Lascaux 12 – various topics, among them the bird goddess of Old Europe, eye-formula and wheel-metaphor, etymology of word, what are numbers?, a deep dualism, mathematical logic based on the formula  a = a  and the wider logic of equal unequal, Etruscan in the light of Magdalenian, Proto-PIE belt  /  © 2016 Franz Gnaedinger




  (bird goddess and Horus falcon – early calendars)


In the spring of 2004 the Vinca (vincha) script arose my curiosity. What if the bird goddess of Old Europe (a term coined by Marija Gimbutas; Mesolithic and Neolithic Balkans) had been Ki Ri Ke given as cross line angle? surviving in Homer's Kirkae English Circe? and could the schematic bird woman depicted on a shallow bowl from Gradesnica in western Bulgaria and a Bohemian pottery mark have encoded a calendar of the four seasons?  kirike30.GIF / kirike31.GIF


     25 25 25  16  25 25 25  16  25 25 25  16  25 25 25  16 plus 1 or 2  days


are a regular year of 365 and occasional leap year of 366 days, the short periods of 16 16 16 and 17 or 18 days covering the equinoxes and solstices.


Now there is a lunar aspect. Seven lunations or synodic months counted in a Stone Age way are matched by several sequences of nine calendar periods each


     30 29 30 29 30 29 30 sum 207 days


     25 25 25 16 25 25 25 16 25 sum 207 days

     25 25 16 25 25 25 16 25 25 sum 207 days

     25 16 25 25 25 16 25 25 25 sum 207 days


Near the end of 2004 followed the lunisolar calendar of the Göbekli Tepe and the Horus modification of Ancient Egypt.


Göbekli Tepe calendar: a month had 30 days, a year 12 months plus 5 and occasionally 6 more days, while 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months; mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime.


(15 and 17 lunations counted in the 30 29 30 mode yield 443 and 502 days respectively. 17 15 17 15 17 or 17 32 49 64 81 lunations are then 502 443 502 443 502 or 502 945 1447 1890 2392 days.)


Horus calendar: the solar eye of the Horus falcon represented a month of 30 days; the lunar eye one lunation or synodic month of 30 days multiplied by the Horus eye series '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64 yielding 29 '2 '32 days or 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes (modern average of a synodic month 29d 12h 44m 2.9s).


This calendar was encoded in the myth of Seth who destroyed the lunar eye of the Horus falcon whereupon wise Thoth healed it by assembling the parts '2 and '4 and '8 and 16 and '32 and '64 of the metaphorical eye (a story being more easily memorized and remembered than mere numbers).


Early 2005 saw the reconstruction of the amazing lunisolar calendar of Lascaux and start of the Magdalenian 'time travel'.


Now for the names of the Horus falcon and the bird goddess Ki Ri Ke of Old Europe in the light of the Magdalenian approach to early language.


AAR RAA NOS was the sky god of the Göbekli Tepe region, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS (of his own). His guises were a bull or a man (his head visualized ex negativo by the big limestone ring) or a bird. His bird emanation accounts for Basque aruna 'eagle, vulture' and German Aar, König der Lüfte, poetic for eagle, king of the airs (plural).


AAR RAA became Greek hora (with omega, long o) that covers a variety of short and middle and long periods of time, time originally counted and measured via changes of light RAA in the air AAR - day and night, moving sun and moon and stars. Latin hora Italian ora French heure English hour have restricted meanings (one hour some 30 diameters of sun or full moon along the ecliptic).


AAR RAA CA named Horus as the one of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA, the longer version CA AAR RAA CA the bird goddess Ki Ri Ke via the onomatopoeic shortening


     CA AAR RAA CA   ki Ri ke     Ki-Ri-Ke  Kirkae  Circe


Athene appeared in the bird guises of the sea eagle and the little owl Athene noctua. A warning call of the latter is rendered as Kij Kij Kij in German and kekeke in English


     Kij Kij Kij   kekeke   Ki Ri Ke


Kirkae hovered as owl above the men she guided, 'owl-eyed Athene' rose into the sky 'like an owl'.


The bird woman on the bowl from Gradesnica resembles a song thrush known for beautiful melodies. Kirkae sung in a beautiful voice while weaving her cloth in a cave. We may assume that she wove the fabric of life.




  (how the edible olive arrived in the Argolis – Phaistos Disc again)


Here is how the edible olive reached the Argolis – a hermeneutic hypothesis that may one day be tested genetically, since the genome of the olive has been decoded.


Derk Ohlenroth deciphered the Phaistos Disc, a pair of clay discs baked together. One side is about Tiryns, the other about Elaia’s grove at Phigalia. Here my translation in freestyle English.


Tiryns disc, spiral text, beginning with the rosette in the center, self-deification of Eponymous Tiryns who compares himself to Zeus the shining one via shining Tiryns:


     Zeus is the shining one also when Zeus is the Lycaion one

     whose lovers give birth to his equals. And if Tiryns is a shining town,

     I, (Eponymous) Tiryns, am the shining one’s equal


Tiryns disc, text along the margin, beginning with the rosette, a banning formula of archaic power, warning potential intruders, enhancing the protection provided by the palisade around the acropolis of Tiryns with word magic:


     Marked by the god and lonely forever and without any hope for salvation

     shall return without a shadow who tries to intrude the sanctuary

     (Zeus shrine in the former Round Building on top of the acropolis)


Elaia disc, invoking Despoina whose taboo name was Nyx ‘Night’, daughter of Demeter-Elaia in the guise of a mare (Black Demeter-Melaina) and Poseidon in the guise of a stallion; instructing a visitor of the grove how to call forth Nyx and get the oracle of her priestesses:


     Enter Elaia’s grove and kindle peeled wood, beat the ground around

     the smoke and neigh suddenly like a pair of horses (imitating the couple

     of Demeter-Elaia and Poseidon in their equine guises): Aio ! hyauax!

     Come, Shadowy One, Noble Late Night, born anew by the goddess


Follows my archaeological and historical interpretation (differring from the one by Ohlenroth) in form of a fable.


A hopeful young man from Lycosoura on the Peloponnese loved to visit Elaia’s grove where he learned all about planting cereals and edible olives (Greek Elaia means olive) and keeping bees in transportable hives. Also he got an oracle by the priestesses who were fond of him: Take a handful of cereal grains and an armful of olive twigs to the Argolis and cultivate the plain, avert a famine, and you might become king of a polis there … So he did. He went to the Argolis, planted cereals and edible olives and installed bee hives everywhere. And really, he averted a famine and was appointed king of Tiryns in the Middle Helladic period of time.


He had a Minoan friend in Phaistos on Crete, a talented goldsmith and scribe who made a pair of gold discs for him to wear on his shoulders. The clay maquettes, baked together, survived in a chamber of the old palace of Phaistos, and are known as – Phaistos Disc. A fresco in the Middle Helladic palace of Tiryns showed the king and his successors as lion-wolf-dog-bee kings worshipping Demeter, goddess of cereals, her gown decorated with grains, and the sky raining them, while between the kings were seen vertical olive twigs. The first king in line, Eponymous Tiryns, rose a libation jug in honor of the goddess, behind her the eagle of Zeus. The lion is a royal animal, the wolf lives in a pack, the dog is watchful, and the bee a most industrious helper of farmers. The palace and the frescoes within are lost, however, another gifted Minoan goldsmith crafted a gold signet ring showing the scene in an oval only some 5 cm across, with very fine details, even clearly visible spirals on the shoulders of the kings – the hypothetical gold discs  ring.gif / ring2.JPG  The ring survived in a cache of Tiryns. Can we hope that also the pair of gold discs are hidden in a not yet discovered cache of the lstill unexcavated lower part of the acropolis?


Homer in the Odyssey gives the lineage Zeus – Arkeisios – Laertes – Odysseus – Telemachos. Lord Laertes the gardener who planted the olive tree around which Odysseus and Penelope build their immoveable bed – symbol of the everlasting Greek civilization – may well be Eponymous Tiryns, or rather his dynasty in the Middle Minoan / Helladic period of time.


There is much more to say, but I make it short by showing a ring from Mokhlos on Crete, Elaia in her boat which turns into a horse, with her an olive tree, on the sky a large bee  elaia.GIF


Hypothesis: edible olives reached the Argolis earlier than hitherto assumed, coming from Asia Minor via Minoan Crete to the western then eastern Peloponnese. Now that the genome of the long living olive tree has been decoded one might be able to trace back variants for a couple of millennia.




  (eye-formula and wheel-metaphor)


     OC  right eye, open eyes

     CO  attentive mind

     POL  fortified settlement, Greek polis 'town'

     LOP  enveloping hedge, fence, palisade, wall


OC CO was a formula for the open eyes gathering fleeting visual impressions that are woven into stable pictures by the mind CO, Italian occhio German Auge English eye Greek omma (guttural stop replaced by a labial one) Sanskrit aksi, while CO OC has the meaning of look, a noun in Scottish keek and imperatives in German guck and Dutch kijk.


CO OC LOP named the organization of an early town: in the center the ruler of the focused mind CO surrounded by watchful guards of the open eyes OC along the enveloping wall LOP, Cyclops, cyclopic wall, Greek kyklos 'circle, ring, cycle, group, margin of a shield, disc, ring wall or town wall', en kyklo 'round about', Proto-Indo-European *kwekwlos 'wheel' English wheel Sanskrit chakra 'wheel'. OC CO LOP named the guards of the open eyes OC around the ruler of the focused mind CO along the enveloping palisade or wall LOP, Latin oculus 'eye' Greek ops genitive opos 'eye, face'.


LOP OC OC might perhaps account for Old English locian Middle English loc(i)en New English look, and for dialectal German lugen 'to look out'; POL OC CO maybe for peek and peep (again replacing a guttural stop by a labial one).


Cyclopes had been one-eyed giants who personified early towns, most famous Polyphem, Homeric symbol of Troy. Polyphem resembled more a wooded mountain top than a man who eats bread. His one eye was the acropolis overlooking the wide river plain, his body downtown Troy VIIa that provided protected shelter for 5,000 to 10,000 people. CO OC LOP is overformed by kyklos ops 'round eye' but the original form and meaning are still recognizeable.


PIE *kwekwlos 'wheel' was inspired by round early towns like Dimini and sometimes wheel-like ground plans of fortified settlements in the Transural ('nation of towns'), moreover by a possible rite of magically enforcing a palisade or wall by riding or driving – wheeling – three times around it, reciting banning formulae against potential intruders. (Eberhard Zangger believes that Achilles broke such a spell by dragging Hector's body three times around the wall of Troy.) The wheel metaphor was easily established: ruler and hub; guards (their glances and arrows flying radially) and spokes; ring wall and tire.


     OC CO  occhio Auge eye omma aksi

     CO OC  keek guck kijk

     OC CO LOP  oculus 'eye'

     CO OC LOP  Cyclops kyklos *kwekwlos wheel chakra; (maybe also goggle)

     LOP OC CO  locian loc(i)en look lugen (?)

     POL OC CO  peek peep (?`)


The concept of CO OC LOP and OC CO LOP is visualized by the Tiryns discmor side of the Phaistos Disc: the ruler of the focused mind CO near thecenter (male profile, tattoo on the cheek, uper circle invoking Middle Helladic Sseyr Homeric Zeus, lower circle Eponymus Tiryns who governs in the name of the god), surrounded by soldiers who guard the entrance and look over the palisade LOP that is enforced by the archaic banning formula written along the margin of the Tiryns disc. The same organization is encoded in the shields of the soldiers: a central dot surrounded by six dots along the inside of the circle.


A blot surrounded by a circle of smaller blots can be seen four times on the staring plaster head from Mycenae: on forehead, cheeks, and chin. This was the Argos eye, emblem of the watchful union of Helladic towns in the Argolis: Tiryns in the center, surrounded (in clockwise direction) by Mycene Berbati Midea Nauplion (Argivian bay) Lerna Magoula Argos, moreover Dalamarna between Argos and Tiryns.


By the way, ITA CA Ithaca would originally have been the Argolis then the Peloponnese, young bull ITA sky CA, under the sky of the young Zeus bull, surviving in the name of a relatively small island off the south-western Peloponnese, while ATI CA Attica, mature bull ATI sky CA, under the sky of the mature Zeus bull, named the center of the classical Greek civilization. POL LOP Peloponnese was the land of the many fortified settlements POL enveloped in palisades or walls LOP, personified by PAS LOP Penelope, everywhere PAS enveloping palisades and walls LOP ...




  (wheel of time – Tao Te Ching 11 verse 1)


Remember the comparison of a round early town and a wheel


     ruler of the focused mind in the center -- hub

     guards of the open eyes watching out -- spokes

     ring wall -- tire


A wheel of thirty spokes is mentioned in Lao Tsu, Tao Te Ching, 11 verse 1, from the translation by James Legge


     The thirty spokes unite in the one wheel,

     but it is on the empty space for the axle

     that the use of the wheel depends.


The hub or 'empty space for the axle' stands for the Tao and, considering the above comparison of early town and wheel, also for the ruler who governs along the Tao. Moreover there might be a connection to the Göbekli Tepe calendar: each spoke a month of 30 days while 63 periods of 30 days are 1,890 days that correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months, 64 being the number of houses in the circle of the I Ching.


Tao might be one further derivation of DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able.


The Oceanians worship their ancestors in the form of stone sculptures they call Tikis (plural). A Tiki (singular) is half god half human. Maybe also Tiki derives from DhAG ? As far as I know the Oceanians came from Taiwan, and if this island should once have been a Late Magdalenian outpost, and if its name is ancient, it might originally have been DhAG PAS, accounting for both Taiwan and its capital Tai-Peh, able ones DhAG everywhere PAS, Tai containing Chinese da 'great'.




  (word Wort verbum mot parola parole parler – word and tambourine)


Magdalenian proposes BIR DAP as origin of English word, fur BIR activity of hand DAP, naming a speech held by a shaman or shamaness to the sound of a beaten DAP BIR tambourine. A variation would have accounted for German Wort 'word', BIR TON, fur BIR that makes a sound TON when tapped upon, inverse TON BIR for tambour and tambourine (amalgamated with DAP BIR). A first 'tambour' was a gorilla silverback beating the fur of his chest. I remember having read of African tribes communicating with each other over long distances by beating wooden drums and conveying sentences that are understood verbatim, word for word, by the receivers of the message, probably due to what I call micro-timing, in combination with a relatively small vocabulary and a repertoir of standing expressions and phrases. (Hunting Piraha convey sentences by whistling.) Latin verbum 'word' might combine the fur BIR with onomatopoeic -bum German Bumm English boom, a parallel being bong- in the name of the bonga drum. French mot 'word' may be akin to motoric, from Magdalenian MOT for a repetitive forward and backward movement, as in cutting TOM and cleaning a hide with a stone knive, or beating the fur of a tambourine. Italian parola 'word' and French parole and parler 'speak' may combine the fur BIR with having the say )OG or LOG, the beaten fur of a tambourine accompanying or even conveying the word of a shaman or shamaness.


Maybe the rhythmic beating of a tambourine was the origin of meters like the iamb and hexameter in poetry? while Magdalenian double formulae with often similar sounding words may have an echo in pairs of lines held together by alliteration and rhyme?




  (a deep dualism  1/3 – verbal morphospace and elements of meaning)


Are 'semantic atoms' and 'prime words' more than metaphors? Can we find primes among the words in a dictionary as we find primes among the natural numbers - unambiguous units of meaning?


Let me try 'big' and 'bigger' as fairly basic words.


Proto-Indo-European has no explanation for Middle English big(ge) 'strong, mighty' and New English big, while Magdalenian offers PEC for animals like the ibex, also Latin pecus 'cattle, mainly sheep and goats and swine (pecus pec- pig?)' and pecunia 'money' in reference to a valuable and heavy Roman bronze ingot decorated with a cow and worth a cow, a precious animal and life insurance for a farmer family in Roman times; then Old English buc(c) and bucca Middle English bukke New English buck and German Bock. Analogously MUC for bull has derivatives in Greek mega 'big' and English much, also might and mighty, in Italian mucca 'cow' and Swiss Mocke for something (also comparatively) big and roundish or compact. Big and mega are then metaphors referring to cow and bull as big and heavy and strong animals that were most important for our ancestors; consider also that the first letter in the alphabet – Semitic aleph Greek alpha – originally

represented the head of an ox.


The word big is not really a unit of meaning but may be said to have been attracted by a concept of the mind.


How about bigger? 5 is bigger than 3, however, 5 dimes are a smaller sum of money than 3 dollars. The problem becomes even deeper when we consider the natural numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ... n and the prime numbers 2 3 5 7 11 ... among them. While the number of naturals grows constantly (n) the number of primes among them grows more slowly (approaching n divided by the natural logarithm of n). There are more naturals than primes, even infinitely many more (their ratio slowly approximating the natural logarithm of n). On the other hand, naturals and primes can be paired unambiguously


     1 2, 2 3, 3 5, 4 7, 5 11, 6 13, 7 17, 8 19, 9 23, 10 29, 11 31, 12 37 ...


hence the set of naturals and the set of primes have the same size, aleph-zero, neither set is bigger or smaller. (Aleph-zero names the lowest of infinitely many ever higher infinities.)


When 'bigger' can be more and infinitely many more but also the same size, neither bigger nor smaller, and this in the case of the same numbers (naturals and primes), the seemingly basic word becomes relative and ambiguous. We can neither let it go nor rely on it entirely. Perhaps we need a complementary way of looking at words?


A dictionary defines a word with other words in a circular web logic. I recommend the study of minimal word spaces (a few words and their relations) used for a task that requires cooperation. Minimal word spaces may shed light on the architecture of actual word spaces, and what I call the verbal morphospace in between (a loan from evolutionary biology). Maybe verbal morphospace and semantic element are a deep dualism like wave or field and particle in quantum theory?




  (a deep dualism  2/3 – what are numbers?)


Ian Stewart, in: Taming the Infinite, Quercus London 2008


     The meaning of 'number' is a surprisingly difficult conceptual and

     philosophical problem. It is made all the more frustrating as we all

     know perfectly well how to use numbers. We know how they behave,

     but not what they are.


Let me try a dualistic definition. Mathematics, in my opinion, is the logic of building and maintaining, based on the formula  a = a  that may generate sort of a logic 'field' the 'particles' of which are numbers – naturals, integers, rationals, irrationals, reals, imaginary numbers, complex numbers,  quaternions, transfinites, infinitesimals, surrealistic numbers, and so on, whatever will come next, all of them incorporating mathematical logic that makes them ideals of the technical realm.


A machine (9) is assembled from parts (1, 3, 5)


     1 plus 3 plus 5  equals 9


We wish to take it apart, in order to clean or repair it


     9  equals 3 plus 1 plus 5


and then to reassemble it again from the parts, getting back the well functioning machine we had before


     5 plus 1 plus 3  equals 9


Numbers can be taken apart in many ways, and then be put together again, for example 1 or 1/1 given as '1


     1 = '1

     1 = '1x2 '2

     1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3

     1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4

     1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5

     1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5x6 '6

     1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5x6 '6x7 '7


     '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5x6 '6x7 '7 = 1


     '2 '6 '12 '20 '30 '42 '7 = 1


Turning the stairway into an infinite series


     '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5x6 '6x7 '7x8 '8x9 '9x10 '10x11 ... = 1


A subseries approximates pi/4


     '1x2 '2x3  '5x6 '6x7  '9x10 '10x11  '13x15 '15x17  '21x23 '23x25 ... = pi/4


and can be transformed as follows


     '1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '13x15 '17x19 '21x23 '25x27 ... = pi/8


and then turned into a stairway number for pi


     8 times '1x3 '16

     8 times '1x3 '5x7 '32

     8 times '1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '48

     8 times '1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '13x15 '64

     8 times '1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '13x15 '17x19 '80

     8 times '1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '13x15 '17x19 '21x23 '96

     8 times '1x3 '5x7 '9x11 '13x15 '17x19 '21x23 '25x27 '112


Patterns emerging from numbers may be seen as 'field lines' of mathematical logic.




  (a deep dualism  3/3 – reformulating Gödel)


Half a century of personal studies led me to the triangle of language whose corners are


     life with needs and wishes


     mathematics, logic of building and maintaining

     based on the formula  a = a


     art, human measure in a technical world

     based on Goethe's formula

     all is equal, all unequal ...

     known to artists of all times


Gödel would have shown that the mathematical corner can't be separated from this triangle. Mathematical logic is powerful but can only provisionally be secured from the other side of logic, the border in between being marked by paradoxa and emanations of the infinite, equal unequal in themselves.


Galileo famously wrote that the book of nature is written in the language of mathematics. Einstein was dreaming of a physics that can get rid of the weird natural constants and relies entirely on mathematical numbers like 2 and e and pi. And the cosmologist Max Tegmark believes that the universe can not only be understood via mathematics but ultimately is mathematics.


God may understand all of the world in mathematical terms and have written the metaphorical book of nature in the language of mathematics; we, however, can only decipher the first lines on the first page in the first volume on the first shelf in the first room of an immense library. For our limited mind, the world breaks apart into equal unequal. Mathematical logic makes us proceed technologically, while art helps us integrate technology into life and society and nature.


If numbers incorporate mathematical logic based on the formula a = a, words incorporate the wider logic of equal unequal. This means that language can only partly be formalized, never completely, and that we can never get rid of the Liar Paradox in its various forms – it is just a reminder of the other side of logic, of the wider logic of equal unequal.


PS  Mathematical logic is often considered logic per se, which is a mistake, and one that makes many school children suffer. Mathematics and mathematical logic are based on the formula  a = a  that appears to be self-evident. But is it so? Are there two things in the world that are exactly the same, absolutely equal, identical? And is there anything that remains unchanged forever? An apple is an apple, but one apple may be red and sweet, the other green and sour, and what if the apple is eaten? We human beings are all the same and all different, with our special traits and features and abilities and fates. Not even monozygotic twins are completely identical. Some children are good at mathematics (I was one of them) while others can’t easily abstract from the differences that make up the richness of the world. Also their skills are needed and deserve being honored.




  (Etruscan in the light of Magdalenian 1/5  una, thi, tiur, thevru, ushil, zeri, caper, tupi, leu, mi, netshvis, Tages, ais, Tinia, TYRSANOS, Arno)


Una 'to flow, (water-)course' may be a strongly polished version of the generic river formula AD DA naming a river that flows toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills or mountains, also a trading route or a person going to one place while coming from another; with a nasal infix in the river name Indus, in Italian andare 'to go', in Latin unda 'wave' – losing the D in Etruscan una, while the second DA of AD DA may have become Etruscan thi 'water, brook?'. Proto-Indo-European derives Latin unda from *wodr- that accounts for English water Hittite watar Lithuanian vanduo ... This means that also *wodr- goes back to AD DA (or perhaps AD DA REO, REO meaning river, Greek hydor 'water').


Tiur 'moon' might refer to the moon bull, from TOR for bull in motion, also present in thevru 'bull'.


More demanding is ushil 'sun' and maybe 'noon'. The summer sun horse of Lascaux was called CA BAL, sky CA hot BAL, Spanish caballo 'horse'. AS means upward. AS CA BAL, up with you, (summer) sun horse, rise toward the noon position in the south! AS CA BAL ushil ? (I see a main problem of Etruscan in strongly polished forms.) Dan Alexe proposes a diminutive of -z- ‘to shine, uzi:l naming the sun as the little shining one. This might have been a later overforming of a polished compound that was no longer understood.


Zeri 'bright, clear (sky, weather)' is akin to Serri of the Hurrites, the Serri bull of the day sky, from TYR for the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give, emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus, Greek sky and weather god.


Caper 'coat' has cognates in English cape and cap that somehow capture body and head, from very ancient *KAPA 'hand, palm, finger, to take, also bite', with derivatives in way more than one hundred languages (Merritt Ruhlen et al.).


Tupi 'punishment' evokes DAP for the activity of hands, French taper 'to knock, beat', suggesting a beating as early punishment. English beat derives from inverse PAD for the activity of feet, a word of very many derivatives, among them paw, used by a bear to carry out a blow. DA PAD David, he delivered out of the paws of the lion and the bear and Goliath.


Leu 'lion' is an easy case, Magdalenian )EI or LEI for an attacking lion, Swiss Leu for lion.


Another easy case is mi 'I' from the humming Mm that marks presence, English me French moi (consider also my mine, mon ma mes, mio mia miei mie, ...).


A real challenge is netshvis 'reader of a sheep's liver, seer'. Conspicuous features of a liver were seen as divine messages. Along the margin of the bronze model of a sheep's liver from Piacenza are sixteen fields that correspond to the sixteen houses of gods and goddesses along the horizon. I propose NOT PAS netshvis. NOT means knowledge acquired via the senses, as verb to note or notice, while PAS means everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me – further subdivisions being the 8 and 16 heavenly sectors of Etruscan religion, inhabited by deities who spoke via the liver of a sacrificed sheep.


Divination was introduced by the mythical boy Tages. Magdalenian DhAG means able, good in the sense of able. (Tag-words for earth refer to the ancient belief that our able ur-ancestors had been born from the earth.)


Ais 'god' later eis may derive from AIS meaning fate, Greek aisa, indicating deities as the ones who decide on the fate of people, a permutation of AIS being SAI for life.


Tinia was the supreme Etruscan god, equivalent of the Greek Zeus. His name might derive from TON for to make oneself heard (inverse of NOT). Among the derivatives of TON are English tone German Ton 'sound', English din, also tin as clanging metal (tin pan and sheet). Then there are thunder German Donner. Tinia may may have made himself heard via thunder, on a par with Zeus the thunderer.


SA TYR NOS Saturnus Saturn was the founder of the golden age in Latium. He was mentioned in the form of TYRSANOS on an Etruscan shard found in the agora of Athens: he overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR from up above (in downward direction) SA and has a mind NOS of his own.


AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, had been the old sky god and was implored for rain on the Göbekli Tepe. He became the Hurri bull of the Hurrites, relegated to the night sky by the new god TYR Serri in his guise of a bull. AAR RAA NOS implored for rain that fills river beds would have named the main river of Etruria, Arnus Arno.


The polished forms might indicate a mixed population, basically autochthonous, absorbing numerous migrants from northern Europe (mitochondrial DNA), joined before 1 100 BC by an influential tribe from Anatolia, mountain land of the many river valleys, AD DA being the generic river formula, DAL meaning dale or valley


     AD DA DAL   An DA DAL   An A DoL   Anatolia


(Etruscan words from )




  (Etruscan in the light of Magdalenian 2/5  pulum 'star', a fable from the beginning of the world)


The fire giver PIR GID and the fur giver BIR GID and the fertility giver BRI GID met on the Göbekli Tepe. It was in the early days, cold and dark. BRI GID complained: I am freezing. BIR GID gave her a warming fur. But BRI GID went on complaining: It is so dark. Hereupon PIR GID made a fire that warmed the three mighty sisters and made their faces shine. Now the women blew into the flames of the bonfire, making it flare up, and the wind they caused made a million sparks fly into the sky. BRI GID was delighted: How pretty they are! And look, they hang in the sky, decorating the heavenly vault, PIR LIC ....


PIR means fire and LIC means light and luck. BRI GID named the stars that are specks of light from the fire of PIR GID. LIC became Latin lux genitive lumen, and PIR LIC pulum in the Magdalenian pidgin called Etruscan


     PIR LIC   PIR Lux   PI(R) Lum   pulum 'star'


while a further derivative of LIC may be Etruscan lur naming the rays of a star.




  (Etruscan in the light of Magdalenian 3/5  – numbers taken from an early calendar?)


September October November December had once been the months number 7 8 9 10. A regular year of 365 days and ten months or rather periods may have had


     36 37 36 37 36 37 36 37 36 37 days


while 36 double periods of 73 days correspond fairly well to 89 lunations or synodic months (there are further correspondences of a practical value).


The Etruscans used a decimal number system. Here tentative explanations of the numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 and 10 in the frame of the above calendar and a regular year of 365 days:


thu 'one' – period number one, beginning with the winter solstice, from December 21 till January 25 in our modern calendar, honoring the Divine Hind or Hind Woman who called life into existence. Her name was CER -: I -: (pronounce the lip lick  -:  by touching both lips with the tip of the tongue.) Among the many derivatives of -: I -: are articles like English the (which call the subsequent noun into existence), and possibly also Etruscan thu 'one' and 'a/an' (a word, an article). Period number one in the above calendar calls the year into existence


zal 'two' – period number two, 37 days, January 26 till March 3, when the watery ground SAL is frozen, Italian gelato


ci 'three' – period number three, 36 days, March 4 till April 8, period of the spring equinox (March 21), honoring the bird goddess of 'Old Europe' (Marija Gimbutas, Ki Ri Ke given as cross line angle, surviving in Homer's Kirkae Circe, from the emphatic formula CA AAR RAA CA, she in the sky CA of air AAR and light RAA, she in the sky CA


mach 'four' – period number four, 37 days, April 9 till May 15, honoring the bull MUC. The Divine Hind of Altamira called life into existence, also moon bulls. A beautiful and large hind painted in that cave licks the horns of a small bison under her  hind1.JPG


huth 'five' – period number five, 36 days, May 16 till June 20, when arbors and huts where built in honor of the Divine Hind Woman, from KOD for hut


sha 'six – period number six, 37 days, beginning with the summer solstice, June 21 till July 27, when the sun (horse) rules the sky, ruler ShA


ciem 'seven' – period number seven, 36 days, July 28 till September 1, ??


eslem 'eight' – period number eight, 37 days, September 2 till October 8, period of the fall equinox (September 23), ??


thunem 'nine' – period number nine, 36 days, October 9 till November 13, harvest festival, honoring the Divine Hind Woman and Etruscan fertility goddess Uni in personal-union


sar 'ten' – period number ten, 37 days, November 14 till December 20, honoring TYRSANOS mentioned on an Etruscan shard found in the agora of Athens: he overcomes in the double way of rule and give TYR from above (in downward direction) SA and has a mind NOS of his own; Roman version SA TYR NOS Saturnus Saturn, founder of the golden age in Latium. The Saturnalia were celebrated in later December. Sar may be an emphatic form of TYR, while TYRSANOS may have been a title of Tinia whose wife was the fertility goddess Uni. (The pair of them is mentioned on the newly discovered stele from Poggio Buco. I look forward to a transliteration and translation of the long inscription.) Uni became the Roman Juno, wife of ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove, the ruler ShA goes (ahead) PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR, DhAG PAD TYR Dis pater, byname of Jupiter, the able one DhAG goes (ahead) PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR.


The calendar periods 1 3 5 9 are female, the periods 4 10 male, suggesting 1 3 5 7 9 female and 2 4 6 8 10 male. Period six would then be male, and really, the midsummer horses are stallions  ushil.jpg  The lower picture shows the impasto chalice from Narce, Lazio, on the rim two pairs of horses, the lower ones – only head and neck visible – representing midwinter, December 21, New Year, the upper ones – fully visible – midsummer, June 21, beginning of the second half year. The rim is then a year, the left semi-circle the half year from midwinter to midsummer, the horse rising to ever higher trajectories, upward AS, and finally becoming the summer sun horse CA BAL, sky CA hot BAL, together AS CA BAL ushil ‘sun’, in my opinion ‘sun (horse)’, while the right semi-circle represents the second half year from midsummer to midwinter, the sun horse descending backward, looking back to summer, when it had its full power …


Concluding hypothesis: Etruscan might be a Magdalenian pidgin of three main elements, a) language of the autochthonous population of Etruria, heirs of the Villanova culture; b) languages of migrants from northern Europe whose presence is testified to by mitochondrial DNA; and c) a relatively small but influential tribe from Anatolia arriving in Etruria before 1 100 BC.




  (Etruscan in the light of Magdalenian  4/5  – numbers 5 and 10, ritual union of Uni and Tinia making the land fertile, prediction regarding the long inscription on the recently discovered stele from Poggio Buco)


ushil.jpg  The rim of the impasto chalice from Narce, Lazio, can be seen as year; the pair of lower horses, only heads and necks visible, as midwinter, December 21, New Year; and the group on the other side, stallion god stallion, as midsummer, June 21, beginning of the second half of the year. The god in the alternative drawing of the midsummer group raises his hands and spreads his fingers, one hand referring to the five calendar periods from midwinter to midsummer, 36 37 36 37 36 sum 182 days, the other hand to the five periods from midsummer to midwinter, 37 36 37 36 37 sum 183 days, together a regular year of 365 days - one horse ascending, upward AS, the other horse descending, backward, still looking upward AS ...


5 times 5 equals 25, and so does the sum of the numbers of the female calendar periods 1 3 5 7 9. How many days are in 25 years? Begin with 365 days for one year and add repeatedly 1461 days for four years


     365/1  (plus 1461/4)  1820/5  3287/9  4748/13  6209/17  7670/21  9131/25


25 years are practically 9,131 days – 5x5 regular years of 365 days or 5x5x5 double periods of 73 days or 309 lunations (calculation omitted here) plus 6 leap days.


The Etruscans believed that their reign will hold for one thousand years (and were almost right with their prediction). 1,000 years are 40 times 25 years, or 365,240 days (not even two days five hours short of the exact value).


Conclusion: the number huth 'five' could have played a special role in the hypothetical religious calendar of the Etruscans, huth from KOD for tent or hut, here an arbor in honor of Uni as successor of the Divine Hind or Hind Woman of Magdalenian times; doubled sar 'ten', number of her husband Tinia, sar an emphatic form of TYR for the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give.


Seems there are five eyelets (a couple of them with rings) under the bowl of the chalice, while the lower part of the stand is composed of ten pillars evoking a round temple, perhaps the temple wherein a ritual union of Uni and Tinia was performed in order to ensure the fertility of the land? Enacted by a priestess of Uni and a priest of Tinia?

If so, the recently discovered stele from Poggia Buco (some fifty kilometers NWW of Narce) dedicated to Uni and Tinia might reveal details of that ritual union. Predictions are not possible in Paleo-linguistics, with the one exception when an ancient inscription is discovered. Here we have such a case. I look forward to the transliteration and translation of the long inscription on the stele.




  (Etruscan in the light of Magdalenian 5/5  – a triple promise for the beyond)


In the middle of the rear wall of the beautiful Tomb of Augurs, Tarquinia, 540-520 BC, appears a big red door, painted on the wall, closed, partly in the ground, reaching the sky, gate to the beyond  augur.jpg


Augurs watched birds and interpreted the way they flew as omina. A pair of augurs flank the big door, each one standing between three twigs that may indicate young olive trees, before the left augur a red bird, and perhaps a falcon before the augur on the right side.


A 'flock' of golden metal fittings on the closed door are painted as tiny yellow circles or dots: in the middle a vertical line of nine yellow dots (the white one above them an accidental damage), plus three horizontal bands of six and six yellow dots, each field of six dots a double line of three dots each (difficult in words, easy on the eye)   augur.jpg



          o   o   o     o   o   o


          o   o   o     o   o   o










          o   o   o     o   o   o


          o   o   o     o   o   o










          o   o   o     o   o   o


          o   o   o     o   o   o



Now the yellow dots convey a message via the numbers 3 and 6 and 9 in the frame of the hypothetical religious Etruscan calendar of ten months.


The number three evokes period 3 of the bird goddess, March 4 till April 8, spring, the spring equinox in the middle. The number six evokes period 6, June 21 till July 27, the summer solstice at the beginning. And the number nine evokes period 9, October 9 till November 13, harvest and a harvest festival (possibly on a flexible date).


Together those numbers convey a message, make a triple promise to a worthy soul: once you pass the door and reach the beyond, you'll experience eternal spring and summer and a never ending harvest festival rolled in one ...


A part of the door is belongs to the dark painted ground, possibly indicating a dark passage between this and the next life, perhaps also eternal darkness for the soul of an unworthy augur who abused the power he had.


We may assume that a similar fresco decorated a temple, or a school for aspiring augurs, teaching them a lesson: make a good use of the power you acquire with the art of divination.



Postscript for those interested in mathematics: imagine a decagon of the side length 73 (double calendar period) inscribed in a circle. The radius of that circle corresponds to four lunations or synodic months (one lunation lasting 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.9 seconds, modern average from 1989). A round temple based on such a ground plan could have invoked Uni in her lunar and Tinia in his solar aspect, celebrating their cosmic union, while a round tomb with an imaginary decagon inside would have provided time for the beyond.




  (Proto-PIE belt  1/8  a fable based on archaeology, the Bible and Greek mythology)


Magdalenian was the lingua franca of shamans and shamanesses in the last Ice Age of Eurasia. 12,000 years ago the region of the Göbekli Tepe in Southeastern Anatolia and Northern Syria was an outpost of Late Magdalenian. AAR RAA NOS had been the sky god, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, visualized ex negativo by the big limestone ring on the Göbekli Tepe, implored for rain that fills river beds. NOS AAR RAA Noah had been the ones who acted in accordance with the mind NOS of the one of air AAR and light RAA.


Some 9,500 years ago a severe drought was followed by a hard rain that fell for forty days and forty nights and washed away the fertile soil. One Noah and his people followed the Euphrates downward and settled in Sumer, where they founded AAR RAA CA Uruk of the cattle enclosure, Erech and the ark in the Bible - protected by the one of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA. The other Noah and his tribe followed the Euphrates upward and settled in the land of AAR RAA MAN Araman, he who carries out the will of the one of air AAR and light RAA with his right hand MAN, Armenia.


Among the sons of the Armenian NOS AAR RAA Noah had been ShA PAD Japheth, the ruler ShA who goes ahead and leads the way (activity of feet) PAD, and among the sons of Japheth had been TYR AS Tiras, he or they who worship the overcomer who both rules and gives TYR up above (upward) AS. Close derivatives of TYR abound in Central Asia.


AAR RAA NOS became the sky god Ouranos of Greek mythology. Among the sons of Ouranos were ShA PAD Japetos Japetus (equivalent of Japheth in the Bible, Genesis 10) and CRE NOS Kronos Cronus, ruling CRE mind NOS (a more spiritual form of leading, CRE being a permutation of CER for stag hind shaman shamaness). Among the sons of Cronus was Zeus. The oldest form of the Zeus name we know so far occurs on the Phaistos Disc as deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth: Ss Ey R  Sseyr, which can be read as an emphatic form of TYR for the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give - TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhlhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus. The many derivatives of TYR in geographical names of Central Asia made me locate the first Indo-European homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya (going along with William Jones who placed it in greater Iran), at the southern base of the Alai Mountains, where copper and the tin ore cassitterite are associated in the same mines, allowing to cast bronze. The center of the first IE homeland was the triangle of Termez and Kunduz and Kurgan T'upe, ruled by the early dynasty of TYR MmOS Termez who considered themselves the heavenly overcomer's TYR offspring MmOS.


The stripe of land between the Göbekli Tepe region in the West and the Amu Darya in the East may be called Proto-PIE belt (Proto-Proto-Indo-European belt), where the language of the last Ice Age evolved into the language of the early Bronze Age, where Late Magdalenian became early (Proto-)Indo-European. Indo-European was fully developed in the second IE homeland in the Uralic steppes east of the Rha Volga, and in the third IE homeland in the Pontic steppes west of the Rha Volga. Rha was the ancient name of the Volga, from Magdalenian REO meaning river, accounting for the Greek goddess Rhea, mother of Zeus.




  (Proto-PIE belt  2/8  a glimpse of Hurrian)


Hurrian might be a now extinct language of the Proto-PIE belt, as it contains elements of Late Magdalenian from the Göbekli Tepe region and of Early Indo-European from Central Asia, most notably in the Hurri bull and Serri bull of Hurrian mythology.


AAR RAA NOS named the Greek sky god Ouranos, and the sky god Varuna of the Indus Valley who was later relegated to the Underworld. The short version AAR RAA named the Hurri bull and the Hurrians. The Hurri bull may once have ruled the day sky but was later on relegated to the night sky by the Serri bull - serri 'day' hurri 'night'. Serri may be another emphatic form of TYR comparable to Sseyr (Sseus Zeus). TYR in the form of Serri took over the day sky from AAR RAA Hurri, while the latter in the form of AAR RAA KOS named Urkesh (modern Tell Mozan) in Syria – this Hurrian metropole is protected by the one of air AAR and light RAA in the heavenly vault KOS.


Franco Paturzo equates the Tyrsenoi (Greek for Etruscans) with the Tyrsha of the Caucasus (Anatolian contribution to Etruscan). Tyrsha has a possible equivalent in Hurrian tarshuwa-ni 'person' (-wa a Caucasian ending according to Paturzo), drylanders, dwellers of dry land, PIE *ters- 'dry'.


This requires a longer explanation.


Etruscan sha 'six' would have named period six of the religious calendar of ten periods, alternatingly 36 days (female period, emanation of the goddess) and 37 days (male period, emanation of the god)


     36 37 36 37 36 37 36 37 36 37 sum 365 days


A regular year began with the female period number one on the winter solstice (December 21), and the second half year with the male period number six on the summer solstice (June 21). TYR ShA, the overcomer TYR is the ruler ShA, worshipped by the Tyrsha, would then have been the god of the summer solstice who warmed the land and made it dry, accounting for TYR ShA tarshu(wa-ni) as dwellers of dry land, in a shorter form PIE *ters- 'dry', while TYR ShA reduced to ShA would account for Etruscan sha 'six' in reference to the summer solstice at the beginning of period number six in the religious calendar of ten periods.


The hypothetical Etruscan religious calendar would have used the numerical model of the also hypothetical Late Magdalenian Calendar while changing the names of the ten periods of time. Period six would originally have been called SAI SAI life life, expressing the joy of summer. Emphatic SAI SAI would have become Hurrian sese (sheshe) or seeze (sheedshe) in reference to the Late Magdalenian Calendar.




  (Proto-PIE belt  3/8  summer solstice and number six)


Period number six of the Late Magdalenian Calendar beginning on the summer solstice (June 21) would have been called SAI SAI life life which might have accounted for 'six' in many languages (more later).


The summer solstice and the number six are also related in a pair of calendars encoded in Terrazzo Building 1 and 2 at Nevali Cori (Chori) in the region and from the era of the Göbekli Tepe.


Terrazzo Building 1


     13 pillars along the periphery for 13 months of 28 days,

     space between pair of larger central pillars for 1 or 2 more days,

     yielding a regular year of 365 days and occasional leap year of 366 days

     while 135 continuous periods of 28 days are 3,750 days

     and correspond to 128 lunations or synodic months


Terrazzo Building 2 replacing Building 1


     12 pillars along the periphery for 12 months of 30 days,

     space between pair of larger central pillars for 1 or 2 more days,

     yielding a regular year of 365 days and occasional leap year of 366 days

     while 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days

     and correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months


Regular year of Building 1


     Dec 22 – Jan 18  New Year following winter solstice

     Jan 19 – Feb 15

     Feb 16 – Mar 15

     Mar 16 – Apr 12

     Apr 13 – May 10

     May 11 – Jun 7

     Jun 8 – Jul 5  summer solstice in the middle

     Jul 6 – Aug 2

     Aug 3 – Aug 30

     Aug 31 – Sep 27

     Sep 28 – Oct 25

     Oct 26 – Nov 22

     Nov 23 – Dec 20

       December 21  winter solstice, New Year's Eve


The month of the summer solstice (June 8 – July 5, solstice in the middle) was preceeded by six months and followed by another six months.


Regular Year of Building 2


     Dec 22 – Jan 20  New Year following winter solstice

     Jan 21 – Feb 19

     Feb 20 – Mar 21  month ending on spring equinox (Mar 21)

     Mar 22 – Apr 20

     Apr 21 – May 20

     May 21 – Jun 19

       June 20 21 22  summer festival, solstice in the middle

     Jun 23 – Jul 22

     Jul 23 – Aug 21

     Aug 22 – Sep 20

     Sep 21 – Oct 20  fall equinox near beginning (Sep 23)

     Oct 21 – Nov 19

     Nov 20 – Dec 19

       December 20 21  winter festival, solstice at the end, New Year's Eve


The three days of the summer festival – solstice in the middle – were preceded by six months and followed by another six months.




  (Proto-PIE belt  4/8  'sex' and 'six' related ?)


September October November December name the months number septem 'seven' octo 'eight' novem 'nine' decem 'ten'. If properly named in a year of a dozen months they'd be November December Undecimber Duodecimber, months number 9 10 11 12 respectively. So I assume an older calendar which I call the Late Magdalenian Calendar, a hypothetical calendar that may have originated between 14,000 and 13,000 years ago and which I reconstructed as follows, here in a short version, a regular year of 36 37 36 37 36 37 36 37 sum 365 days


     IAS  36 days  beginning on winter solstice (December 21)

     CED  37 days 

     PhON  36 days

     DKO  37 days

     PAS  36 days

     SAI SAI  37 days  beginning on summer solstice (June 21)

     SAP  36 days

     OKD  37 days

     NOPh  36 days

     DEC  37 days


(36 double periods of 73 days are 2,628 days and correspond to 89 lunations or synodic months.)


The glorious rotunda of Lascaux symbolizes the early morning of the summer solstice (June 21), red summer sun horse rising above the horizon of the ledge (the proud white bull by her side a full moon occurring at the same time). For the highly complex menhir site Yverdon-Clendy in Western Switzerland I reconstructed a midsummer love-in. Consider also A Midsummer Night's Dream by Edward de Vere alias William Shakespeare. Calendar period SAI SAI life life would have covered most of our July: June 21 till July 27. The name July honors Julius Caesar whose family claimed to have descended from the love goddess Venus. All this made me assume that emphatic SAI SAI life life accounts for English sex, and, as name of calendar period six, also for the name of this number in many languages.


Mallory and Adams


     The word for 'six' shows a multiplicity of reconstructions.

     Phonologically most complex, and probably the oldest,

     is *ksweks which lies behind Av(estan) xsvas (xshvash).


The emphatic doubling SAI SAI may have been further emphasized in xAI xAI


     SAI SAI   xAI xAI   xwAI x   *ksweks

     SAI SAI   xAI xAI   xwAI x   xshvash


Also Hurrian sese (sheshe) or seeze (sheedshe) was invoked as possible origin of the word for this number


     SAI SAI   ShAI ShAI   sheshe

     SAI SAI   ShAI ShAI   shedshe 




  (Proto-PIE belt  5/8  earth and water)


Animals in European cave art and in the rock art of Southern Africa are often depicted as if emerging from or disappearing into clefts and niches in the rock, anticipating Vladimir Vernadsky's famous dictum of life being the metamorphosis of rock. The same or a similar idea might have been conveyed by a shamanic double formula


     DA AC SOMm

     AD AC SOMm


     away from DA  toward AD  expanse of land with water AC  body SOMm


     From DA earth AC bodies SOMm are made

     and to AD earth AC bodies SOMm return


     ('from dust to dust' in the modern version)


DA AC SOMm *dheghom 'earth' ? among the derivatives are words for earth and similar words for human being. AC named an expanse of land with water, inverse CA the sky. AC CA would have been the original name of the Göbekli Tepe: where earth AC and sky CA are meeting, or where they had been separated from each other in the beginning, when the world was created. (An Ancient Egyptian source mentions a Syrian province by the name of aqa, this might have been the wider Göbekli Tepe region.) AC CA named the Indo-European earth goddess akka (a stammered name according to Julius Pokorny, a meaningful name in the light of Magdalenian), Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve, and via the inverse compound CA AC the Greek earth goddess Gaia. AC CA Latin aqua 'water' refers to rain obtained via an exchange between earth and sky: implored from below, provided from above.


SAL for the watery ground of a valley or dale DAL may account for Latin solum 'ground' and solium 'seat', perhaps in the sense of a seat or place or mansion or village being surrounded by humid hence fertile earth, Latin solium accounting for English soil.


Adam as the one made of earth or clay is an overforming of AD DA MAN of the Göbekli Tepe male triad. He made rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills or mountains, and made them with his right hand MAN, and was the divine patron of early farmers digging irrigation channels (imagine them covered in mud, as if made of clay). AD DA REO might account for *wodr 'water' and *h2eP- 'river' as living water, water on the move (Mallory and Adams), water flowing toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills or mountains and forming a river REO, the permutation ORE meaning beautiful - REO Rha Volga, REO NOS Renus Rhine, the river has a mind of its own, REO DON NOS Rodanus Rhone, the river makes itself heard and has a mind of its own ...


CER -: I -: was the Divine Hind who called life into existence, animals out of clefts and niches in rock, CER meaning stag hind shaman shamaness; pronounce the lip lick  -:  by touching both lips with the tip of the tongue. Shamanic rituals were believed to make the ground fertile, so CER might have accounted for *h1er 'earth', CER -: for English earth and German Erde, also for German Erz English ore, considering that the first human race in an ancient myth I locate in Central Asia were people made of ore, of metal, dwelling inside the beautiful hall of the world mountain in the center of AD LAS Atlantis, island oriented toward AD the mountain LAS in a bardic vision of the first world before the Flood, an oral epic from the banks of the Amu Darya south of the Alai Mountains where the first Indo-Europeans lived as a miner people centered in the triangle of Termez and Kunduz and Kurgan T'upe.




  (Proto-PIE belt  6/8  Etruscan)


AAR RAA NOS had been the sky god of the Göbekli Tepe, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, while a double formula named the supreme sky and weather god of the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age and Iron Age





     The ruler ShA goes ahead (activity of feet) PAD

     and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR

     up above (upward) AS in the sky CA,

     The able one DhAG ... (repetition)


Among the derivatives are ShA PAD Japheth (Bible) Japetos Japetus (Greek mythology); ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove, DhAG PAD TYR Dis pater, byname of Jupiter; TYR sun archer Tir of the Armenian Bronze Age (both man and woman); TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus; consider also the Serri bull of the Hurrians; ShA CA  DhAG CA Jahwe, rider of clouds from Mount Seir (!) in the Negev; ShA PAD Shiva and the TYR CA Durga emanation of his wife; TYR CA Turk-; TYR AS Tiras in the Bible (Genesis 10).


Franco Paturzo (Etruschi, Enigma delle origine, Letizia Editore 2005) equates the Tyrsenoi (Greek for Etruscans) with the Tyrsha of the Caucasus, and believes that they and further tribes were driven southward by the mighty empire of the Hittites, whereupon they wandered westward and settled in Arzawa (Lydia, Southeast Anatolia), Rasenna having been a charismatic leader, and later on a king of Arzawa and his people sailed across the Aegean and settled among the population of Etruria, heirs of the local Villanova culture (my summary, hope I got it right). Further migrants would have come from Northern Europe (mitochondrial DNA). Let us read the names Tyrsha Tyrsenoi Rasenna Arzawa in the light of Magdalenian.


The Tyrsha would have worshipped the heavenly overcomer TYR as their ruler ShA, while the Tyrsenoi (Etruscans) worshipped TYRSANOS mentioned on an Etruscan shard found in the agora of Athens: he overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR from above (downward) SA and has a mind NOS of his own. The god is better known in the form of SA TYR NOS Saturnus Saturn, founder of the golden age of Latium: from above (downward) SA the god overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR and has a mind NOS of his own.


Saturn was the equivalent of Kronos Cronus, a son of AAR RAA NOS Ouranos and the father of TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus. He held a position between the sky god of the Göbekli Tepe and the sky god of the Amu Darya. Analogously the Anatolian contribution to Etruscan were language elements from the Proto-PIE belt. AAR RAA NOS implored for rain that fills river beds named the Arnus Arno, while TYR named the Tyrsenoi.


RYT, inverse of TYR, means spear thrower, archer, Greek rhytaer 'archer, protector'. Etruscan rath 'what is being ejected' goes along with a thrown spear and shot arrow. Further derivatives of RYT are German Ross und Reiter 'horse and rider' and German Ritter 'knight', originally a riding archer. Franco Paturzo makes a connection between Ras- in Rasenna and -rz- in Arzawa, so we may assume that Rasenna was a riding archer, and Arzawa a kingdom of riding archers, and Russia, land of the Rus, originally a nation of riding archers, originating in the Crimea that once belonged to the third Indo-European homeland west of the Rha Volga.




  (Proto-PIE belt  7/8  Svaneti and Tec Sans)


The Anatolian contribution to the language that became Etruscan would have come from the Caucasus and may have combined elements of Svan, Kartvelian, Armenian, Urartaean, Hurrian. Dan Alexe finds parallels in the grammars of  Etruscan and Svan. This made me have a look at Svan (language) of the Svani (people) in Svaneti (region).


The Greeks called the Svani Soanes, while the Etruscan town of Siena is believed to have been called Saina in earlier times, whence attested Saena Siena. Possible compounds are


     SAI NOS   Soanes Svani

     SAI NOS   Saina Saena Siena

     They who worship a god who has life SAI on his mind NOS, and their town


     POL SAI NOS   Volsinii Bolsena

     fortified settlement POL of those who worship the god who has life SAI on his mind NOS


     SAI NOS DhAG   Svaneti

     land of those who worship the above god, an able god


     SAI NOS DhAG   Latin sanctus ‘holy’


     DhAG SAI NOS   Tec Sans, Etruscan god, protecting boys and girls (Robert E. A. Palmer)


Hypothesis: The Svani of the Bronze Age and Iron Age worshipped a god who protected life, especially the young ones. His name or epithet was derived from SAI NOS DhAG. Later on he was replaced by St George who had saved a young woman from a dragon, named Georgia, and is worshipped as protector of all humanity by the Svani whose land is named for the god, SAI NOS DhAG Svaneti. When a Svani tribe reached Etruria, they settled in the arc of SAI NOS Saina Saena Siena, Perugia, and Volsinii (Orvieto) / Volsinii Novi (Bolsena). SAI NOS DhAG in the form of DhAG SAI NOS became the Etruscan god Tec Sans, protector of boys and girls, worshipped in Peli near Perugia.


This a first hunch. I should know more about Svani archaeology and mythology.




  (Proto-PIE belt  8/8  Armenia Urartu Etruria)


Further compounds (not yet certain about all of them)



Araxas – river filled with rain sent by the one of air AAR and light RAA in the heavenly vault KOS



Araman Armenian – he carries out the will of the one of air AAR and light RAA with his right hand MAN (consider also AAR RAA in Yerewan)



Ararat – mountain of the one of air AAR and light RAA, sun archer RYT (inverse TYR accounting for the sun archer Tir of the Armenian Bronze Age, TYR and inverse RYT combined)



Urartu – land of those who worship the one of air AAR and light RAA as thrower RYT of lightning and thunderbolts (the Etruscans made clay imitations of Urartaean silver ware)



Etrusc(us) – worshipper of the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR and is the sun archer and thrower of lightning and thunderbolts RYT in the sky CA



Etruria – land of the believers in the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR and is the sun archer and thrower of lightning and thunderbolts RYT, Etruria, our joy and pride RIA (exclamation)