, at a place called Luz, then Beth-el 'House of God'. In a dream he sees the Lord on top of a heavenly ladder, we may assume in an aureole of light, and the Lord speaks to Jacob, appointing him ruler of this wilderness, and making the promise that he will have many children and become the father of a people (Genesis 28:14)


  And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth,

  and thou shall spread abroad to the west,

  and to the east, and to the north, and to the south;

  and in thee and thy seed shall all the families be blessed.


An angel gives Jacob a new name, Israel, Jacob Israel



  ruler ShA

  expanse of land with water AC

  father ABA


  AS RAA )   or   AS RAA L

  upward AS

  light RAA

  to have the say ) or L


Jacob saw the Lord up above AS, we may assume in an aureole of light RAA (consider the former place name Luz, from Magdalenian LIC for light and luck, Latin lux), and the Lord spoke ) or L to Jacob


  ShA AC ABA   Ja'aqob  Jacob


  AS RAA )    AS RAA L   Israel


Jacob Israel would have been the founding father of the Chalcolithic Beersheba culture, while the eight heavy gold and electrum rings found in the cave Nahal Qanah may have been the Israel rings of his followers - average weight 124 grams, average outer diameter 45 mm, average inner diameter 27 mm. Imagine to hold one of those rings in your hand, to hold it upward AS to the light RAA of the sky, and imagine the Lord speak to Jacob, appointing him ruler of a wilderness and promising him to become the father of many children that will be called Children of Israel ...



Israel  (gimel)  water of life


Jacob owned a deep well at Sychar, from which he and his children and his cattle drank, so it was a big and yielding well, near a parcel of land Jacob gave his son Joseph. Sychar is near the Nahal Qanah cave. The name Sychar may go back to SAI GAR, life SAI fissure in rock GAR, water of life SAI from a hole in the ground GAR (allowing Jesus the metaphor of living water, John 4).


Pebbles with red ocher signs were found on floors of subterranean houses at Beersheba, Abu Matar and Safadi, arranged in arcs that evoke fur bags filled with water at a well. BIR meaning fur named a well - Hebrew beer - as place where fur and leather bags were filled. So the pebbles might represent wells, and the ocher signs inform about their size and quality, for example the frequent cross might indicate a big well over which a cross of beams was placed, allowing to fix ropes. We may imagine the same signs on rocks by the actual wells (long faded, of course).


Jacob would have been the mythical founder of the Chalcolithic BIR SAP Beersheba culture, and Joseph the leader of the SAP BIR 'apiru engaged in water works. "Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall" (Genesis 49:22). Joseph called his second son Ephraim 'the fertile one'. This name would go back to SAP BRI MAN, everywhere SAP he makes the land fertile BRI working with his right hand MAN. The short form SAP BRI would have become Aramaic 'Ibhraij gentilized Ibri English Hebrew, and would have been confounded with a word meaning across - they across the Jordan (from the perspective of Assyria), they who came across the Jordan (from the perspective of Palestine).



Israel  (daleth)  Asherah and her tree of life


Jacob Israel would personify the Chalcolithic Beersheba culture, and his son Joseph the contributions of this culture to the rise of Egypt. Ivory figurines from Beersheba and Safadi resemble Predynastic Egyptian figurines. Less obvious are the numerical connections.


The original Göbekli Tepe sanctuary would have been a circle of a dozen poles around a pair of larger poles in the center, each pole representing a month of 30 days, and the space between the central poles 5 and occasionally 6 more days, in all a year. 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months (count 15 and 17 lunations in the 30 29 30 mode each, and double the numbers).


Replace the central poles by a tree of life in the middle of the circle and an altar of four horns beside the tree and you get the Asherah sanctuary encoded on pendants from Teleilat Ghassul and on a curved ivory box from Safadi, showing either a circle of 12 or 9 poles around the tree of life in the center, branches pointing upward, and an altar near the tree, slightly off the center. The circle of 12 poles represent the Göbekli Tepe calendar, numbers given above, while the 9 poles represent long months of 40 days and lead to another and even better definition of the lunation that was found as follows, the ratios meaning lunations to long months


  11/8 (plus 4/3) 15/11 19/14 23/17

  19/14 (plus 23/17) 42/31

  23/17 (plus 42/31) 65/48 107/79 149/110


110 contiunous periods or 4,400 days are an excellent value for 149 lunations.


Asherah was a fertility goddess. Her calendar sanctuary would have been called





Enter the sanctuary of the fertility goddess and her tree of life ASh whose branches point upward AS to the one of air AAR and light RAA ...


Asherah would have personified the tree of life, as the Egyptian sky goddess Nut personified her sycamore.


The month of 30 days was adopted by Egypt while the lunisolar relation was conveyed by the story of Horus and Seth and wise Thoth. AAR RAA CA Horus, he in the air AAR and light RAA of the sky CA, was a falcon, his left eye the moon and his right eye the sun. Seth destroyed his lunar eye. Wise Thoth healed it, adding up the numerical parts '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64 to The Whole One. Multiply a month of 30 days by the series of the Horus eye '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64 and you obtain 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes for a whole lunation of 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.9 seconds (modern average from 1989 AD).



Israel  (he)  fable of Moses


The Desert Princes known as Hyksos kings ruled Egypt from Avaris in the eastern part of the Nile delta, where they employed Minoan artists, why not also a Hebrew workforce?


Centuries later, Pi-Ramesse was built on the runis of Avaris. Merenptah recorded his victory over Canaan on a stele. "Israel is ruined, and has no more seed." Ideograms of a man and a woman make clear that Israel is a people, not a country, the people of Israel in Canaan, which would also have affected the Hebrews or children of Israel in Goshen.


Ramesses III is inthroned. A Hebrew child is born in the outskirts of Pi-Ramesse, abandoned by his desperate mother, placed in an ark of bulrushes in the flags by the river's brink, found by a princess, raised at court, and simply called ms(w) 'child', Magdalenian MmOS meaning offspring.


MmOS ms(w) Moses believes to be a son of Ramesses, but this one wouldn't know him. Once the boy hides on a stairway, and sees the great man pass by, but only from behind. Why doesn't he know me and allow me to come near and see him in the face? am I a bad boy? in some way guilty of the problems that absorb him?


The so-called Sea Peoples invaded Egypt in year eight of Ramesses' reigning time, soldiers and refugees coming along the shore of Asia Minor and across the sea. I believe that the consequences of their invasion are symbolized by the drastic plagues that befell Egypt. In the Bible, these plagues are effected by Moses in the name of the Lord who planned to free the children of Israel via Moses. We may then assume an imaginary guilt of the child Moses, later turned into a divine mission.


Moses discovers affinities with the Hebrews, finds a 'brother' in Aaron, commits an act of compassion and rebellion, flees via the Sinai to Midian, sees how seven (!) maiden draw water from a well, protects them from an assault, marries Zipporah - whose name might be one more derivative of SAP BIR -, daughter of a priest, and learns about Jahwe, storm god and rider of clouds from Mount Seir.


He returns to Egypt, meets Aaron, and together they gather a few families that are willing to leave Egypt. Moses and Aaron regard them as founders of a future people of 600,000 men - seeing the tree in the seed, as it were, a seed they hope to plant in the promised land, where it may grow to a tree of twelve boughs, a people of twelve tribes ...


430 years after a Hyksos king engaged a Hebrew workforce, Moses and Aaron and a few families and scholars and priests left Egypt, Goshen, and wandered toward the southern tip of the Sinai. Moses got water out of the rock or mountain Horeb.


Ramesses III died, the last one of the great pharaohs.


The heavenly Lord appears above Mount Sinai, in a glory of brightness, and speaks to Moses. He combines Jahwe and Ramesses III. This time he knows Moses, invites him to climb the mountain, where he shall see him from close, but he must hide between rocks, and look at the him through a cleft, and only from behind. The Lord reveals that he sent the plagues that befell Egypt in order to free the children of Israel. Moses realizes that he has a chance to free himself from his guilt by obeying the Lord and making the children of Israel obey the Lord as well. He receives the laws, and the ten commandements, which he writes on two tables, five one each table. He spends forty days and forty nights on Mount Sinai. Then he descends. All children of Israel see him come, his face shining. Still above them, up above AS, his face a light RAA, he talks to them ) or L ... He became the voice of AS RAA ) or AS RAA L Israel, leader of the children of Israel, the rightful successor of Jacob and Joseph.



Israel  (vav)  ark of wisdom


The Israel ring symbolized creation (primeval earth AC around primeval sky CA), birth and rebirth, AC CA Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve, consider also the Indo-European earth goddess akka mentioned by Julius Pokorny, and CA AC Gaia the Greek earth goddess), mother and child, present and future, body and soul, realitiy and hope ...


The children of Israel, spending time in the desert, made an ark that was 2.5 cubits long, 1.5 cubits broad and again 1.5 cubits high. Use these measurements for an Israel ring, inner diameter 1.5 cubits, outer diameter 2.5 cubits


  0.5 - 1.5 - 0.5 sum 2.5 cubits; proportion 1 3 1 sum 5


It has the same proportion as the average of the eight Israel rings from the Nahal Qanah cave


  9 - 27 - 9 sum 45 mm; proportion 1 3 1 sum 5


Use the numbers 5 and 3 from the proportion of the ring. Draw a circle of radius 5. Draw the horizontal axis and the vertical axis. Draw parallel lines to the axes in the distance 3. The lines will cross the circumference of the circle in eight rational points defined by the Sacred Triangle 3-4-5. Draw a circle of radius 25. Eight more rational points of the circumference are defined by the triple 7-24-25. Draw a circle of radius 125. Eight more rational points o the circumference are defined by the triple 44-117-125. Draw a circle of radius 625. Eight more rational points of the circumference are defined by the triple 336-527-625. And so on. The subsequent triples can be obtained via a linear algorithm. If you connect the points, you get a sequence of rounder and rounder polygons that never really exhaust the circle but provide good values for pi, symbolic of human wisdom that can get closer and closer to the divine wisdom without ever really reaching it.



Israel  (zayin)  combined measures


Consider the following measures of length based on the fingerbreadth or simply finger of 1.875 cm from the New Kingdom of Egypt


  Jacob cubit 21 fingers or 39.375 cm

  Joseph cubit 22 fingers or 41.25 cm

  Moses cubit 35 fingers or 65.625 cm


Combine these measures and you can get several practical formulae


  If the diameter of a circle measures 1 Jacob cubit

  the circumference measures 3 Joseph cubits


  If the radius of a circle measures 1 Jacob cubit

  the area measures 3 Joseph cubits by 1 Jacob cubit


  If the diameter of a sphere measures 1 Jacob cubit

  the surface measures 3 Joseph cubits by 1 Jacob cubit


  If the diameter of a sphere measures 2 Jacob cubits

  the volume 2 by 2 Jacob cubits by 1 Joseph cubit


  If the diameter of a circle measures 1 Moses cubit

  the circumference measures 5 Joseph cubits


  If the radius of a circle measures 1 Moses cubit

  the area measures 5 Joseph cubits by 1 Moses cubit


  If the side of a square measures 4 Moses cubits

  the diagonal measures 9 Joseph cubits,

  and if the side measures 9 Joseph cubits

  the diagonal measures 8 Moses cubits


The ark was 2.5 cubits long, 1.5 cubits broad, and again 1.5 cubits high, in Joseph cubits 55 by 33 by 33 fingers. Assuming the boards were 2 fingers thick or strong, we get 51 by 29 by 29 fingers for the capacity which would correspond to a cube measuring 1 by 1 by 1 Moses cubit, with a very small mistake


  51 x 29 x 29  equals  35 x 35 x 35 plus 16


Use the Jacob cubit and the Moses cubit as inner and outer diameters of an Israel ring


  inner diameter 1 Jacob cubit or 21 fingers

  inner circumference 3 Joseph cubits or 66 fingers

  ring 7 fingers

  outer diameter 1 Moses cubit or 35 fingers

  outer circumference 5 Joseph cubits or 110 fingers

  area 1 Joseph cubit by 1 royal cubit of 28 fingers

  (the sum of 1 Joseph cubit and 1 Moses cubit being

  2 royal cubits or 56 fingers)

  proportion 7 21 7 sum 35, or 1 3 1 sum 5


The resulting ring has again the same proportion as the average of the eight rings from the Nahal Qanah cave. One might say the ark, by its own numbers, contained a virtual Israel ring.



Israel  (cheth)  numbers and names


The children of Israel in the desert lived by the two calendars of Jacob (Chalcolithic Beersheba culture). A year had 12 months of 30 days, plus 5 and occasionally 6 more days, while 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days - or 270 weeks of 7 days, the week given to Moses by the Lord on Mount Sinai - and correspond to 64 lunations. Or a year had 9 long months of 40 days, plus 5 and occasionally 6 more days, while 110 continuous periods of 40 days are 4,400 days - or 440 long weeks of 10 days - and correspond to 149 lunations. 12 also numbers the tribes of Israel, 40 the days Moses spent on Mount Sinai and the years the children of Israel spent in the wilderness - 40 years or 25 Venus years or 495 lunations -, avoiding the heat of the day, watching the moon by night.


The Magdalenian way of counting lunations was: 3 nights of the young moon, 6 nights of the waxing moon, 9 nights of the full moon, 6 nights of the waning moon, 3 nights of the old moon, alternately 3 and 2 nights of the empty moon. NEG for the old moon could have named the Negev, inverse GEN for the young moon the desert of Sin or Zin, and GEN NAI, young moon GEN to find a good place for a camp NAI, the Sinai.


The children of Israel were a few families and scholars, regarded as the seed of a people to come: may they reach the promised land of milk and honey, prosper, multiply, and grow to a people of 600,000 men ... The big number, a dream number, as it were, has many meaningful factors: 2 of earth and sky / 3 of Jacob and Joseph and Moses and their cubits / 4 cardinal directions / 10 commandments, 5 on each table / 12 months in a year, poles of the Asherah sanctuary, tribes of Israel, corners of the polygon of rational corners in the circle of radius 5, four corners defined by the cross of the axes, eight more by the Sacred Triangle 3-4-5 sum 12 / 30 days of a month / 40 days of a long month / 64 lunations in the shorter lunisolar cycle / radii 5 25 125 625 3125 of the circles with inscribed polygons of rational corners.


The children of Israel spent a long time at Kadesh-barnea. From there they reached a place called Beer "... the well whereof the Lord spake unto Moses, Gather the people together and I will give thee water. Then Israel sang this song, Spring up, O well ..." (Numbers 21:16,17). Beer might have been a well near Kadesh-barnea whose original name might have been CA DhAG BIR NE, sky CA able DhAG fur BIR out of NE - the heavenly one CA who is able DhAG spoke from a well, from a place where bags of fur BIR are filled with water, out of NE a well spoke the Lord.


BIR NE KAL, fur BIR out of NE cave Underworld KAL, might have been the full version of -barnea, BIR Beer as place where the bags of fur BIR were filled with water out of NE a hole KAL in the ground, NE KAL Hebrew Nahal (pronounce the h like the ch in Scottish loch) naming a river or brook that springs from a well German Quelle.


Another name of Kadesh-barnea was or still is En Mishpat, perhaps from MmOS PAD, Moses walked.


South of Kadesh-barnea is a mountain that was or still is called Sapher or Shapher or Shepher, perhaps one more derivative of SAP BIR, the mountain at whose base the SAP BIR 'apiru camped.



Israel  (teth)  Polyphem and Goliath


Polyphem was a cyclops, a one-eyed giant, wearing his eye on the forehead. He resembled more a wooded mountain top than a man who eats bread. His name means Much Famous. He lived from sheep and goats he milked in his cave. Polyphem was the Homeric symbol of Troy, his one eye the acropolis overlooking the river plain of the Troas, his body downtown Troy VIIa that provided protected shelter for 5,000 to 10,000 people, his cave the Trojan harbor on the Besik bay, the sheep and goats foreigns ships, and the milk he lived on were high fees asked from foreign sailors waiting for favorable winds in the Trojan harbor on the Besik bay.


Polyphem has a parallel in the Bible, Goliath, mentioned in 1 Samuel 17, a giant Philistine from Gath. He stood on a hill and shouted across the valley to another hill on which the army of Israel gathered. Young David, herding sheep, was ordered to join the army of the Israelites. His weapon was a sling and stones. Goliath asked him whether he considers him a dog he can chase away by throwing stones? Then Goliath cursed David, and attacked him. David slung a stone, hit Goliath in the forehead, the giant fell, David severed his head and brought it home, as trophy and sign of victory, while the Philistines fled.


Now the same story deciphered along the symbols.


The Philistines were a Sea People that settled on the southern shore of Asia Minor. Gath was their forteress highest up in the hills, where the Israelites lived, semi-nomads dwelling in small tents that may have looked like grazing sheep. The Philistines planne to conquer the hills of Palestine. They built a camp on a hill, opposite a hill of the Israelites. The main tent had four corner posts or legs and was compared to the 'sheep' tents of the Israelites a 'dog'. It had sort of a tower for a neck, and a standart of shining metal for a head, visible from afar, shouting the message WE COME AND CONQUER THE HILLS ... Around the 'neck' of the big tent was wound a long strip of leather with 5,000 shekel of mail, some fifty kilograms of metal, contributing to the message, and naming the main tent, GO) IAT or GOL IAT Goliath, GO) for mouth or neck and IAT for a strip of leather. The weapon of David was a sling and clay bottles filled with a burning liquid, perhaps on the basis of asphalt and sulphur which set

the Goliath tent afire and made the Philistines flee, whereupon David got the standart, former 'head' of the big tent, and brought it home as trophy and sign of victory. His name goes back to DA PAD, away from DA activity of feet PAD - David delivered from the lion, delivered from the bear, and delivered from the hand of Goliath. While the lion symbolizes Egypt and the bear Hattusas, Goliath symbolizes the Philistines who planned to conquer the hills of Palestine.


As the story of Polyphem summarizes the Trojan war from the viewpoint of the Achaeans, the story of David and Goliath summarizes the failed expansion of the Philistines into the hills of Palestine from the viewpoint of the children of Israel.



Israel  (yod)  house of the Lord


And it came to pass that Solomon began building a house of the Lord (1 Kings 6), 60 cubits long, 20 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high. Remember the three combined measures


  Jacob cubit 21 fingers or 39.375 cm

  Joseph cubit 22 fingers or 41.25 cm

  Moses cubit 35 fingers or 65.625 cm


If the basic numbers of the temple are Jacob cubits we have a room measuring 60 by 20 by 30 Jacob cubits, or 36 by 12 by 18 Moses cubits, or 23.625 by 7.875 by 11.8125 meters, diagonal exactly 70 Jacob cubits or 42 Moses cubits or 27.5625 meters.


Floor and ceiling might have been consecrated to Moses, diagonals practically 38 Moses cubits; the long walls to Joseph, diagonals practically 64 Joseph cubits; and the short walls to Jacob, diagonals practically 36 Jacob cubits.


The ark was kept in the so-called oracle, a cube measuring 20 by 20 by 20 Jacob cubits or 12 by 12 by 12 Moses cubits, occupying the hind third of the temple, diagonal square 27 Joseph cubits, diagonal cube 33 Joseph cubits. No walls were needed for the oracle, just a curtain, 20 Jacob or 12 Moses cubits long and high and away from the rear wall, a curtain of precious material, a pair of cherubs embroidered on them with gold thread, charged with static electricity as magic protection of the ark behind the soft wall.


The entrance was in the short eastern wall, a Jacob wall. The window above the entrance may have been an Israel ring of these numbers


  height of center 20 Jacob or 12 Moses cubits

  inner diameter 1 Jacob + 1 Joseph + 1 Moses cubit

  circumference 7 Moses cubits

  ring 1 Jacob cubit

  outer diameter 120 fingers

  c. 35 22 35 22 35 22 35 22 35 22 35 22 35 sum 377 f


The implicit pi values 245/78 (7 Moses cubits divided by the sum of the three cubits) and 377/120 are found as follows


  4/1  (plus 3/1)  7/2  10/3  13/4  16/5  19/6  22/7


  3/1  (plus 22/7)  25/8  47/15  ...  245/78  ...  377/120


Jacob saw the Lord up above AS in a glory of light RAA and heard him speak ) or L, together AS RAA ) or AS RAA L Israel that became Jacob's  byname. Luz was renamed into Bet-el 'House of the Lord'. From the hill of Luz or Bet-el one sees down on the hill of Jersualem, where the hous of the Lord was actually built, commemorating the dream vision of Jacob Israel, marking the northeastern corner of a triangular prozession way, the other two corners having been a pair of columns commemorating Joseph in Egypt and his dreams of seven fat and seven meagre years, to the southwest of the temple, and a flat rock with a carved stone ring and a carved basin in the hollow of the ring, commemorating the miracle at Beer near Kadesh-barnea in the wilderness, also on the temple hill, to the south of the temple. The procession way led back to the house of the Lord, which, this time, celebrated the united kingdom of Israel and Judah in the era of Solomon, heir of the combined legacy of Jacob and Joseph and Moses.



Israel  (kaph)  pair of pillars and molten sea


From the house of the Lord on the Temple Mount at Jerusalem, in the northeast of the sacred precinct, where the dream vision of Jacob at Luz or Bet-el had been commemorated, the pilgrims walked to a pair of columns in the southeast of the sacred precinct - one column bright, the other dark, each crowned by a band of brass, commemorating Joseph in Egypt and his dreams of seven fat and seven meagre years; in 1 Kings 7 a pair of pillars, 18 cubits high apiece, while the cirumference measured 12 cubits, and they were entirely made of brass by the skilled metal worker Hiram of Tyre. Here a modified and more realistic version


  height 18 Moses or 30 Jacob cubits

  circumference 12 Joseph cubits

  diameter 4 Jacob cubits

  height of brass band at top 2 Jacob cubits

  remaining height 7 times 4 Jacob cubits

  for the fat (bright) and meagre (dark) years


Then the procession went to a flat rock south of the house of the Lord, gathering together around a stone ring carved on the top, the vertical rim decorated with the carved horns of 3 and 3 and 3 and 3 oxen marking the cardinal directions. In the middle of the horizontal stone ring was carved a basin, and coated with brass by Hiram, called the molten sea. 1 Kings 7 gives 10 cubits for the diameter of the molten sea, and 30 cubits for the circumference, yielding 30/10 or 3 for pi. Here again a more realistic version


  diameter stone ring 10 Jacob or 6 Moses cubits

  circumference 30 Joseph cubits

  660/210 or 22/7 for pi

  diameter basin 6 Jacob cubits or 236.25 cm

  circumference 18 Joseph cubits


The basin, coated with brass, and filled with water, commemorated the miracle of Beer in the wilderness, near Kadesh-barnea. The Lord spoke out of the ground, telling Moses to gather his people together, whereupon he will provide them with water. Israel (the children of Israel) gathers together and sings a song, Spring up, O well. The nobles dig a hole, and really, it fills with water and becomes a well from where the people and the cattle drink. The story is told in Numbers 21.


Now imagine the pilgrims on the temple mound at Jerusalem gathering together around the molten sea, around the stone ring framing the basin filled with water, watching the sky up above AS and its light RAA mirrored in the surface of the water, listening to the voice ) or L of a priest reciting the words the Lord spoke out of the well at Beer, and singing the song of Beer: Spring up, O well ..., feeling as children of  AS RAA )  AS RAA L  Israel.


Why a sea and not a well? The sea is filled by rivers that begin as brooks that spring as wells, and in like manner the numerous people of the united kingdom of Israel and Judah descended from the children of Israel who gathered together around the well at Beer in the wilderness.



Israel  (lamed)  pool below Gihon spring, menorah


The molten sea with a diameter of 10 cubits, a circumference of 30 cubits, a brim of one hand, a depth of 5 cubits, and an enormous capacity of 2,000 baths might combine two places: a ring and basin carved in a flat rock on the Temple Mount, commemorating the miracle of the well at Beer near Kadesh-barnea in the wilderness, and the pool below the Gihon well in the Kidron Valley, east of the citadel, "unto the place against the sepulchres of David" (Nemehia 3:16).


The cubit of the pool might combine the three measures of length in yet another way


  3 Jacob and 2 Joseph and 1 Moses cubits

  21 21 21 plus 22 22 plus 35 sum 142 fingers

  outer diameter 10 combined cubits

  inner circumference 30 combined cubits

  outer diameter 32 1356 32 sum 1,420 fingers

  brim or 'hand' 32 fingers (60 centimeters)

  inner diameter 1,356 fingers (25.425 m)

  inner circumference 4,260 fingers (79.875 m)

  pi value 355/113

  3/1  (plus 22/7)  25/8  47/15  ...  355/113

  depth 5 Joseph or 3 Moses cubits or 105 fingers

  (196.875 cm)

  bath 2 by 2 by 2 or 4 by 2 by 1 Jacob cubits

  (filling of a tub, 488 liters)

  capacity a little more than 2,000 baths

  (brimful 2,047 baths)


A circle on the brim (dividing it from the outside into seven and eleven parts) has a circumference in fingers that equals 12 years in days. Imagine a dozen poles marking the New Years, indicating the poles of the Asherah sanctuary, the months in a year, and the tribes of Israel - each pole the standard of a tribe, bearing a torch by night.


An emblem of the Asherah sanctuary would have been the menorah in the house of the Lord, MAN AAR RAA menorah, right hand or simply hand MAN air AAR light RAA, symbolizing the children of Israel led by Jacob and Joseph and Moses, rising their arms and hands MAN toward the heavenly one of air AAR and light RAA, upward AS to the light RAA from where the Lord spoke ) or L ...


Numbers of the (brazen) menorah


  height 1 Jacob and 1 Joseph and 1 Moses cubit

  21 22 35 sum 78 fingers (146.25 cm)

  radii semicircles 7 14 21 fingers

  arcs 1 2 3 sum 6 Joseph cubits

  poles and arcs 10 Jacob or 6 Moses cubits



Israel  (mem)  royal pool and orchard


Between the Gihon spring (or springs) and the large pool of the 12 tribes of Israel, each represented by a brazen standard on the brim, their circle in fingers 12 years in days, might have been a small royal pool of these numbers


  diameter 10 Jacob or 6 Moses cubits

  circumference 30 Joseph cubits

  (393.75 and 1,237.5 cm respectively)

  depth 6 Jacob or 3 Moses cubits

  (196.875 centimeters)

  capacity 2,000 times 12 liters

  (half an amphore of 23.8 liters)


The royal pool might have been surrounded by a wall in the shape of a dodecagon, inner numbers


  diameter 510 fingers

  3 Jacob 6 Joseph 9 Moses cubits

  or 4 Jac 3 Jos 6 Mos 3 Jos 4 Jac

  height 99 fingers

  2 Jacob 1 Joseph 1 Moses cubits

  side 132 fingers or 6 Joseph cubits

  diagonal side 165 fingers

  2 Jacob 4 Joseph 1 Moses cubits

  proportion side 99-132-165 or 3-4-5

  periphery wall 72 Joseph cubits

  area wall 18 by 18 Joseph cubits


Imagine the pool surrounded by the wall of twelve sides in an orchard of pomegranates, Punica granata, a shrub or small tree, with red blossoms of six petals followed by 'love apples' of six chambers rich in seeds, branches hanging over the wall. Genesis 50:22 and Solomon's Song 8:2


  Joseph is a fertile bough,

  even a bough by the well;

  whose branches run over the wall


  I would make thee drink spiced wine

  of the juice of my pomegranates.



Israel  (nun)  Solomon


DA PAD David, away from DA activity of feet PAD, named the David people in the hills of Palestine, delivered from the paw of the Egyptian lion, from the paw of the Hittite bear, and from the hand of the Philistine Goliath.


SAL MAN Solomon, watery ground SAL right hand MAN, named those who worked in the watery ground SAL with their right hand MAN, also the overseers of waterworks, and personified the united kingdom of Israel and Judah between around 900 and 835 BC.


Ahab ruled from 871 to 852 BC. He was a great builder. We may assume that he employed the best achitects. Among them the unknown genius of the Temple Mount at Jersualem?


In 867 BC, year four of his reigning time, Ahab might have given order to plan a temple. The first ideas might have been rather trivial and little satisfactory. Then the 'unknown genius' might have presented an appealing and convincing new concept: a house of the Lord commemorating Jacob's vision at Luz or Bet-el 'House of the Lord' in the wilderness; a pair of pillars commemorating Joseph in Egypt and his dreams that prophesized seven fat and seven meagre years; and a molten sea commemorating Moses at Kadesh-barnea and the miracle of the well at Beer in the wilderness ...


The building of the temple might have begun in 854 BC, toward the end of Ahab's reigning time. This would have been 480 years after the Exodus (1 Kings 6:1) - a first Exodus occurring in 1334 BC, at the end of Akhenaten's reigning time?



Israel  (samekh)  fable of Ezekiel, heavenly Jerusalem


Ezekiel was a priest, astronomer and mathematician from Jerusalem, deported to Upper Mesopotamia in 597 or 587 or 582 BC, held captive by the river (channel) of Chebar, east of Haran and the Göbekli Tepe.


One late morning he witnessed a rare phenomenon, a double rainbow high in the sky, the inner bow a full circle around a sun veiled and unveiled by thin clouds - up above AS a glory of light RAA wherefrom the Lord spoke to Ezekiel in the divine voice ) or L of an inspiration, together AS RAA ) or AS RAA L Israel: he may regard the double rainbow as a heavenly Israel ring, a heavenly Jerusalem composed of time-space, of days and years and lunations and Venus years, heavenly cycles revolving within each other, wheels in wheels ...


He then calculated a model of the heavenly Jersualem, based on a flexible unit of time, a measure that slightly varied around 63/64 of a day. 30 measures were one lunation or synodic month, 371 measures a year, and 1,484 measures were 1,461 days or 4 years.


The wall around the heavenly Jerusalem was 4 times 4,500 measures or 18,000 measures long, with 12 gates, one for each tribe of Israel, each gate 12 measures wide, framed by a pair of gateposts, each gatepost 2 measures strong, while the arcs of the wall from one to the next gate were 1,484 measures or 1,461 days or 4 years long. Three arcs and gates yielded 1484 2 12 2 1484 2 12 2 1484 2 12 2 sum 4,500 m, The circumference of the outer circle (wall) had a length of 18,000 measures or 600 lunations, while the diameter had a length of 191 lunations


  6/2  (plus 22/7)  28/9  50/16  72/23  ...  600/191


Four opposite gates marked a square of the side 135 lunations


  3 7 6, 10 13 20, 23 33 46, 56 79 112, 135 191 ...


Turn the area of the square into the circle around the Temple Mount. Its diameter will be 4,500 days.


The 12 gates defined a dodecagon whose periphery was 30 Venus years, nearly 48 solar years, while the dozen arcs of the wall between neighboring gates had a total length of 48 solar years, mirrored in the 48 chapters of Ezekiel's book.


May the heavenly Jerusalem descend on earth, and may the measure of time turn into a measure of length, a Jacob or Joseph or Moses cubit. May the divine Jerusalem become real, with an outer wall of 12 gates around the city mentioned at the end of Ezekiel's book, and an inner wall around the Temple Mount ...


The ark is not lost. It survives in the Bible, a book of symbols, a treasure of memories.


Homer and the Bible had been taken literally, then rejected as mere fiction. Now the time has come for a middle way. We may look out for symbols and study the logic of oral tradition.



Israel  (ayin)  heavenly Jerusalem on earth


Let one measure be one Moses cubit (M) or 35 fingers or 65.625 centimeters, and combine it with a Moses rod (R) of 125 centimeters, defined as follows


  35 fingers or one Moses cubit

  40 Moses cubits are 21 Moses rods

  200 fingers are 3 Moses rods

  finger(breadth) 1.875 cm

  measure or Moses cubit M 65.625 cm

  Moses rod R 125 cm


The combined measures allow again practical definitions


  diameter circle 20 M circumference 33 R

  side equilateral triangle 20 R height 33 M

  edge cube 20 R diagonal volume 66 M

  double square 27 by 54 R diagonal 115 M


The Moses rod also turns the heavenly Jersualem of Ezekiel's vision into an ideal earthly Jerusalem


  circumference outer wall 18,000 measures

  or 9,540 Moses rods or 11.8125 kilometers

  diameter outer wall 3,008 R or 3.76 km

  side inscribed square 2,127 R or 2.65875 km

  diameter inner wall 2,400 R or 3 kilometers

  circumference inner wall 7,540 R or 9.425 km


If the outer wall was 4 R or 5 meters strong (at the base), 300 R or 375 meters remain for the ring, area nearly four square kilometers. Guards would have walked along the top of the outer wall, whose 12 gates were named for the tribes of Israel. Guards would have lived and workers and artisans and traders worked inside the ring, where also stores and magazines would have been found, while most people would have lived inside the inner wall, around the Temple Mount. Above the 12 smaller gates of the lower inner wall could have stood 12 towers for the poles of the Asherah sanctuary, while the tree of life would have grown on the Temple Mount - a tree whose branches pointed upward to the light wherefrom the Lord spoke.



Israel  (pe)  logic of the Bible


Oral tradition fixed in early writing loved symbols, telling names and numbers, turned inner qualities into outer decoration, inner features into attributes, blended similar events and places, and, if possible, encoded built structures in telling numbers that were easily memorized (like the Magdalenian double formulae of the Ice Age, surviving until the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age and Iron Age) and allowed their basic reconstructions, turning embellishments, finery and flourishes back into the beauty of ingenious and meaningful solutions along the formula 'simple yet complex'. While we enjoy the luxury of gigabytes, the early scribes had little writing space for saying it all.


God created the world in six days - not at once, but step by step by step, which is a hallmark of evolution. Moreover the number six ikeeps a memory of the female triad and male triad engaged in the process of creation according to (my interpretation of) temple D on the Göbekli Tepe. The Bible is deeply rooted in the past. Reading it properly we can regain the wisdom, and reconcile it with modern science and historiography.


(note for the ethnomathematical community)


What is mathematics? In my opinion the logic of building and maintaining. And what is ethnomathematics? I use a wide and pragmatic definition: mathematical ideas, approaches and methods from all over the world, and from all periods of time; simple yet complex; admirable and intriguing; helpful and useful one way or another. When asked for examples I mention the beautiful African fractals, patterns of the Sona, or two African fans of wickerwork I have at home, one made of a palm leaf, the other from colored plastic strips - I never tire studying them. Concerning Bible maths I'd say we can profit from studying the artful combination of systematic early methods based on addition, of exact results and approximations, which, in a way, denote our human condition: we know some things, of many others we have rather vague ideas and hunches, yet when we combine them in an artful way we manage to feel at home in the world ... 



Israel  (sadhe)  Gihon spring, markings


You may remember the fertility giver BRI GID who shaped the ring of the primeval earth AC and the hollow of the primeval sky CA wherein the sky god AAR RAA NOS appeared, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, visualized by the big limestone ring on the Göbekli Tepe. 


BRI GID in her emanation of AC CA, she of the earth AC who made the sky (god) CA appear, became the Indo-European earth goddess akka mentioned by Julius Pokorny, and Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve, while inverse CA AC named the Greek earth goddess Gaia.


Priestesses of BRI GID in her AC CA emanation asked the sky god for rain. Prayers for rain and the smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain were symbolized by snakes heading upward, while falling rain rewarding the sacrificial fires, filling river beds and water holes, was symbolized by snakes heading downward. Snakes are by far the most frequent symbols on Göbekli Tepe pillars. AAR RAA NOS had a believer in Aaron whose rod turned into a snake, meaning that he excelled at finding water, and even surpassed pharaoh's water engineers (magicians). AC CA in this context accounts for Latin aqua 'water' Spanish agua.


The four large signs carved in a floor of the Gihon spring may read AG V'


  AC CA   akka   AG V'   Hawwa   Eve

  AC CA   aqua   AG V'   agua


They indicate a zigzag band, ideogram of water, abstract version of a winding snake, ancient water symbol. Moreover the signs reading AG in the lower line, from right to left, evoke a pair of mountains, while the V sign of the upper line V' again from right to left is inserted into the space of the 'mountains' along the ancient idea of AAR RAA NOS filling the  empty space between hills and mountains with air and light, accounting for valley names like Val d'Aran, Arundel, and Val d'Hérens in the Swiss Alps, while the short vertical line ' would add falling rain to the picture.


We may then assume that the Gihon spring was consacrated to Hawwa 'mother of all life', and this would explain how it became the source of the river of life in Ezekiel 47: "... and everything shall live whither the river cometh."



Israel  (koph)  Adam and Eve, a heavenly fish


AD DA MAN belonged to the male triad of the Göbekli Tepe and participated in the creation of the world. He made rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills and mountains, and made them with his right hand MAN. His byname SAL MAN says that he worked in the watery ground SAL with his right hand MAN. His favorite guise was a fish that swam in the heavenly river or lake CA LAK overformed by Greek Galaxy 'Milky Way', a SAL MAN salmon in the northern regions, or a LAK *loks 'salmonid, salmon (trout)' Old Norse lox Old English leax New English lox and German Lachs for salmon, Tocharian B laks 'fish', and a simply a fish in the southern regions, PIS meaning water in motion but also bodies moving in water, fish, while the constellation of the heavenly fish in the celestial river was called 





heavenly vault KOS fish PIS right eye OC attentive mind CO, together something like: wise fish in the heavenly vault, looking down on creation. The fish became the Salmon of Knowledge in Celtic mythology, separated from the creator of rivers, now a being of its own; and LAK Loki in the Norse AD DA Edda, a trickster and shape shifter, once a great help to the gods, then mocking the gods, fleeing, turning himself into a salmon, hiding beneath a waterfall, but discovered, caught, and held in a firm grip by Thor, which is why the salmon's tail is tapered. In southern regions, KOS PIS KOS OC CO became Cassiopeia, queen of Ethiopia.


AD DA MAN and the fertility giver BRI GID whose alter ego was AC CA were consorts. AD DA MAN Adam as human being was the early farmer digging irrigation channels, while SAL MAN Solomon was the overseer of waterworks. BRI GID in her emanation of AC CA akka AG V' Hawwa Eve cultivated cereals. Next to the AG V' sign carved into the floor of a cave in the Gihon spring at Jerusalem was found a cereal press. The deep grooves of the AG V' sign evoke irrigation channels. CA for sky became V' in the upper line of the Gihon spring markings, written ' V (from right to left), reminding of the Cassiopeia constellation near the zenith, in a narrow passage of the heavenly river.



Israel  (resh)  Bath-sheba


Here is how the constellation of Cassiopeia can be seen as a fish 


  beta Cas  (right eye)

  alpha Cas  pectoral fin  (breast of Cassiopeia)

  gamma Cas  spineous dorsal fin

  delta Cas  anal fin

  eta Cas  caudal fin  (eye of Cassiopeia)


This would have been the Celtic Salmon of Knowledge.


One of the Jewish personifications of Cassiopeia was Bath-sheba, mother of Solomon, wise king Solomon whom the Lord loved.


Bat or bath 'house' may derive from PAD for the acitvity of feet. We go out of the house and return to the house that is in a way the center of our steps. Making a bed and building a house require a flat ground, achieved in the simplest way by padding around.


Sheba derives from SAP meaning everywhere (in space), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, in all seven places, wherefrom words for seven in many languages including Hebrew sheba, also Greek sophia 'wisdom' and Latin sapientia 'worldly wisdom' acquired by exploring the world in all seven places.


Bath-sheba combining the two words would name the heavenly (spiritual) abode of Solomon's mother, in the apex of the heavenly river CA LAK Galaxy Milky Way, a river that passes the four horizons, south and north, east and west, changing with the revolving sky, descending toward AD the Underworld KAL, then again emerging from DA the Underworld, and in the middle of the wide circle of that river is the world in which we live, Jerusalem ruled by wise king Solomon.


Picture Jerusalem in the era of Solomon, at midnight of the spring equinox. Cassiopeia, abode of Bath-sheba, is in the zenith, while the heavenly river rises from the eastern and descends to the western horizon. At midnight of the summer solstice it rises from the northern and descends to the southern horizon.


In the Celtic belief rivers and lakes and the Underworld were connected, so the Salmon of Knowledge, epitome of knowledge and wisdom, SAP sophia sapientia, swum both in the earthly rivers and lakes and in the heavenly river, his image in Cassiopeia representing the 'above ' among the SAP seven places of the world.



Israel  (shin)  Solomon Jedidiah


Bath-sheba, wife of David and mother of Solomon, had been the wife of Uriah the Hittite whose death was instigated by David (2 Samuel 11,12) - in my opinion one more symbolic story, perhaps combined with a real occurrence. The name Uriah the Hittite reminds of AAR RAA (NOS) from the Göbekli Tepe in Anatolia. David taking away his wife may refer to the collapse of the Hittite empire and rise of the David people in the hills of Palestine, another heir of the Göbekli Tepe culture.


The Lord gave Bath-sheba and David a son who was called Solomon. His byname was Jedidiah 'whom the Lord loves' 


  SAL MAN  ShA -: I -:


ShA accounting for Je- in Jedidiah is the beginning of a double formula invoking the widely worshipped supreme weather and sky god of the Bronze Age





  ruler ShA activity of feet PAD to overcome

  in the double sense of rule and give TYR

  upward AS sky CA,

  The ruler ShA goes ahead PAD and overcomes

  in the double sense of rule and give TYR

  up above AS in the sky CA,

  the able one DhAG ... 


The formula contains many names, for example ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove; DhAG PAD TYR Dis pater, byname of Jupiter; TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus; DhAG Dios, genitive of Zeus, perhaps a former byname; ShA CA DhAG CA Jahwe, storm god and 'rider of clouds' from Mount Seir (!) in the Negev; ShA PAD Shiva ...


  ShA CA DhAG CA  Jahwe    ShA  Ja- Je-


The lip lick  -: I -:  or LIL (produce the consonant given as  -:  by touching both lips with the tip of the tongue) is present in the name of the Divine Hind or Hind Woman who called life into existence, her main sanctuary being Altamira where she appears as a large and very beautiful hind, licking the horns of a small bison under her  hind1.JPG , calling moon bulls into life, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 ... days. CER -: I -: has a derivative in herd, series, another in the name of Hera, cow eyed Greek goddess. Among the derivatives of  -: I -:  are lyoba, call of herdsmen to their cattle in the Swiss canton of Fribourg, from a similar Celtic call; German Leben English life, German Liebe English love, Latin libido 'desire', English lip (licking the lips may once have been a sign of love and desire, still can be a sign of appetite and lust), Latin bibere 'to drink' (thirst being a mighty desire), the female given name Lily and the flower lily, Ukrainian lyalka 'doll', Ugaritic dd 'loved (by)', Phoenician Dido 'Loved one', dadu- of dadumatha 'loved by the heavenly master' (Linear A tablet Hagia Triada 95 deciphered by Walther Hinz in the wake of Cyrus H. Gordon) and d-d in the Hebrew form of the same name or title d-d-ym-sh (on a Hebrew seal from Tell Djemmeh, found 1960 by Yigael Yadin), the ending -dida in Jedida (2 Kings 22:1), and -didiah in Jedidiah (2 Samuel 12:25)


  SAL MAN  ShA -: I -:    Solomon Jedidiah


MAS named the Magdalenian master hunter, then any master, also the heavenly master, Linear A ma-tha, Hebrew m-sh, while inverse SAM named a Magdalenian hunting group, then any company, also a gathering in the name of the heavenly Lord, SAM  )  or SAM L  Samuel the speaker of a gathering in the name of the heavenly ruler and master who has the say  ) or L, the word  )OG or LOG.



Israel  (sin)  etymology of Jerusalem


Jerusalem was inhabited from the fourth millennium BC onward (Gofel south of the old part of town), called Urusalim on clay tablets from Ebla, between ca. 2 400 and 2 150 BC, a name composed of uru 'town' and salim 'hail'. The origin of uru 'town' might have been AAR RAA, naming an acropolis as place of air AAR and light RAA, while salim 'hail' might go back to SAL MAN, watery ground SAL right hand MAN, indicating those who worked in the watery ground and cared for clean water on which the well-being of a town depended and still depends. We have then AAR RAA SAL MAN Urusalim jrwshljm Jerushalajim Hierosolyma Jerusalem, place of air AAR and light RAA belonging to those who work in the watery ground SAL with their right hand MAN (note that AAR RAA would have one more derivative in Greek hieros 'holy')


   AAR RAA SAL MAN     uR u SAL iM


This would go along with the inscription of the Gihon spring, the four large signs that may read AG V' and name the ancient fertility giver BRI GID in her emanation of AC CA akka AG V' Hawwa Eve, in the context of AC CA aqua AG V' agua, consecrating the well to Hawwa 'mother of all life' and thus explain how it became the source of the majestic river of life in Ezekiel 47.




defining the meter, a historical joke  (new version, written while working on the Bible series, contribution for the ethnomathematical project My 100m)


David Eugene Smith wrote and compiled one of my all time favorite histories of mathematics (1925, 1953, Dover New York 1958) and says in the chapter on the Metric System (pages 648ff in volume II of the Dover reprint from 1958) that the meter was originally conceived as 1 / 40,000,000 of the Earth's circumference, but "Owing to a slight error in finding the latitude of Barcelona, the original idea of the unit was not carried out, but a standard meter was fixed ..."


How did this happen? Let me tell you a fable.


Napoleon in Egypt was accompanied by a trail of 167 great scholars, among them 21 mathematicians, and among them several royalists who either hid their opinion, or were tolerated as long as they kept silent because they were needed for the ambitious project of the "Description de l'Egypte." Now imagine the royalists among those mathematicians, returned to France, holding a secret meeting, and discussing the new measure of length:


-- Measuring the distance from Dunkirk to Barcelona failed, so we need another idea to fix the new unit of length. How about using the royal cubit we found in the measurements of the Great Pyramid at Giza, monument of the sun king of all sun kings, and thus honor our own late sun king? Let me define the unit as diameter of the circle the circumference of which measures 6 royal cubits of the Great Pyramid, and call it mčtre 'meter', short for diamčtre 'diameter' ...


The royal cubit of the Great Pyramid measures 52.36 cm (confirmed to me by Prof. Dr. Rainer Stadelmann in a letter from the 1990s). If the circumference of a circle measures 6 of these cubits or 314.16 cm, the diameter 100,00023 cm or 1.0000023 meters or simply 1 meter.


  6/2  (plus 22/7)  28/9  50/16  72/23  ...  600/191


If the circumference of a circle measures 600 of those cubits or 314.16 meters, the diameter practically 191 cubits or 100.0076 m or simply 100 meters.


(By the way, my experimental reconstructions of early and very early mathematics paved the way for Magdalenian.)