Lascaux 18   Afroasiatic, Proto-Finnish homeland, and more  /  © 2018 Franz Gnaedinger


Goebekli Tepe and Afroasiatic / English high (Òtruly dauntingÓ) / Pech Merle (an ingenious visual formula) / Where did the Finns come from? / etymology of caboche cabbage / male given name Arnaud




--  Goebekli Tepe and Afroasiatic  (1/4)  


David Reich, Who We Are and How We Got Here, Oxford UP 2018: "... there is no question that the genetic data increase the plausibility of a Near Eastern agriculturalistic source for at least some Afroasiatic languages, and the genetic findings raise the question of what languages were spoken by these north-to-south migrants." Many East African groups "harbor substantial ancestry from people related to farmers who lived in the Near East around ten thousand years ago." Reich's team "also found strong evidence for a second wave of West Eurasian-related admixture--this time with a contribution from Iranian-related farmers as might be expected from a spread from the Near East in the Bronze Age--and showed that this ancestry is widespread in present-day people from Somalia and Ethiopia who speak Afroasiatic languages in the Cushitic subfamily. So the genetic data provide evidence for at least two major waves of north-to-south population movement in the period when Afroasiatic languages were spreading and diversifying, and no evidence of south-to-north migration (there is little if any sub-Saharian African related ancestry in ancient Near Easterners or Egyptians prior to medieval times)."


Just recently crumbles of a bread baked from wild cereals 14,000 years ago have been discovered in Syria. A stone tablet from Jerf el-Ahmar, northern Syria, in the region of the Gšbekli Tepe, near the Euphrates and the Anatolian border, between 12,000 and 11,000 years old, show a grid of lines that are identified as irrigation channels by the ideogram of a snake. 10,000 years old grains of bred einkorn were found at the base of the Karacadag some eighty kilometers northeast of the Gšbekli Tepe. So this was the region were agriculture was invented, and which played an important role for Afroasiatic, when northern farmers wandered southward ten thousand years ago.



Goebekli Tepe and Afroasiatic  (2/4)


Richard Fester proposed ACQ meaning water, which I modified to AC for an expanse of land with water in early 2005, my first Magdalenian word, later on followed by inverse CA for sky, Old Latin caelum 'sky'. In 2006 the compound AC CA helped me interpret an 11,6000 years old hieroglyph on the Goebekli Tepe, the lying  H  whose lower horizontal bar indicates the earth AC while the upper horizontal bar indicates the sky CA, and the short vertical bar exchanges between them, especially prayers for rain and the rising smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain, symbolized by snakes heading upward, and falling rain filling river beds, symbolized by snakes heading downward, while snakes undulating horizontally symbolize rivers, also a grid of irrigation channels on a contemporary stone tablet from Jerf el-Ahmar. AC CA in that sense has a derivative in Latin aqua 'water'. Further derivatives name the Indo-European earth goddess akka (a stammered name according to Pokorny, a meaningful name in the light of Magdalenian), Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve, and the Egyptian earth god Aker. Then there is German Acker 'field' and the English field measure acre. AC CA in the shape of a goddess may have personified the Gšbekli Tepe as hill where the earth AC and sky CA are meeting, or where they had been separated from each other in the beginning. AC CA may also have named the region of the Gšbekli Tepe in southeastern Anatolia and northwestern Syria, perhaps the Syrian district of Aqa mentioned in an Egyptian text (Maspero). If you turn the compound AC CA around you get CA AC which may have named the powerful Greek earth goddess Gaia whose consort was Ouranos, AAR RAA NOS on the Gšbekli Tepe, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS of his own. More on him next time.



Goebekli Tepe and Afroasiatic  (3/4)


The big limestone ring on the Goebekli Tepe shows on the inside a male head, arcs of the face and skull and a pair of small arcs for the ears, empty arcs filled with air and light, a male head ex negativo. In 2006 a lucky intuition made me read the name of the Greek sky god Ouranos as AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS of his own, Greek nous 'mind'  ouranos.JPG 


AAR RAA NOS in the region of the Gšbekli would have been the supreme sky and weather god implored for rain. He was the patron of Harran or Haran forty kilometers south of the Gšbekli Tepe. A heavy rain fell for forty

days and forty nights and swept away the fertile soil, whereupon the southern NOS AAR RAA Noah, he who followed the mind NOS of the one of air AAR and light RAA, wander along the Euphrates downward to Sumer where he founded AAR RAA CA Uruk of the cattle enclosure, Erech and the ark in the Bible, protected from above by the one of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA, while the northern NOS AAR RAA Noah followed the Euphrates upward and settled in Armenia, north of Mount AAR RAA RYT Ararat, abode of the one of air AAR and light RAA in his emanation of the sun archer RYT (who later on became the sun archer Tir of the Armenian Bronze Age). AAR RAA MAN Araman Armenian Aramaean, they who carry out the will of the god with their right hand MAN. Aram was the ancient name of Syria. Turkish haram 'forbidden' and Arabic ha'ra:m (kehliges h, throaty h) 'forbidden, unlawful; sin; inviolable; sanctified' might go back to the same compound, naming a forbidden precinct reserved for the high priests of the supreme god, while someone else entering what the Greeks called an abaton was forbidden, unlawful, a sin (consider the grim banning formula along the rim of the Tiryns side or disc of the Phaistos Disc as deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth). ABA BRA MAN Abram carried out the will of the (heavenly) father ABA with his right arm BRA and his right hand MAN; later on his name was overformed by Abraham 'father of all peoples' as documented in the Bible. AAR RAA BRA may have named the

Arabs who carry out the will of the one of air AAR and light RAA with their right arm BRA. Jacob on his way from Beersheba to Haran slept in the wilderness of Judah, saw the Lord at the top of a heavenly ladder, presumably in an aureole of light, and the Lord spoke to Jacob, addressed him, appointed him ruler of this very wilderness, AS RAA ) or AS RAA L Israel, up above AS the Lord in an aureole of light RAA had the say ) or L ... Israel became the byname of Jacob, ) or L the name of the supreme god El, in a longer form )OG or LOG wherefrom Greek logos, also Allah who has the say. Aaron believed in AAR RAA NOS who turned his rod into a snake, made him find water. Theo Vennemann considers valley names like Val d'Aran and Arundel evidence

for Vasconic, a language predating PIE, spoken along the western shores of Europe. AAR RAA NOS named also the Val d'HŽrens in the western Swiss Alps, a valley being a hollow between mountains filled with air and light, in this case the valley leads up to a heavenly throne in form of a pair of dazzling white snow covered mountains connected with a softly curved seat-like ridge between them. And AAR RAA aura means weather in the language of the eastern Swiss Alps, Rumantg. (More next time).



Goebekli Tepe and Afroasiatic  (4/4)


AAR RAA NOS of the Gšbekli Tepe named the Greek sky god Ouranos and the old  sky god Varuna of the Indus Valley, in the variation AAR RAA CA, he of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA, the golden boy muruku of the Indus Valley and Horus of Egypt, while RAA alone named the supreme Egyptian god Ra who appeared in the solar disc.


Lunisolar calendar of the Gšbekli Tepe region


A stone tablet from Jerf el-Ahmar, between 12,000 and 11,000 years old, shows a giant ant erecting pillars, possibly representing the industrious workers on the Gšbekli Tepe, and above them a pair of hovering rings that  evoke the moon and sun as eyes of the sky god. Their cycles were combined in a lunisolar calendar. A month had 30 days, 12 months were a basic year of 360 days, add 5 and occasionally 6 days and you have a regular year of

365 days and an occasional leap year of 366 days. While 63 continuous  periods of 30 days are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations or synodic  months; mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime.


     30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days for 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... lunations


     443 days for 15 lunations, 502 days for 17 lunations


     502 443 502 443 502 days for 17 15 17 15 17 lunations


     502 945 1447 1890 2392 days for 17 32 49 64 81 lunations


Horus eye calendar (as reconstructed in late 2004)


Moon and sun were the eyes of the Horus falcon. Seth destroyed the lunar eyeWise Thoth restored it by putting together its parts, 1/2 and 1/4 and 1/8 and 1/16 and 1/32 and 1/64, or simply '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64, and called the healed eye The Whole One. However, the numbers don't really add up to one. Why, then The Whole One? This term refers to one whole lunation or synodic month. Multiply a solar month of 30 days by the Horus eye series '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64 and you get 29 '2 '32 days, or 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes for a lunation of 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.9 seconds (modern average from 1989 AD).


By the way, the Egyptians calculated infinite series via pyramid patterns or stairway numbers


     1 = '1

     1 = '2 '2

     1 = '2 '4 '4

     1 = '2 '4 '8 '8

     1 = '2 '4 '8 '16 '16

     1 = '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '32

     1 = '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64 '64


  '   2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64 '128 '256 ... = 1


     1 = '1

     1 = '1x2 '2

     1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3

     1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4

     1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5

     1 = '1x2 '2x3 '3x4 '4x5 '5x6 '6


     '2 '6 '12 '20 '30 '42 '56 '72 ... = 1


Consider the subseries


     '1x2 '2x3  '5x6 '6x7  '9x10 10x11  '13x14 '14x15  ...


The terms containing the number 4 and multiples thereof are left out. What number does this infinite series approach? Pi/4, one fourth of the number of the circle.




Late Magdalenian would have been the religious language of the GoebeklTepe region 12,000 years ago, leaving traces in the Bible and Hebrew, also in Sumerian and Akkadian and Arabic, and partly in Egyptian, always in the religious aera. Now the genetic studies by David Reich et al. confirm this pattern, surprisingly and thus the more pleasingly.




-- Deep etymology of English high  (1/3)  "truly daunting"


Mallory and Adams 2006 give PIE *keu-k- 'curve' as root of English high and call "the wide semantic range of the meanings associated with the cognate forms derived from" this word "truly daunting" – Sanskrit kucati 'bends, curves' kuca 'breast' / Old Irish cuar 'curved' / Lithuanian kaukaras 'hill' / New English high / Tocharian B kauc 'high' / Old Prussian cawx 'devil' / Lithuanian kauks 'goblin'.


How can all these words be cognates?


In the light of Magdalenian their common origin might have been CO OC for a wandering tribe standing on top of a hill, in the center the ruler of the attentive mind CO surrounded by guards of the open eyes OC looking out in all directions. CO OC has a close derivative in German guck! dialectal form kuck! 'look!' and Ausguck 'lookout'.


A longer form of this compound is CO OC LOP for an early town protected by a 'cyclopic' wall: in the center the ruler of the focused mind CO surrounded by guards of the open eyes OC along the enveloping hedge or fence or palisade or wall LOP, symbolized by a cyclops German Zyklop (stress on the long o), a one-eyed giant, most famous Polyphem, Homeric symbol of lofty Troy, his one eye the acropolis overlooking the wide river plain, his body downtown Troy VIIa that provided protected shelter for 5,000 till 10,000 people.


Many early towns were built on hills, or became a hill because of the layers of previous phases. A hill is round, bended, curved, sometimes resembling a breast, and has a certain height.


What about Baltic words for 'devil' and Lithuanian kauks 'goblin'? Mallory and Adams mention two possibilities: a) faces covered with warts and boils, curved backs and noses, b) their dwelling in or under a hill. Elves and fairies are ancestors who survive in the collective memory of folklore in a parallel world inside hills, most of the time separated from our life. The Baltic devils and Lithuanian goblins among them might keep a memory of marauding tribes wandering from hill to hill, standing on top of a hill, the ruler of the attentive mind CO in the middle, surrounded by guards of the open eyes OC, looking out in all directions, planning a raid on yet another farm or village.


When you wander among hills the way curves and bends, the view changes, all of a sudden a danger might arise, which demands a focused mind CO and open eyes OC, so CO OC might well account for *keu-k- and the other

words mentioned above. We have here what I call matching patterns of complexity, essential in Magdalenian.



deep etymology of English high  (2/3)  curve and circle


In the online version of Grimm's Wšrterbuch, entry hoch 'high', you can find a Goethe quote addressing the high sun looking down on Rome. The sky god of the Goebekli Tepe region looked down on earth with his eyes that were moon and sun (suggested by a stone tablet from Jerf el-Ahmar). The rulers of Early Helladic Tiryns looked down from the Round Building, a former tower (burnt down at the end of the Early Helladic period) with a shrine of Sseyr Sseus Zeus, the rosette of big blocks around the base still extant in situ. A schematic version of Middle Helladic Tiryns can be seen on the Tiryns side or disc of the Phaistos Disc (a pair of clay discs baked together, models for a pair of gold discs worn on the shoulders by Eponymous Tiryns and his successors, as depicted on the gold signet ring from a cache at Tiryns): next to the rosette in the center a male profile, the ruler Eponymous Tiryns, on his cheek a tattoo resembling the numeral 8, a pair of circles, one above the other, the upper circle indicating Sseyr Sseus Zeus, the lower one Eponymous Tiryns governing in the name of the god (and equating himself with the supreme god in the spiral text as deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth), surrounded by guards who look across the palisade represented by the grim banning formula of the ring text (also deciphered by DO) warning potential intruders


     ruler of the attentive mind CO

     guards of the open eyes OC

     enveloping palisade LOP


The Tiryns side or disc is a perfect visualization of the CO OC LOP organization. CO OC LOP was overformed by kyklos ops 'circle eye' and contracted to kyklops Cyclops, the one-eyed giant personifying a fortified early town POL polis, hence the term of the cyclopic wall. Most famous among those giants was Polyphem, Homeric symbol of lofty Ilion, Troy, his one eye the acropolis overlooking the wide river plain, his body downtown Troy VIIa, his cave the harbor on the Besik Bay, his goats and sheep foreign ships he harbored and piloted, asking for high fees and tolls ... CO OC had been visualized by the famous Argos eye, a big dot surrounded by a circle of smaller dots, for example on the forehead, cheeks and chin of the staring plaster head from Mykene, emblem of the watchful union of Helladic towns in the Argolis. And CO OC would have been the origin of PIE *keuk-k- 'curve' that goes along with the kyklos 'circle' derivative of the CO OC LOP formula.



deep etymology of English high  (3/3)  Czech and Finnish


Magdalenian has OC for the (right) eye and CO for the attentive mind, together OC CO Latin oculus 'eye' Italian occhio 'eye' and Czech oko 'eye' – already the ancient ones knew that eye and mind belong together, while missing the actual process of vision, believing in rays that go out from the eyes, an idea still found in Leonardo da Vinci. PAD meaning activity of feet has many derivatives, among them Latin video 'I see' in the sense of 'I send out rays of vision that walk around for me and gather visual information'. Czech has videt 'see' and oko 'eye' that might be combined in visoky 'high'


     videt vis- oko -oky visoky ??


and if so, the Czech word for high refers to an elevated position as outlook, analogous to CO OC *keu-k- English high. Finnish korkea 'high' might go back to the same CO OC *keu-k- that has other words with an infixed 'r' in the wide and semantically "truly daunting" range of derivatives (M&A 2006).




-- Pech Merle  (an ingenious visual formula)


The paintings in the cave Pech merle, southern France, Dept. Lot, are nearly 30,000 years old  (black made of coal and mangan oxide allowing a fairly precise datation). A famous panel, four meters long, shows two horses covered in dots reading SAI for life, existence, and if they are sun horses also indicating years. A big salmon might refer to the Milky Way, the heavenly river. Michael Janda concluded from the Rig Veda on a Stone Age belief in a second life somewhere along the Milky Way. A smaller panel shows a field of red ocher dots, below, in black, the drawing of a mammoth, by then the biggest and mightiest animal, and five drawings of up to twenty centimeters long figures that are seen as bison women by Michel Lorblanchet and as "extremely stylized" pregnant women by Jean-Marie Le Tensorer. Their shape reminds of a badger with a heavy body and a long abstract head (somewhat weasel-like) that must be seen as bison horn by Lorblanchet. For me the round body evokes the full moon and the slim arc of the head the sickle of the disappearing moon shortly before the empty moon (German Leermond) or new moon. As a bison cow she may be pregnant with a male calf, a future moon bull. As a divine badger she may give birth to badgers that will guide the moon bull safely through the labyrinth of the Underworld and back to the surface of the earth from where it can climb the sky. And as a goddess in human shape she may give birth to a worthy soul in the beyond, especially the one of a supreme leader whose emblem of power was the mammoth. A true shape-shifter of a goddess, or rather the goddess of life in several emanations that are combined in an ingenious visual formula – if apparently an ideosyncratic formula which did not take on.


A key drawing in red ocher shows a hand negative, probably of a supreme leader, and next to it a cross of five dots, below three more and above four more dots. The hand claims a life in the heavenly beyond, the cave wall representing heaven. The cross reads PAS for everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta- 'five', the added dots below the cross AC for earth, and the dots above the cross CA for sky. May the supreme leader be born again in the heaven by the goddess of life, somewhere along the Milky Way, and may he roam the sky as he roams or roamed the land in 

this life - may he get everywhere PAS in the sky CA ... May the sun horse give him many years and the moon bull many months. May the badger guide the moon bull safely through the labyrinth of the Underworld and back to the surface of the earth from where it can climb the sky and shine a light for the supreme leader in his heavenly abode by night É



-- Where did the Finns come from?  (1/7)  sky god of the Goebekli Tepe


In the beginning the goddess of air lowered herself on the primeval sea and thus got pregnant. A bird landed on her and laid several eggs. The yolk of the first egg became the sun. 700 years later the goddess gave birth to a wise old man ... So far the Finnish myth of creation. 


Maybe a couple of Finnish words can lead to an older myth from the Ural in the Bronze Age? 


The sky god of the Goebekli Tepe was called by several compounds, a long one being AAR RAA NOS CA, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind of his own NOS in the sky CA. His eyes were moon and sun (suggested by a stone tablet from Jerf el-Ahmar). The long name of the god became the Finnish sun aurinko, and the ending the moon kuu 


     AAR RAA NOS CA   aurinko 'sun'     CA   kuu 'moon' 


The solar eye became a horse, a stud but also a mare. The lunar eye became a cow but also a bull, and a badger that guided the moon through the labyrinth of the Underworld, and a mythical bird from  whose eggs hatched the first birds. MUC for bull and the moon bull has a derivative in the Italian cow mucca, in Greek mega, in English much and mighty, in Finnish mahti 'might, power', and named the Karelian badger mŠgri and the Finnish badger mŠyrŠ and maybe even the Japanese badger mujini. The badger in folklore is a shape-shifter. IRO was the Magdalenian moon bird rising from the horizon ORI like a swallow from her nest, French hirondelle 'swallow', this bird suggested by the slim sickle of the rising moon separating itself from the horizon, Finnish irrottaa 'separate', while Finnish ori 'stud' may once have named the male sun horse on the horizon. 


Magdalenian CA LAB meaning 'sky cold' named the winter sun horse; gallop, and German Klepper for an old and tired horse. CA BEL (IAS) meaning 'sky warm (healing)' named the spring sun horse (healing ailments of a long and harsh winter); ABelios AFelios Helios and his quadriga of horses. CA BAL meaning 'sky hot' named the summer sun horse; caballus caballo. And CA LUN or CA LUN DhAG meaning 'sky (of the) full round form (that is) able (of flying)' named the full moon, a bull or a goddess. LUN became Latin luna 'moon' and the Roman moon goddess Luna. CA LUN became Greek selaenae 'moon, moonshine' and Selaenae, the Greek moon goddess. CA became the Finnish moon kuu. And LUN DhAG became Finnish lintu 'bird' lentŠŠ 'fly' lento 'flight'. 


Magdalenian PIC meaning bird may account for Italian piccolo 'small' and Finnish pikku 'small', inverse CIP maybe for Finnish siipi 'wing'. Or siipi derives from SAP meaning everywhere (in space), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, in all seven places, wherefrom words for seven in many languages, for example Latin septem and Finnish seitsemŠn, also Greek Sophia 'wisdom' and Latin sapientia 'worldly wisdom' acquired by exploring the world in all seven places. Consider the _seven_ hundred years of the Finnish goddess' pregnancy that resulted in the birth of a wise old man. Finnish siipi 'wing' would then have referred to the mythical bird that soared into the sky and dived into the primeval sea and reached every place on earth. 


Is there a connection to the Ural? Yes, the alternative title of the sky god AAR RAA ) or AAR RAA L, he of air AAR and light RAA has the say ) or L, named the Aral Sea and Ural. 


The horse of the second Indo-European homeland in the Uralic steppes was called AC PAS, expanse of land with water AC everywhere (in a plain) PAS, here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta- 'five' and Finnish viisi 'five' -- riding this animal you can get everywhere in the Eurasian steppes ... AC PAS accounts for *h1ekwos Greek hippos Latin equus, also for the name of the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona and the Finnish horse hevonen

The Finnish myth of creation begins with the goddess of air AAR, while the yolk of the first egg laid by the mythical bird became the sun, powerful source of light RAA. The words AAR and RAA mark the beginning of every compound naming the old sky god of the Goebekli Tepe 

     AAR – German Aar, Kšnig der LŸfte 'king of the airs (plural, poetic)' 

     AAR RAA – aura; Rumantg aura 'weather'; Latin aurum 'gold' 

     AAR RAA NOS – Greek sky god Ouranos; old sky god Varuna of the Indus Valley;

     valleys like the Val d'Aran, or the Val d'HŽrens in the Swiss Alps, a valley being the hollow

     between hills or mountains filled with air and light, natural temples and thrones of the old sky god;

     Hungarian arany 'gold'


     AAR RAA CA – the sky god protecting Uruk from above; Horus falcon of the Nile Valley,

     his eyes moon and sun; 'golden boy' of the Indus Valley (Asko Parpola), AAR RAA AD DA

     Harappa, town protected from above by the one of air AAR and light RAA on a river that flows

     toward AD the Arabic Sea while coming from DA the Himalayas, AD DA a generic river name

     present in Indus


     AAR RAA ) or AAR RAA L – Aral Sea, Ural


     AAR RAA NOS CA – Finnish aurinko 'sun' and CA kuu 'moon', consider also the golden eggs

     among the eggs laid by the mythical bird.



where did the Finns come from?  (2/7)  numbers 5 and 6


The sky god AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS of his own had been worshipped by the Late Magdalenians in the region of the Goebekli Tepe 12,000 years ago. A new sky god took over in Central Asia, on the middle course of the Amu Darya, first Indo-European homeland, 6,000 years ago – TYR who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give, emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus. Derivatives of TYR abound in Central Asia. However, some of the Late Late Magdalenians remained faithful to the old sky god in the form of AAR RAA ) or AAR RAA L, he of air AAR and light RAA has the say ) or L. They settled on the shore of the Aral Sea named for their sky god, and later wandered northward along a mountain range they also named for their supreme god, Ural, and mixed with a northern population. Later on a small tribe wandered westward and entered what is now called Finland. (The Finns went through a strong population 'bottleneck' some 2,000 years ago according to David Reich, Who We Are and How We Got Here, Oxford 2018.) The native Saamelainen or Lappi go back to the Neolithic, Saamelainen perhaps from SAM naming a hunting group, Sanskrit sam 'together' German zusammen, or from SOMm that means much as human being, then analogous to Roma and Inuit of the same meaning; Lappi maybe from LAB meaning cold, dwellers of a cold region.


PAS names the viisi 'five' markers of a plain, here, South and North, East and West. Among the derivatives are Finnish viisas English wise German weise and Wissen 'knowledge' gained by exploring the world in all five places (analogous to SAP septem sapientia, worldly wisdom gained by exploring the world in all seven places, also the below and above), and weisen 'to show someone the way'. Consider also German Weisheit Finnish viisaus English wisdom. The endings -heit -aus -dom go back to KOD for tent, hut, Finnish koti, and the comparative form KOS for the heavenly vault, cosmos, also a bigger hut, a house German Haus, and DOM for a camp, Latin domus 'house, home' and English dome for the house of God respectively, suggesting that experienced elderlies, among them traveling wise old men and women, were consulted in a tent or hut, maybe a bigger one in the center of a camp, under a wide sky, DAI PAS taivas 'heaven', protected area DAI everywhere PAS, home of the air goddess who followed her wandering people everywhere ...


She may have been honored with artful shrines made of twigs, while four poles with white flags could have marked the corners of a camp and the cardinal directions and have been a model of the earth (camp) and the sky 
of air and light above. AAR RAA haaru 'twig' might reveal a philosophical idea, a divine power we can only understand in the form of a duality – goddess of air and bird of the sun egg – and a manifold. KOD hat 'six' may indicate another shrine in honor of the mythical bird, next to the shrine of PAS viisi 'five', open sanctuary of the air goddess. The number pair 5 and 6 might have constituted an early calendar: a week of 5 days, a month of 6 weeks, a year of a dozen weeks plus an additional week of 5 days and occasionally a leap week of 6 days, 5 by 5 or 25 years requiring 6 leap weeks of 6 days (in all 9,131 days for 25 years).


Lunations or synodic months were correlated with years by means of an additive number sequence (l/y)


     37/3   99/8   136/11   235/19   371/30


And the wise old man born by the goddess of air? in this context he might have honored early astronomers who compiled ingenious calendars.


I don't claim that all my above ideas hold, but they show how I formulate a provisional hypothesis that can make a further investigation exciting.



where did the Finns come from?  (3/7)  perhaps from the Middle Ural


KOD meaning tent, hut, accounts for Lithuanian keturi Sanskrit catv‡ras and many more such words meaning four, while German vier English four derive from BIR meaning fur in reference to the four legs of a hide. KOD naming Finnish hat 'six' may then suggest a hexagonal koti 'hut'. Imagine a shrine honoring the mythical bird of the sun egg based on a hexagon, each side measuring 5 and the periphery 30 units, corresponding to the days in a week and month respectively. Such a hexagon can easily be drawn with a spread of intersecting circles known as 'flower of life', popular in Finland and Japan and other countries. Let a pair of parallel sides indicate the West-East direction. They could have served as sighting lines of the rising and setting sun on the equinoxes (March 21, September 23), a flat horizon provided. One of the other sides might have indicated the northern lunar extreme in the Bronze Age of the Middle Ural, between Perm and Jekaterinburg – homeland of the Proto-Finns in the Middle Ural between Perm and Jekaterinburg, home of the Finns before they wandered westward? 


Draw a circle of radius 5, inscribe a hexagon, a regular polygon of six equal sides, and the periphery will correspond to the 30 days in a month.


Draw the same circle again, inscribe a regular polygon of nine equal sides, and inscribe a circle in this polygon – the circumference will correspond to one lunation or synodic month (radius nearly 47/10, use 22/7 for pi; if you calculate with 4.7 and the exact pi you are in for a surprise).


From all this I infer a time depth of maybe 4,000 to 3,000 years for a pair or a couple of shrines on top of a hill with a wide view round about and a flat horizon in the Middle Ural between Perm and Jekaterinburg for the center of the hypothetical Finnish homeland in the Later Bronze Age.


(These were first hunches that led to a marvel of Bronze Age mathematics, parts 6 and 7 below.)



where did the Finns come from?  (4/7)  wise old man


Ideograms marking the splendid moon bulls in the rotunda of Lascaux indicate the following numbers of the lunar phases: 3 days for the young moon, 6 days for the waxing moon, 9 days for the full moon, 6 days for the waning moon, and alternately 3 and 2 days of the empty moon (German Leermond), in all 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days for 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ... lunations or synodic months. Now the polygon of nine equal sides and the inscribed lunar circle evoke the same numbers, if only for the visible moon


     3 days for the young moon

     3 3 sum 6 days for the waxing moon

     3 3 3 sum 9 days for the full moon

     3 3 sum 6 days for the waning moon

     3 days for the old moon


while the alternately 3 and 2 days of the invisible moon are excluded from the model.


The Proto-Finns would have known the Goebekli Tepe definition of the lunation: 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations (one lunation in the Egyptian version being a solar month of 30 days multiplied by the Horus eye series '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64).


Wise old VŠinamšinen in the Kalvala honored several people, among them early astronomers and mathematicians, outstanding in their time (parallel to wise Thoth in Egypt).



where did the Finns come from?  (5/7)  Kalevala


Ricardo Mansilla at the Free University Mexico run a DNA taxonomy program on the Odyssey and found that Homer had compiled material from a dozen or even sixteen bards. In like manner Elias Lšnnrot compiled songs from all over Finland and in many versions to the Old Kalevala that became the Finnish national epic, 1835, enlarged version 1849 - only that he worked in a far greater temporal distance from the Bronze Age. We can then evaluate his lines in the light of Magdalenian and hopefully bridge the time gap.


The goddess of air created the earth, and 'created her creation' by shaping the land. Her guises were in this order wolf, bear, otter, badger, hedgehog and hare. These animals were connected with the Great Goddess in her emanations of the fertility and mother goddess, goddess of regeneration, moon goddess, and goddess of the Underworld. Wolves howl at the moon, and so do dogs that were the principal animal of the moon goddess in the 'Old Europe' of Marija Gimbutas. Bears are spending winter hibernating in caves, and bear mothers fiercely protect their cubs. The otter can dive, water being the element of fertility (the goddess of air became pregnant when she lowered herself on the sea). Badgers dig extended subterranean gangways and cavities, in folklore the badger is a shape-shifter closely linked with the bear, honey badger and bear love honey and may thus evoke a honey-colored moon. The hedgehog was an alter ego of the Great Goddess in Old Europe according to Marija Gimbutas, probably chosen for the similarity to a cow's uterus after parturition – votive gifts in the shape of a hedgehog, in one case with a woman's face, may then have implored many calves from the goddess, also many moon bulls, many moons, plenty of time, a long life. And finally the hare is a well-known fertility symbol.


'Badger-like she traversed the land' – what is now a single line might have been an elaborate myth of another dimension in the Middle Ural of the Bronze Age, telling how the goddess in her guise of a badger dug subterranean gangways for the moon bull to traverse the Underworld on his daily journey from the western to the eastern horizon. Combined with her maternal side she may have been a late alter ego of the Magdalenian Hind or Hind Woman who called life into existence, also moon bulls, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days, her main sanctuary Altamira. Stag antlers had been used for digging, so maybethe Divine Stag and Hind dug caves and gangways in Magdalenian mythology? This task was easily taken over by a mythological badger. Was there a cave sanctuary honoring the Divine Badger Woman somewhere in the Middle Ural? MUC for bull, also for the moon bull, may then have named the badger by association in the Ural Mountains, while German Dachs, Dutch das and Italian tasso named the animal for being able DhAG, able digger of gangways for the moon bull, able guide of the moon bull through the labyrinth of the Underworld.


We can either smile about the naive ideas of the past, or we can observe how the scientific mind was forming.



where did the Finns come from?  (6/7)  a magic triangle


How the numbers of a magic triangle define a pair of solar and lunar shrines on top of a hill in the Middle Ural between Perm and Jekaterinburg in the Bronze Age


Shrine of the solar calendar -- draw a circle of radius 149a, inscribe a regular hexagon, a polygon of six equal sides, one side measuring 149a, representing a week of 5 days, the periphery 894a representing a month of 30 days


Shrine of the lunar calendar -- draw the same circle of radius 149a; inscribe a regular polygon of nine equal sides, one side 102a, periphery 918a; inscribe a smaller circle into the polygon of nine sides, radius 140a, diameter 280a; use 22/7 for pi and the circumference of the circle inscribed in the polygon measures 880a, representing 29.530201... days for a lunation of 29.530589... days


The secret of this marvel is a triangle based on the triple 51-14-149 generated by the auxiliary numbers 10 and 7


     10x10 - 7x7  =  51    2x10x7 = 140    10x10 + 7x7 = 149


The tangent 51/140 belongs to the angle of 20 degrees (exactly 20.0159... degrees) and allows the construction of a regular polygon of nine sides, one side 2 x 51a = 102 a, radius of the circumscribing circle 149a, radius of the inscribed circle 140a.


The lesser values 3/8 and 4/11 for the tangent of 20 degrees lead to the fine value 51/140


     3/8  (plus 4/11)  7/19  11/30  15/41  19/52  ...  51/140  ...


The hexagon of the solar shrine is composed of six equilateral triangles, each angle measuring 60 degrees, one sixth of the full circle. The northern lunar extreme – the angle between the northernmost rise of the moon in a cycle of about 18.5 years and due East – was about 60 degrees in the Middle Ural in the Bronze Age, so we can say the number six was not only linked with the sun but also with the moon, and this found an echo in Finnish kuu 'moon' and kuusi 'six' (while the angle of the sunrises and sunsets on the solstices had a tangent of about 5/4).


Now you can play with the numbers of the 'magic' triangle. Inscribe a circle into the triangle. Its diameter measures 51a + 140a - 149a = 42a. How many days are 42 years? One regular year has 365 days, two regular years have 730 days, and four years including one leap day have 1461 days


     730/2  (plus 1461/4)  2191/6  3652/10  ...  15340/42


42 years are 15,340 days (plus a little more than four hours). 51a + 149a = 200a. How many days are 200 years? 200 years are eight times 25 years


     365/1  (plus 1461/4)  1826/5  5287/9  ...  9131/25


25 years are 9,131 days. 200 years are 73,048 days (and not even eleven hours more).


How many days are 149 lunations? 15 and 17 lunations counted in the 30 29 30 mode are 443 and 502 days respectively. 17 15 17 15 sum 64 lunations yield 502 443 502 443 sum 1,890 days, or one synodic month of 29.53125 days, value of the Gšbekli Tepe (and of the Horus eye calendar in Ancient Egypt, a month of 30 days multiplied by the Horus eye series '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64). Now 17 15 17 15 17 plus 17 17 17 17 sum 149 lunations yield 4,400 days, or again 29.530201... days for one lunation of 29.530589... days – a better value than the one of the Goebekli Tepe (and of the Horus calendar).


You can also derive geometrical tasks from the 'magic' triangle (in the way of the problems in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus that can be solved not only on the apparent level but also on higher levels for advanced learners).


Here just one example. 51a + 140a = 191a. Picture a circle of the diameter 191a. How long is the circumference?


     6/2  (plus 22/7)  28/9  50/16  72/13  ... 600/191


The circumference measures practically 600a, three times the sum 51a + 149a = 200a.


Considering all this the 'wise old man' of the Ural (comparable to wise Thoth who healed the lunar eye of the Horus falcon = calculated a synodic month in comparison to the month of 30 days) was on the height of Plimpton 322 in Babylon between 1900 and 1600 BC (and of the Rhind Mathemaical Papyrus from around 1650 BC, copy of a lost scroll from ca. 1850 BC).


Maybe the foundations of a pair of calendar shrines will one day be discovered on a hill in the Middle Ural, center of the hypothetical Proto-Finnish homeland?



Where did the Finns come from?  (7/7)  Bronze Age mathematics


Here two more calculations derived from the triple 51-140-149.


The diagonal of a square measures 140a. Calculate the square, then the circumference of the inscribed circle.


     1   1   2

     2   3   4

     5   7   10

     12   17   24

     29   41   58

     70   99   140


The square measures practically 99 by 99 a.


     3/1  (plus 22/7)  25/8  47/15  69/22  ...  311/99   ...  377/120


The circumference of the inscribed circle measurers practically 311a (exactly 311.00181... a, the small mistakes of the two operations cancel each other out almost completely).


Picture an equilateral triangle. The radius of the inscribed circle measures 51a. How long is the periphery of the triangle? Compose an equilateral triangle from nine small ones and you can see that the radius of the inscribed circle is one third of the triangle's height, hence the height measures 3 x 51a = 153a.


     1   1   3

     2   4   6

     1   2   3

     3   5   9

     8   14   24

     4   7   12

     11   19   33

     30   52   90

     15   26   45

     41   71   123

     112   194   336

     56   97   168

     153   265


If the first number in a line gives the height of an equilateral triangle, the second or middle number, doubled, is the periphery, 2 x 265a = 530a (exactly 530.0075...a).


The above number columns can also be used for calculating the cube. An example. If the edge of a cube measures 41a, the diagonal of a face measures practically 58a (first number column) and the diagonal of the volume practically 71a (second number column). The sum 41a plus 58a plus 71a equals 170a, half the sum of 51a plus 140a plus 149a that equals 340a.


The Bronze Age way of teaching mathematics was by means of telling examples – demanding but elegant and sometimes witty self-referential calculations unfolding from a seemingly simple geometrical figure.




-- caboche cabbage  (also worth of an etymology)


My Webster's Unabridged says English cabbage derives from dialectal Old French (Picardy, Normandy) caboche caboge cabage, an expressive ca (of uncertain origin) + boche 'noggin, head'.


Among the good four hundred words I mined with my laws of Magdalenian is a permutation group of six words around the meme of hunting horses, with PAC meaning horse and inverse CAP meaning to capture horses.


PAC for horse has derivatives in pack(animal), to pack (a suitcase), compact (in the sense of densely packed), a pack (of dogs, used as pack animals in the Upper Paleolithic), back (transporting goods on the back of a horse, horseback riding), Bactria (a region in Central Asia, once rich in horses), and more.


Derivatives of CAP for hunting horses are found in capture (horses, other animals), capo captain chief chieftain (of a hunting party), Latin caput 'head' (leader of a pack, also a herd of horses counted by their heads, German Kopf 'head' eine vielkšpfige Menge 'a many-headed assembly'), cap (a small hat 'capturing' the head), Latin habere and German haben English have (incompatible in PIE, well compatible in Magdalenian), capacity (how much of something a container can 'capture' and hold), and more.


The meanings of PAC and CAP were swapped to some extent. PAC has a derivative in German packen 'to pack (a suitcase)' but also packen 'to seize, grab, grip', taking over the place of CAP capture. PAC is also present in German kaufen 'buy' and Finnish rautatieasemakirjakauppa 'railway station bookshop' and English shop, while English buy takes over the place of PAC. PAC is present in dialectal Old French boche 'noggin, head' and Finnish pŠŠ 'head' and Hungarian fey 'head' which take over the place of Latin caput 'head'.


Now there are two possibilites for the etymology of Old French caboche in the form of CAP PAC


     let us harvest or metaphorically CAPture

       that comPACt vegetable


     the green CAPut is ready for being harvested,

       German PACken in the sense of seize, grab, grip


CAP would go back to the very ancient *KAPA meaning hand, palm, finger, seize, bite, and so on, a word of which Merritt Ruhlen listed up more than 130 or even 150 derivatives in languages from all over the world, in his paper in the Festschrift for Staroshtin, Nostratic and Beyond.




-- male given name Arnaud


The name Arnaud is explained by AAR meaning air and RAA meaning light and NOS meaning mind and DhAG meaning able. AAR RAA NOS was the sky god of the Goebekli Tepe, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS of his own, visualized ex negativo by the big limestone ring  ouranos.JPG  Ouranos had been one of many versions of this god. It has been said that he was the only Greek god who had no temple. The sky god in the west had natural sanctuaries, valleys filled with air and light, for example the Val d'HŽrens in the Swiss Alps, leading up to an almost blinding white snow covered throne formed by a double mountain peak and an arc between them.Valleys like the Val d'Aran and Arundel are the chief witnesses of Theo Vennemann's Vasconic theory of the early language along the western shores of Europe.


AAR RAA NOS had been implored for rain that fills river beds, and so he might have named the main river in Tuscany, Arno. DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, was an epithet of the god, and also named the boy Tages who appeared out of nowhere and taught the Etruscans the art of divination. The medieval bard Arnaut from the Provence inspired Dante Alighier's Divina Commedia. The final -t in Arnaut and -d in Arnaud are rump forms of DhAG, making someone called by that name a believer in God, a believer in the able one who enables his people.


AAR RAA NOS the able enabler DhAG is a generic formula, visualized in medieval and Renaissance art (e.g. Raphael) by Christ high up in the air of the sky, in a golden aureole of light, blessing his believers, thus enabling them. Jacob on his way to Harran or Haran, town of AAR RAA NOS, forty kilometers south of the Goebekli Tepe, saw the Lord on top of a heavenly ladder, in an aureole of light, we may assume, and the Lord spoke to Jacob whose byname became Israel while he himself became the founding father of the Israelites, AS AAR RAA ) or AS AAR RAA L, up above AS in the air AAR and an aureole of light RAA the Lord had the say ) or L, in a shortened form AS RAA ) or AS RAA L Israel. AAR RAA L is present in aureole, in Christian art painted in gold, AAR RAA Latin aura, and Latin aurum 'gold', AAR RAA NOS Hungarian arany 'gold'. And the sky god who had the say AAR RAA L mirrored himself in the Aral Sea and ruled over the Ural Mountains – also the Middle Ural, hypothetical homeland of the Proto-Finns in the Bronze Age.