Lascaux 22 – summaries, delving deeper / © 2019 Franz Gnaedinger
surviving / compounds / surprises / Prejocaj / rules for a scientific discussion / inspiration / word branching / from Jacob to Aaron / historical core of the Exodus / life symbol ankh / a word formula and a double calendar / Chauvet cave / Pech Merle / stage of a spectacle ? / Golden Boy / Goebekli Tepe / Phaistos Disc, delving deeper
Among the parts of my work the reconstructions of pre-Greek mathematical methods including a systematic calculation of the circle and numerous interpretations might have the best chance of surviving. My contribution to a fair history of civilization.
I wish to add the triangle of language whose corners are
--- life with needs and wishes
--- mathematics as as logic of building and maintaining,
based on the formula a = a
--- art as human measure in a technical world,
based on Goethe's formula All is equal, all unequal ...,
a formula known to artists of all times
(The principle of equal unequal can't be eliminated. Mathematical logic must be ensured with illogical rules, for example the division by zero is forbidden because it yields infinite which is equal unequal in itself. Astrophysics engineered by the powerful instrument of mathematics carries us back in time by some 13.72 billion years to a tiny fraction of the very first second of our universe but then collapses and gives way to quantum fluctuations that rule on the smallest scale of everything.)
Hunch from 1963: If I do a chore in a clever way I save energy, so maybe intelligence and energy are somehow related?
Definition from 1974/75: Language is the means of getting help, support and understanding from those we depend upon in one way or another --- and every means of getting help, support and understanding may be called language, on whatever level of life it occurs ...
Later addition: Language may be considered the intelligence of life – coordinated by language in every form we achieve more with the same amount of energy, or the same with less energy than if we worked all on our own. Language in the most basic sense provides the 'negentropy' that makes life possible.
I see my work as a quarry of ideas. Glad if some pieces of that 'marble' can be used one day.
Daniel Everett needed three years until he recognized that the color words of the Piraha (pee-da-HAN) on the Brazilian Amazon are sentences, for example kopaiai 'black means: ko 'eye' opai 'unclear, opaque' ai 'to be' - as if looked at with opaque eyes. Also other words like sunrise, morning, noon, low water etc. are sentences.
I find the same poetic spirit in the transition from Magdalenian to PIE and IE.
Greek pataer Latin pater English father goes back to PAD TYR, activity of feet PAD to overcome in the double sense of rule and give TYR - he goes ahead and rules and overcomes obstacles in the way, and, as a hunter, animals that serve as food for his family and tribe.
An interesting case is Mycenaean atoroqo Greek anthropos 'human being', from AD TOR OC CO, toward AD bull in motion TOR (right) eye OC attentive mind CO – toward the bull in motion with open eyes and focused mind, facing him, taking him by the horns (a Minoan bull leaper), coping with fate, AD TOR OC CO atoroqo anthropos. Now add )OG or LOG for having the say and you obtain the origin of anthropology as the science that cares about how people coped and cope with fate. A drawing in the cave Le Gabillou shows a tiny Stone Age hunter before a giant bull. The Minoan bull leaper was the emblem of astronomers calculating the cycles of celestial bodies, a metaphorical bull-hunting, but also a way of coping with fate for a seafaring nation.
TYRSANOS written on an Etruscan shard found in the agora of Athens makes sense when parsed TYR SA NOS – he who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR from above (in downward direction) SA and has a mind NOS of his own, better known in the form of SA TYR NOS Saturnus Saturn, founder of the golden age in Latium. The Etruscan leader Tyrsanos would then have been a worshiper of that god.
How long will scholars of Nostratic and PIE and IE need to consider that also many of their 'roots' and words could go back to compounds and sentences or even formula of an older language, as the above formula naming the human condition?
Brian Greene on string theory: "The surprise would have been to find no surprises." Later on: "Like ancient seafarers, we have a rough sense of what's out there, but it will require extensive mathematical explorations to map the lay of the land."
Looking at language in a different way – from a remote past forward in time – can't but reveal surprises. Also in this field we need extensive explorations, beginning with lists of derivatives of the most important Magdalenian words, as explained in the case of DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able.
If one believes (explicitly or silently) that language was ever the same, and animals got no language, then one must conclude that there was a day in the past when there was no language, and on the next day there was language, fully developed, indiscernible from a recent language.
I prefer surprises to such an anti-evolutionary stump. As explained in a previous message, language in the most basic sense is a primary feature of life, the intelligence of life, providing the negentropy that makes life possible.
There are plenty forms of language. Recently discovered: trees use a chemical language, all over the world a total of some three-thousand chemical words in communicating with each other, warning neighbors of a bug, etcetera.
And human word language is still embedded in body language, accompanied by gestures, among Norwegians no less than Italians, a study form a couple of years ago revealed.
The Albanian surname Preljocaj inspired
PIR LIC OC CO PRe LI OC O Preljocaj
fire PIR light luck LIC (right) eye OC attentive mind CO – possible title of an ancient keeper of a lighthouse, maintaining the fire PIR that provides a guiding light LIC for the open eyes OC and focused mind CO of a lookout on a ship, not really necessary when the sky is clear and the sea calm, but most important in a gale, and then seeing the fire of a lighthouse meant luck, light and luck being the double meaning of Magdalenian LIC.
The above compound would first have named a nautical profession, then become a metaphor for, say, a moral authority, a shining guide of people, and finally a mere name.
Greek pharos 'lighthouse', Albanian far, Italian faro, French phare, Spanish faro
PIR OC CO Phar Ops pharos
OC CO has a close derivative in Czech oko 'eye' and would have been replaced by Greek ops 'eye', parallel to Mycenaean ator-oqo that became anthropos, whereupon ops would have been reduced to the male ending -os. Light for the eyes of a lookout on a ship.
PIR OC CO Pha Ops phaos
Greek phaos 'light, daylight, sunlight, eyelight; torch, lantern, fire; life, luck, salvation, hope'. Imagine a group of Stone Age people returning by night, feeling lost, and finally getting a glimpse of a fire by their tribe in an abri ... Or the joy when dawn and sunrise ended a long, cold, moonless night.
PIR OC CO PIR aiO Peiraieus / Piraeus ?
The main harbor of Athens might have been named for a pair of lighthouses from the 5th century BC, or even earlier fires guiding ships home. OC CO became Czech oko German Auge English eye, so why not also Greek aio (omega) 'I perceive, notice; hear, see, feel' ? a sailor perceiving the lighthouses and already feeling safe at home.
PIR OC CO would also have accounted for English bright, considering *bherhg- (simplified notation) 'shine, gleam', and PIR LIC for brilliant and French briller 'shine'. Among the many derivatives of LIC alone are English look German blicken, German leuchten 'shine', Greek leukos 'white'.
Rules for a scientific discussion I proposed in sci.archaeology twenty years ago: If you are considered a kook, formulate one single claim that holds, and if you consider someone a kook, focus on one single blunder – 1, one, one single claim or blunder.
If I had to propose one single claim, I would mention that so-called roots are not always semantic 'primes' but can sometimes be compounds or even phrases of an older language. As long as there is no evidence to the contrary I go on with my work.
Sir Karl Popper asked not only for testable hypotheses and theories but also for daring ones, the more audacious the better. I offer testcases, from bear as the furry one vs bear as the brown one to the triple test case regarding the name of Zeus, the Indo-European homeland, and words for the horse (involving compounds that became words). Provide arguments for the classical opinions, then I will provide mine, and we shall see which ones are better, simpler and with more explaining power (a principle known as Bacon's razor).
As for audacious, my alternative approach to early language (permutation groups based on four laws) is far from trivial.
The scientific ethos obliges me to go on exploring its possibilities. If I succeed, fine, and if I fail others may learn. Mistakes are instructive. 3,000 people who fail make someone succeed. But what is most important is my pleasure and joy in doing my work, getting a glimpse of the language of the Lascaux people.
Do you think that the greatest painters of their time were all born in the region of Montignac? No, they came from far, symbolized by the five swimming stags crossing a river, from all over the Guyenne, a proto-society held together by wandering arch-shamans and arch-shamanesses, represented by megaceroi, giant stags and hinds. Cave art allows not only conclusions on language but also on the social organization.
Wondering about a Magdalenian etymology of 'inspiration' I found *peis 'to whistle' Old Church Slavonic piscati, Sanskrit piccora 'flute', Latin s p i r o 'blow', Tocharian A pis 'blow an instrument'. Magdalenian PIS means water in motion, and fish that swim in water, Latin piscis pisces.
Can it be that PIS meant also air in motion? French bise names both the medieval water channels in the Swiss Valais (upper Rhone, hewn out of rock or made from wood, often at dizzying heights, in all 20,000 kilometers long, half around the world) and a cold wind from the North or Northeast. Parallel derivatives of PIS in the double sense are German fliessen blasen English flow blow (liquid infix), Latin pisces 'fish' in water and Magdalenian PIC for birds in the air, the latter preserved in Sanskrit piccora 'flute' (consider a song bird, it's melodic sound called Flten in German), in pick peck beak, and in peak that compares the lofty top of a mountain to a bird's beak.
Water was a symbol of life, and air, inhaled, a symbol of inspiration, revived in the language of symbols by Marcel Duchamp, warmth a symbol of liveliness ...
Michel Lorblanchet convincingly demonstrated how cave paintings were produced: colored earths or coal were mixed with fat, chewed, and then spit on the cave wall. Spittle must have had a high value by then. Being antisepctic it was used by healers who may have chewed herbs with fat in making ointments.
Warm spittle mixed with fat and colors made animals come alive on cave walls.
Actors wishing each other good luck on the stage imitate the sound of spitting, toi toi toi. In like manner a Stone Age painter spitting red ocher on a wall – producing a hand negative that claimed a second life in the beyond for a worthy soul – could have provided onomatopoeic SAI for life, existence, comparative form of DAI for a protected area, in cave art given as tectiform signs. Hand negatives are known from Indonesia, 60,000 years old. A red ocher dot, also claiming a next life in a heavenly beyond, was dated in the Altamira cave: some 43,000 years old. Also, licking the lips had been a way of declaring love, which I conclude from the name of the Divine Hind who called life into existence, her main sanctuary Altamira.
Magdalenian has a most effective mechanism of word branching via compounds. 400 words allow in principle 160,000 compounds of two words like AS PAC aspa asva and AC PAS hippos equus Epona hevonen, 64,000,000 compounds of three words like AAR RAA NOS Ouranos Varuna Hrens and NOS AAR RAA Noah, and 25,600,000,000 compounds of four words like AD TOR OC CO atoroqo anthropos, formula of the conditio humana.
Compounds are the power and magic of Magdalenian.
Another mechanism of word branching can be observed in the six homonyms *bher- which derive from BIR meaning fur, Greek byrsa 'hide, fur, leather'
*bher- 1 'boil' – a cooking pit was laid out with a hide, water was filled in, meat and vegetabilia were added, hot stones from the nearby fireplace were rolled in and made the water boil
*bher- 2 'brown' – most fur is brown and made the bear as the furry one a brown one
*bher- 3 'carry' – to carry something in a fur bag, then also used for a woman bearing a child, giving birth, whereupon the newborn was placed on a bear fur, a custom known from Hellenistic Greece, survived in parts of the Slavic world until the twentieth century, was replaced by the bearing cloth in which a bairn was carried to the church for being baptized in medieval England, consider also the Divine Bear Mother and Bear Nurse of the Vinca (Vincha) culture, emblem of motherly love and care and protection
*bher- 4 'cure' – to make ointments by chewing medical herbs and fat and smearing the paste on the inside of a warming fur, then wrapping it around the patient; the inverse have been hallucinogenic herbs mixed with fat, smeared on the inside of the fur coat of a berserk, absorbed by his skin, making him wild before a batttle (note ber- in berserk)
*bher- 5 'strike' – a hunter striking a furry animal
*bher- 6 'weave' – a Magdalenian site on the Seine before Paris proves that men worked on stone tools and women on fur, BIR has derivatives in Latin pella, in English pelt and German Fell and Pelz, then also in English wool and German Wolle that accompanied the invention of weaving and turned a BIR MAN, fur handler, MAN meaning hand, into something like weave-man then woman.
BIR was the origin of the six homonyms that can't have sounded exactly the same, whereas the pronunciation of BIR poses no problem.
PIE offers *worsmno- as origin of Greek ouranos 'heaven' personified by the sky god Ouranos. An explanation of this name is provided by the big limestone ring on the Goebekli Tepe that shows a male head ex negativo, composed of air AAR and light RAA and imagined to have a mind NOS of his own ouranos.JPG
While *worsmno- remains opaque, AAR RAA NOS opens an archaeological window. The sky god of the Goebekli Tepe region was implored for rain with prayers and the rising smoke of sacrificial fires, symbolized by snakes heading upward; falling rain by snakes heading downward; and rivers by snakes undulating horizontally. Snakes are by far the most frequent symbol in the Goebekli Tepe iconography. AAR RAA NOS became the Greek sky god Ouranos and the old sky god Varuna of the Indus Valley, initial Var- meaning 'rain'.
NOS AAR RAA named Noah who followed the mind NOS of the one of air AAR and light RAA. This name inspires a story. A long drought was followed by a heavy rain that fell for forty days and forty nights. Noah and his tribe left the region of the Goebekli Tepe. There were two Noahs. One Noah wandered along the Euphrates downward and founded Uruk of the cattle enclosure in southern Meopotamia, in the Bible Erech and the ark, Uruk from AAR RAA CA, protected from above by the one of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA. The other Noah wandered along the Euphrates upward and settled in the plain north of Mount Ararat, from AAR RAA RYT, abode of the sky god, he of air AAR and light RAA as sun archer RYT, anticipating the sun archer TIR of the Armenian Bronze Age, from TYR meaning to overcome in the double sense of rule and give.
Magdalenian helps find historical reality in the Bible.
Harran or Haran, forty kilometers south of the Goebekli Tepe, was named for the ancient sky god AAR RAA NOS.
Jacob on his way from Beersheba to Haran slept in the wilderness of Juda. In a vision he saw the Lord on top of a heavenly ladder, and the Lord appointed him governor of this very region. Later on he was given the name
AS AAR RAA ) or AS AAR RAA L Israel
for he saw the Lord up above AS in an aureole of air AAR and light RAA, and the Lord spoke ) or L to Jacob ...
His descendants became the Israelites, with a center in BIR SAP Beersheba 'Seven Wells'. They were SAP BIR apiru Hebrews, wandering water workers also in the service of Egyptian kings.
PAS means everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta- 'five'. Inverse SAP means everywhere (in space), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, in all seven places, wherefrom words for seven in many languages. BIR meaning fur named wells as places where fur bags were filled with water. The SAP BIR apiru Hebrews found water everywhere, in the five places of a plain, in the valley below, on the hills above.
Their leader was Aaron, in the tradition of those imploring rain from the ancient sky god AAR RAA NOS. His rod turned into a snake that swallowed the snakes of the Egyptian magi, meaning he surpassed even the water engineers of mighty Egypt.
Several Moses figures and Aaron figures led several groups of Israelites and/or apiru Hebrews out of Lower Egypt into the Sinai and the region of the Har Karkom, identified as Mount Sinai by Emmanueal Anati. The high number of people who left Egypt at once according to the Bible were several groups of people who left in the course of millennia and had the potential of becoming a people, while the parting of the Red Sea means the water workers knew where to traverse the swamps at the former northern end of the Red Sea (now Suez Canal) without being followed by Egyptian soldiers on carts pulled by horses that would have been swallowed by the mud.
In the Negev they found wells, contracted to the miracle of the well in the desert of Zin. They settled in a place they called Kadesh Barnea and erected a tent for ShA.CA DhAG.CA, ruler ShA in the sky CA, able one DhAG in the sky CA.
The numbers 10 5 6 5 of JHWH were encoded in the mercy seat placed on the ark of the covenant, also this one of interesting numbers, while the sum 26 of the JHWH numbers allowed a fine calendar with a lunar aspect and a solar aspect. Later on Solomon developed an ingenious geometric system based on a pair of complementary cubits of nearly the same lengths which provided simple formulae that solved an array of demanding problems, and the Hazor bowl from around 840 BC offers a triangular algorithm that can be translated into words as follows (analogous to the way Joseph managed the Egyptian famine) – There will be plenty water, then little water, so let us plan ahead for the time of need, and trust in God, there will be water again ... The equilateral q-d-sh triangle on the rim of the Hazor bowl fits into the Solomonic system, and both the 'molten sea' on the Temple Mount of Jerusalem and the qodesh bowl from Hazor commemorated the miracle of the well in the Negev.
Magdalenian combined with experimental reconstructions of early mathematics reveal a historical core in the Exodus, related by the Bible in a verbal CinemaScope that renders history from a psychological perspective.
AAR RAA NOS had been the supreme god of the Goebekli Tepe, the sky god of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS of his own. A short version of his name accounted for the supreme god of Sumer, the sky god Anu
AAR RAA NOS A(AR RAA) Nu Anu
In the form of AAR RAA CA he named and protected Uruk of the cattle enclosure, Erech and the ark in the Bible, he of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA, while the original name accounted for Akkadian Harranu, oldest known version of Harran
AAR RAA NOS h AAR RAA Nu Harranu Harran Haran
Klaus Schmidt identified the sacred Du-ku mountain of Sumerian mythology – where the first gods and goddesses came from - as the large hill of the Goebekli Tepe. Du-ku from DhAG meaning able named the large hill as 'mountain' of the able ones. Its ancient name had been AC CA, where the earth AC and sky CA are meeting, personified in the Indo-European earth goddess akka mentioned by Pokorny, and Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve.
AC CA DhAG may have named Agade Akkad meaning 'the mother of life is able'. The most famous ziqqurat is the one of Babylon called Etemenanki 'house of the foundation of heaven and earth'. Herodot reported a ceremonial marriage on this artificial hill, securing the wealth of Babylon. It would have been a symbolic union of a priestess representing earth and a priest (or the king) representing heaven.
Marduk was the creator of the cosmos, main god and protector of Babylon, and Lord of the Etemenanki ziqqurat
AAR RAA NOS DhAG mAR (RAA NOS) DhAG Marduk ?
He was the son of the wise creator-god Enki of Sumer who made the big rivers Euphrates and Tigris spring from his shoulders, the water god Enki/Ea, perhaps from AC CA like Latin aqua 'water' obtained as exchange between earth AC and sky CA (rain implored with prayers and the smoke of sacrificial fires, rewarding rain sent from above).
Is AC CA also present in Egyptian ankh 'life' ? An Egyptian papyrus mentions a Syrian province by the name of aqa – maybe the region of the Goebekli Tepe in southeastern Anatolia and northwestern Syria?
The life symbol ankh is composed of a loop for the sky, a horizontal bar for the surface of the earth, and a vertical bar for the depth of the earth – evoking a goddess born from the union of heaven and earth, incorporating this life spending union herself.
An elegant 'violin idol' from the Cyclades on display at an art and antiquity fair showed the same idea. A disc (diameter maybe four centimeters) represented her body and the earth, two lateral protrudings both her arms and breasts, indicating the surface of the earth where we are active (arms) and find our nourishment (her nourishing breasts), while a smaller disc (diam. perhaps three cm) represented her head and the sky, of translucent alabaster (or marble?), the smaller disc of the head shining like a full moon when held against light.
Complementary interpretations of the ankh sign are a vessel with a rim, turned upside down, water flowing out, and a sacral knot.
AAR RAA NOS granted rain – a sequence of ankh symbols represents a jet of water. AAR means air – the sky goddess Nut holding the ankh before the nose of a king supplies him with fresh air. A polished form of his name appears in Horus, the divine falcon whose eyes were moon and sun, the solar disc also an emanation of the supreme god Ra, short form of RAA for light. AAR RAA is present in aura and aureole, Greek hora (with omega) 'period of time; season; spring; harvest; climate; year; daytime, day; hour; moment; age, phase; youth', Latin hora English hour, Rumantg aura 'weather', Finnish aurinko 'sun' and Hungarian arany 'gold'.
Marduk was the creator of the cosmos, main god and patron of Babylon. The sleeves of his shirt had been adorned with circles and inscribed stars of eight points: emblem of the sun god of Sumer, a world formula, a calendar of one year (sun and moon), and a calendar of eight years (sun, moon, Venus).
PAS means everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me. Inverse SAP means everywhere (in space), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me.
Analogously, the star of eight points of Sumer and Akkad (and on beautiful Kamares ware from Minoan Crete and in the center of the Tiryns disc of the Phaistos Disc) are a world formula, seen from our perspective: here and now (center of the star), south and north of me (two points), east and west of me (two more points), under and above me (two more points), in the past and in the future (final points). And seen from the creator god: he was everywhere.
Now the same star can be read as a lunisolar calendar of one year: each point a period of 45 days, in all 360 days, add 5 and occasionally 6 days for the center of the star and you obtain 365 days of a regular year and 366 days for an occasional leap year, while 21 continuous periods of 45 days are 945 days and correspond to 32 lunations or synodic month (equivalent of the Goebekli Tepe formula).
Again the same star can be read as a calendar of 8 years or 99 lunations or 5 Venus years, rounded average 2,922 days, eight regular years of 365 days plus 2 leap days. From here you can get a rule: four regular years require one leap day.
A modern calculation yields a phantastic result. Let one point be 16 years, and the whole star 128 years. Represent them by 32 groups of four regular years (r) and in between them 31 leap days (l)
r r r r l r r r r l r r r r l r r ... r r l r r r r l r r r r l r r r r
The mistake is two minutes in 128 years, one second per year!
Ezekiel, exiled in Babylon, Tell Abib on the Chaber, composed a heavenly Jerusalem from the cycles of sun and moon and Venus rendered as wheels turning within wheels (far out but numerically solid, as explained in 2017), a vision culminating in the mighty river of life that comes from a heavenly Gihon Spring lascaux13.htm (scroll down to the end)
One Holly, in the spring of 2006, asked me about a domino five in the Brunel chamber of the Chauvet cave – can I associate a Magdalenian word to that sign on the wall? She gave me the link to the fine official website of that cave. I looked it up and easily found the Brunel chamber with a large domino five made of red ocher palm impressions, plus one more 'dot' in upper position, next to the right upper 'dot' of the domino five, and thought immediately of PAS CA ...
PAS means everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta- 'five'. CA means heaven. Cave walls often represent the sky, Lascaux, Altamira, Chauvet itself. PAS CA would then mean: everywhere in the sky.
Who gets everywhere in the sky?
The answer is given in the hindmost hall of the wide cave. On a stalactite appears a Venus, her lower body with a big black pubic triangle, by her side a bison, his forelegs going along with her legs, his head before her womb – the bullman, supreme leader of the Lower Rhne Valley, born again by the goddess in the region of the Summer Triangle Deneb – Vega – Atair --- may he roam the heavens in his next life as he roamed the earth in this life, may he get everywhere PAS in the sky CA ...
Holly was mighty excited: the oldest identifiable writing in the world!
PAS CA has derivatives in Russian Paskha, Italian Pasqua, French Pques.
Once a 'simple' and clear case like the Chauvet PAS CA is resolved, you can look out for confirmation and a more demanding case.
The Chauvet paintings are 32,000 or even 36,000 years old, the oldest Lascaux paintings 17,000 years. Pech Merle is in between with 25,000 years.
Pech Merle presents a red ocher hand negative, apparently above eye level, claiming a second life in a heavenly beyond. Next to the hand, on the right side, a little below, is a vertical-horizontal cross of five dots, with four more dots above the cross and three more dots below the cross.
The cross of five dots and the four more dots above it can again be read as PAS CA, and the cross with the three dots below it as PAS AC - may the supreme leader roam the heavens in his next life as he roamed the land in this life, may he get everywhere PAS in the sky CA as he got everywhere PAS on earth AC.
PAS AC may have a derivative in Pesach Passover, hypothetical original meaning of the Jewish festival: Pharaoh can't hold us up, we get everywhere PAS on earth AC, we will cross the border between Lower Egypt and the Sinai ...
The same idea is preserved in Hebrew pasak 'to open wide' and English pass passport, allowing us to get everywhere.
The Chauvet cave might have been the stage of a spectacle representing the PAS CA idea: the bullman, supreme leader of the Lower Rhne Valley, born again by the goddess in the region of the Summer Triangle Deneb – Vega – Atair, going on a heavenly journey (imagine shadow plays accompanied by flutes and drums).
Michael Janda, eminent PIE scholar, concluded from the Rig Veda on a Stone Age belief in a second life somewhere on the Milky Way, while Michael Rappenglck identified the birdman, the bull, and the bird on a pole in the pit of Lascaux as Cygnus with Deneb, Lyra with Vega, and Aquila with Atair respectively – in my opinion worthy rulers of the Guyenne (birdman, encoding a river system of the Guyenne), of the Lower Rhne Valley (bull[man]), and of the Pyrenes (bird on a pole) in the region of the Summer Triangle.
In the time of Chauvet, fast moving Arcturus, today below Bootes, had been his head, facing the Big Dipper seen as a bear – ARC TYR, overcomer TYR of the cave bear ARC. The skull of a cave bear had been placed on a plinth in a chamber of the Chauvet cave, while the entrance to that cave was blocked by a rock 23,000 years ago. Skulls of cave bears were placed in many more caves, carefully deposited as emblem of the cave according to Marie E.P. Knig.
ARC TYR lived on as Arthur / Artus. Arthur of Brittany fought for three days and nights with the dragon of Landevennec – skulls and bones of the long extinct cave bear, larger than a grizzly, had been misinterpreted as remains of dragons in medieval times.
My assumption is that Golden Boy of the Indus Valley had been the hero of a similar story (an oral epic), the young god bringing civilization to the humans, his adventures projected into the constellations of the night sky, Golden Boy a star among the stars in a celestial movie on the heavenly screen.
For my entertainment I compiled an oral epic from different sources, ARC TYR of the Chauvet cave, Arthur Artus, Excalibur, Greek mythology, Behemoth in the Bible, Goebekli Tepe calendar, Pashupati tablets from the Indus Valley, Lascaux midwinter emblem.
Golden Boy stole from the fire of life PIR SAI guarded by the Perseus tiger of the Algol eye. Then he followed the heavenly CA lake or stream LAC, together CA LAC overformed by Galaxy, Milky Way, until he saw the Lyra elephant of the Vega eye on the other side of the wide river. The kind elephant helped him cross the water, and showed him the way through the Draco Valley up to the Thuban mountain of the heavenly North Pole. Golden Boy wandered along the steep valley and reached the top of the Thuban mountain.
As he looked over the land he heard people complain about the thirsty Bootes rhinoceros that emptied the rivers, and nobody could cope with it. So he went down from the Thuban mountain, took hold of the Spica lance, pierced the bony skin of the grotesquely swollen pachiderm, and released the first monsoon ...
Then he tamed the savage Canis Minor buffalo of the Procyon eye, and taught people many arts, how to plough the fields, form and dry bricks, build houses, the double Gemini towers, catch fish, bake bread, and many more. Across the wide celestial river he got a glimpse of the Orion woman, ORE EON, she on the beautiful ORE bank or shore EON of the heavenly stream. Finally he returned to the top of the Thuban mountain, climbed the pipal tree growing there, fixed the stars to air roots, and swirled them around, making the merry-go-round of the seasons turn: 90 days of the Perseus tiger of the Algol eye; 90 days of the Lyra elephant of the Vega eye; 3 days of Golden Boy, midsummer; 90 days of the Bootes rhinoceros of the Arcturus eye; and finally 2 and occasionally 3 days of the Orion goddess, midwinter, her emblem a pair of antithetic ibices.
The connecting lines Algol-Arcturus and Vega-Procyon formed an oblique cross of practically the angles 70-110-70-110 degrees that are very well approximated by the diagonals of the rectangle 7 by 10 whose center was near Thuban in Draco some 4,500 years ago.
The society of the Indus Valley imposed taxes in the form of work, for example in the fabrication of bricks (restauring Mohenjo-daro after the monsoon required some two million bricks every year), and extraordinary endeavors had been rewarded with an Indus tablet of high prestige, referring to the work in question, in the given case fabricating and transporting of bricks in the 90 days of the buffalo, between the fall equinox and midwinter festival. Maybe we can restore the oral epic of Golden Boy from those tablets, one day?
The school of Imhotep in Ancient Egypt, more precisely Hemon, presumable designer of the Great Pyramid, achieved the first systematic calculation of the circle on the basis of the triangle 3-4-5. Using a linear plus-minus algorithm they found a sequence of triple that generate a sequence of ever rounder polygons in a sequence of circles of the radius 5, 25, 125, 625 ... ever finer units, 3-4-5, 7-24-25, 44-117-125, 336-527-625 ... But they probably also knew another triple-generating algorithm
4x4 - 3x3 = 7 2x4x3 = 24 4x4 + 3x3 = 25
Applied to the numbers 10 and 7 of the heavenly cross we obtain the triple or triangle 51-140-149 which provides an angle of practically 70 degrees (twice the arctan 7/10), an angle of exactly 90 degrees, and an angle of practically 20 degrees (arctan 51/140 or arcsin 51/149 or arccos 140/149, angle 20.0159... degrees, 18 times that angle being 360.287... degrees, rounded a full circle).
I found this 'magic' triangle when reconstructing a hypothetical solar sanctuary and complementary lunar sanctuary of the Proto-Finns in the Middle Ural.
Some scholars make a connection between the Indus Valley culture and the Finns.
According to a hypothesis of mine, the Finns came originally from the Goebekli Tepe region, wandered eastward, reached the Aral Sea, and settled in the Middle Ural, region of Perm and Jekaterinburg.
The names Aral and Ural derive from AAR RAA ) or AAR RAA L, he of air AAR and light RAA has the say ) or L, while another form of his name, AAR RAA CA, he of air and light in the sky CA, would explain the name of Golden Boy muruku that was identified by Asko Parpola
AAR RAA CA muR Ru Cu muruku
The same compound may account for Finnish AAR RAA CA aurinko 'sun' and CA kuu 'moon' - the eyes of the old sky god were sun and moon. And the form AAR RAA NOS is found in Hungarian arany 'gold' (perhaps also on Finnish aarre 'treasure', classically buried gold).
Theo Vennemann considers toponyms like Val d'Aran and Arundel a chief witness of the Vasconic theory of early language. Remember also the Val d'Hrens in the western Swiss Alps, a valley being a hollow between hills or mountains filled with air and light.
Magdalenian is a natural expansion of the comparative method: finding deeper connections between languages and religious beliefs of an early time.
Remember the imaginary rectangle 7 by 10 in the night sky, center near Thuban in Draco, with Algol and Arcturus on one diagonal, Vega and Procyon on the other diagonal. The slowly turning diagonals could have served as a clock, with a short hour of 40 minutes and a day of 36 short hours
from Algol to Vega 11 short hours or 440 minutes
from Vega to Arcturus 7 short hours or 280 minutes
from Arcturus to Procyon 11 short hours or 440 minutes
from Procyon to Algol 7 short hours or 280 minutes
The guiding stars of the four seasons played a role in the calendar
-- New Year following the midwinter festival of the goddess, Algol reaching
the apex of its trajectory in the evening at the beginning of a seson of 90 days
-- spring equinox, Vega reaching the apex of its trajectory in the morning
at the beginning of a season of 90 days
-- midsummer festival of the god, 3 days
-- followed by the monsoon of the rhinoceros, Arcturus reaching the apex
of its trajectory in the evening at the beginning of a season of 90 days
-- fall equinox Procyon reaching the apex of its trajectory in the morning
at the beginning of a season of 90 days
-- midwinter festival of the goddess, 2 and occasionally 3 days, end of year.
Rising Bootes reaching the apex of its trajectory in the evening announced the midsummer festival, and the rising Pleiads reaching the apex of their trajectory in the evening announced the midwinter festival. Aldebaran in Taurus and the Pleiads were the Golden Gate of Babylonian astronomy, traversed by sun and moon and planets.
The above calendar was derived from the most elaborate Pashupati tablet which might have honored an outstanding astronomer of Mohenjo-daro. Actually it was derived from a seal impression of this tablet, showing the tiger in the lower left corner; above him a standing or walking man, Golden Boy marking the position of the spring equinox; the elephant above him; big in the middle Pashupati, Lord of the animals, turning his head, indicating the merry-go-round of the four seasons, wearing buffalo horns, one big (nearly complete) circle for the day, the other one for the night; next to him, on the right side of the seal impression, the rhinoceros; under him the buffalo; and under the tabouret of Pashupati a pair of antithetic ibices, emblem of midwinter according to Marie E.P. Knig. Pashupati appearing big and the ibices small indicate a celebration of midsummer.
Pashupati means Lord of the Animals and may overform PAS PAD, everywhere (in a plain) PAS activity of feet PAD - he got everywhere in the sky on his heavenly journey and became Pashupati, Lord of the animals of the four seasons, tiger of the Algol eye, elephant of the Vega eye, rhinoceros of the Arcturus eye, buffalo of the Procyon eye.
Goebekli Tepe hieroglyphs (1)
Compared to the PAS CA formula of red ocher palm impressions, the hieroglyphs on Goebekli Tepe pillars are relatively young, 'only' 11,600 years old.
Temple D, in my opinion the sanctuary of creation, has a pair of large central pillars, the female one in the east, and the male one in the west, on their necks triple hieroglyphs that make them speak gt01.GIF
The upper hieroglyph on the neck of the female pillar shows an oval deepening between a pair of vertical bars, indicating a talking mouth, the fire giver PIR GID having the say ) or L, and her priestess in the role of the goddess between the pair of the central pillars of temple D.
PIR GID calls out to her sister the fur giver BIR GID. This one takes her cosmic fur and scoops the primeval hill out of the primeval sea. Her hieroglyph is the one at the bottom, looking like a bowl, representing a fur bag.
Now PIR GID called out to her sister the fertility giver BRI GID. This one took the primeval hill and formed a ring, the primeval earth AC, and the hollow in the ring the primeval sky CA. She also planted the seeds of life into the primeval earth. Her hieroglyph is the ring in the middle.
A male head appeared in the hollow of the ring, the sky god AAR RAA NOS. His eyes were moon and sun. PIR GID lit them up with her fire of life PIR SAI. And the shining sun made the seeds of life germinate ...
Goebekli Tepe hieroglyphs (2)
The hieroglyphs on the neck of the female central pillar of temple D anticipate Genesis 1:1 in the Bible
)OG BIR AC CA or LOG BIR AC CA
Now for the second part of creation, as encoded in the bucranium on the neck of the male central pillar gt01.GIF
The somewhat ring-like head of the bull symbolizes AAR RAA NOS, the sky god of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS of his own. He appeared in the guises of a bull and a man. His head as a man appears in the big limestone ring ouranos.JPG
GIS BAL CA MmOS, gesturing GIS hot(headed) BAL heavenly CA offspring MmOS broke up the ring, freed the sky god, flattened the earth AC and spread the sky CA over it. His element of the bucranium is the horizontal bar on top of the head and pair of horns.
AD DA MAN dug river beds and made the water flow toward AD the sea while coming from the hills and mountains, and dug them with his right hand MAN. He was the patron of the early farmers who dug irrigation channels. His tool had been horns, their tools stag antlers. His element in the bucranium is the pair of horns pointing downward.
Now for the various names and what became of them:
AAR RAA NOS became Ouranos in Greece and Varuna in the Indus Valley. His guises were a bull and a man. House 1A of Hallan Cemi (Chemi), a round building half in the ground, inner diameter maybe six meters, a gathering house, showed opposite of the entrance the skull and horns of an aurochs, possible emblem of the old sky god in his guise of a bull
GIS BAL CA MmOS became GISh.BIL.GA.MISh Gilgamesh, and in the short form of BAL the god Ba'al
AD DA MAN became Adam, patron of early farmers
AC CA personified became the Indo-European earth goddess akka mentioned by Pokorny, also Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve, and inverse
CA AC the Greek earth goddess Gaia. AC CA also named the Goebekli Tepe as the large 'hill with a navel' as the place where earth AC and sky CA are meeting, or where they had been separated from each other in the beginning – by BRI GID whose alter ego had been AC CA. A Syrian province by the name of aqa mentioned in an Egyptian papyrus might have been the region of the Goebekli Tepe in southeastern Anatolia and southwestern Syria (the latter just now the place of yet another humanitarian catastrophe)
PIR GID and BIR GID and BRI GID were preceeded by the triple goddess carved in the Abri Bourdois near Angles-sur-l'Anglin, Dep. Vienne, France, and became the mighty Celtic triple goddess Brigit
BRI GID was AC CA personified and became the Greek love goddess Aphrodite
BRI GID aBRI GIDe Aphrodite
And the three divine couples were PIR GID and AAR RAA NOS, then BIR GID and GIS BAL CA MmOS, then BRI GID alias AC CA Hawwa Eve and AD DA MAN Adam.
Goebekli Tepe hieroglyphs (3)
The ring hieroglyph denotes the ring of the primeval world, the ring itself the earth AC and the hollow the sky CA. Whereas the broken up and flattened ring and the sky spread on it was represented by another hieroglyph: the lying H whose lower horizontal bar indicates the flat earth AC and the upper horizontal bar the sky CA, while the vertical bar signifies exchanges between them, notably prayers for rain and the rising smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain, and falling rain rewarding them (for example on pillar 30 in temple D).
Snakes are by far the most frequent symbol in the Goebekli Tepe iconography. Snakes heading upward symbolize prayers for rain and the smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain: snakes heading downward symbolize falling rain; and snakes undulating horizontally symbolize rivers (Euphrates and Tigris on pillar 33 of temple D).
Also the snake in the garden of Eden symbolizes water: the huge amounts of water needed for irrigating plantations of cultivated date palms. A cylinder seal from Sumer shows a couple evoking Adam and Eve seated under a stylized date palm, while a large snake forms a stairway from the ground to the sky, as if the snake is drinking water from a cloud ...
Over-irrigation deposited salt in the soil and made it barren. Which is the reason why Abraham left Ur for Harran, science found out. And when Adam and Eve had been driven out of paradise, the snake was condemned to eat dust (Genesis 1:1).
A stone tablet from Jerf el-Ahmar – area and era of the Goebekli Tepe culture – shows a grid of lines and a snake undulating horizontally, hence the lines are irrigation channels.
The first paradise was northern Mesopotamia, and the second one southern Mesopotamia, water a big issue for both of them.
Phaistos Disc again, delving deeper, final evidence
Phaistos Disc, as deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth, combined with an alternative archaeological story:
A promising young man from Lycosoura spent much time in Elaia's grove at Phigalia, learned all he could about agriculture from the priestesses of Demeter-Elaia, and consulted the oracle of Nyx. Powerful Nyx, feared even by Zeus, was the daughter of Poseidon in the guise of a stallion and of Demeter in the guise of a mare. (Demeter as goddess of cereals is represented by the baking oven in the center field of the Elaia disc, and Poseidon, originally the god of rivers, in form of the waves next to the baking oven)
Enter Elaia's grove, kindle wood that is polished round about,
walk around the sacrificial fire, beat the earth, and neigh
suddenly like a pair of horses: Aio ae! hyauax! Come, shadowy one,
noble late Night, born by the goddess again and again
Later on the young man wandered to the Argolis, bringing olive twigs and portable beehives with him. He introduced edible olives (elaia 'olive') in the Argivian plain, grew cereals, vegetables, vine, and cared for the bees. Thus he luckily averted a famine and was appointed king of Tiryns.
He had a good friend at Phaistos in the fertile plain of Mesara in southern Crete. He asked him for a pair of gold discs he could wear on his shoulders on festive occasions. Well, the gifted scribe and goldsmith invented a peculiar Greek alphabet which allowed him to render Elaia's grove and Tiryns both in words and as pictures – Tiryns from the former Round Building on top of the acropolis (rosette of eight massive blocks at the base still extant in situ, represented by the rosette of eight petals in the center of the Tiryns disc) to the well guarded palisade (enforced by a banning formula of archaic power). Spiral text
Zeus is the shining one also when Zeus is the Lycaion one
whose lovers give birth to offspring his equal,
and if shining Tiryns is a divine town, also I (Eponymous Tiryns)
may be a shining one of the same kind (i.e. divine)
text covering the entire margin, banning formula enforcing the palisade, deterring possible intruders who try to enter the acropolis and the Zeus shrine replacing the former Round Building that burned down at the end of the Early Helladic period of time
Marked (by the god) and lonely forever, without hope for salvation
and without a shadow, shall return who tries to intrude into the sanctuary
A fresco in the palace of Tiryns showed the king and his successors worshiping Demeter-Elaia, and Zeus in the guise of an eagle behind her, under a sky of raining cereals (grains), between the men olive twigs, on their shoulders gold discs, and they appearing as lion-wolf-dog-bee men. The lion symbolizes royalty; the wolf reminds of Lycosoura, Greek lykos 'wolf'; dogs are watchful guards; and bees industrious helpers of a farming society.
The olive twigs between the lion-wolf-dog-bee men are the same sign as on the Phaistos Disc, which disc is the pair of clay models baked together, found by Luigi Pernier in 1908. Maybe the pair of gold discs will one day be found in another cache of Tiryns? The lower parts of the palace ruins are not yet excavated.
The emphatic sigma Ss (explained by Wilhelm Larfeld on the pages 54/5 of Derk Ohlenroth's book) is represented by the rosette of eight petals which appears
* at the beginning of the spiral text in the center of the Tiryns disc, SsEYR for Zeus
* repeated for the Lycaion SsEYR
* and again at the beginning of the ring text, banning formula covering the entire margin, SsLYGOS 'marked (by the god, SsEYR)'
* and once on the margin of the Elaia side, KSsYNORIS for a pair of horses – Poseidon fell in love with Demeter, she fled, he turned into a stallion, she into a mare, he raped her, she in her anger made the cereals wither and caused a famine; only Pan with his flute could mollify her, placated she gave birth to Nyx 'Night' and made the fields fertile again
Whatever the meaning of this myth (perhaps a reflex on the invasion of the Indo-Europeans and their horses in the Balkans?) the rosette indicates deities and has a multiple significance in the center of the Tiryns disc
* the former Round Building from the Early Helladic period on top of the limestone hill of Tiryns contained a shrine of Zeus; the Round Building burned down in the Early Helladic period, or at it's end; the sanctuary of Zeus was probably rebuilt in the Middle Helladic period; anyway, a rosette of massive blocks at the base of the former Round Building still extant in situ
* as a flower it evokes the sun that makes vegetation grow
* as a wind rose it allows an exact orientation of the disc: entrance to the acropolis in the NEE; pictogram of Demeter-Elaia on the margin turning into a mare (growing a mane) indicating West, Phigalia west of Tiryns; two waves in the South indicating the former course of the Manesse river (which caused heavy floods and was therefore diverted around the mountain east of Tiryns with a kilometers long and up to thirteen meters high dam in the Late Helladic period according to geo-archaeologist Eberhard Zannger – a Herculean labor)
* a lunisolar calendar, each petal 45 days, in all a basic year of 360 days, add 5 and occasionally 6 days for the tiny circle in the center and you get a regular year of 365 and occasional leap year of 366 days, while 21 continuous periods of 45 days are 945 days and correspond to 32 lunations or synodic months
* a world formula: here and now (center), in the South and North, East and West, below and above, in the past and future - SsEYR is everywhere, Zeus onmipresent.
Eponymous Tiryns on the Phaistos Disc is (in my opinion) Lord Laertes the gardener in Homer's Odyssey, of the lineage Zeus – Arkeisios – Laertes – Odysseus – Telemachos.
TYR for the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give was the god of the first Indo-European homeland on the middle course of the Amu Darya. Central Asia abounds with derivatives of TYR. Magdalenian TYR became Middle Helladic SsEYR Doric Sseus Homeric Zeus, while DhAG meaning able accounts for Dios, genitive of Zeus.
Arkeisios led the former miner tribes of the Greeks and Hellenes from Central Asia to the southern Balkans and might have been the mythological founder of the Early Helladic period in the Argolis on the Peloponnese.
Lord Laertes the gardener personifies the Middle Helladic period, achieving a certain equilibrium between the invading Indo-Europeans and the local tradition of the Vinca (Vincha) culture surviving in Elaia's grove at Phigalia. Problem: Eponymous Tiryns lived in the Argolis, Lord Laertes on Ithaca. The question was solved by Magdalenian. ITA CA Ithaca means under the sky CA of the young (Zeus) bull ITA, and ATI CA Attica under the sky of the mature (Zeus) bull ATI. Ithaca named originally the Argolis, then larger parts of the Peloponnese, or all of it, and survives in the name of a relatively small island off the northwestern Peloponnese. The lion-wolf-dog-bee men spread over the Peloponnese and are often depicted as pair blessing a young tree between them. Eponymous Tiryns introduced edible olives in the Argolis, and Lord Laertes planted the olive tree around whose trunk Odyssey and Penelope constructed their immoveable bed, symbol of the hopefully eternal Greek civilization.
Odysseus – 'if there ever was such a man' (Homer) – personifies Greece in the time of the Late Helladic period ending with the Trojan war.
Telemachos 'Far Away War' symbolizes Greece in the time of the Messenian wars, far from Troy and far away in time from the Trojan war. Homer 1 of the Iliad flourished in the time of the first Messenian war, Homer 2 of the Odyssey flourished in the time of the second Messenian war, and both of them were concerned about the coherence of the Greek civilization.
Eponymous Tiryns would have achieved a certain equilibrium between the invading Indo-Europeans and Old Europe in the sense of Marija Gimbutas which partly survived in Elaia's grove at Phigalia in Arkadia. Comparing a loaf shaped clay plaque from Banjica near Belgrade, Early Vinca (Vincha), with a rectangular spiral and inscriptions rendering a grove with gardens and sanctuaries and beehives (honeycombs); the baking oven in the shrine of the bird goddess at Sabatinovka, Southern Bug Valley, Early Cucuteni; and the Elaia disc representing Demeter-Elaia's grove, a baking oven in the center of the disc – in all fifteen baking ovens on this disc, counterbalancing the fifteeen shields of the Argos eye on the other disc
The entrance field of Elaia's grove contains from the outside to the inside (against the reading direction) the head of a pig, a pair of beehives (my interpretation), a bag (dito), and a vine twig. Among the offerings to Demeter had been pigs, also figurines with the head of a pig, and bags of unwashed wool. The first lion-wolf-dog-bee man in line before Demeter on the gold signet ring from a cache at Tiryns raises a libation jug of wine mixed with honey in honor of the goddess. Both ring and offerings indicate respect for the legacy of Old Europe, and only the balance of the old culture and new culture of the Indo-Europeans made the rise of Greece possible.
The center field of the Elaia disc shows a baking oven, emblem of Demeter, goddess of cereals, and a wave, emblem of Poseidon, originally a river god, peacefully side by side. While the center field of the Tiryns disc associates the rosette (Ss) of SsEYR Zeus and profile (EY) of the king and ear of grain (R) as further emblem of Demeter. Eponymous Tiryns in divine company! On his cheek is a tattoo resembling an 8 consisting of an upper circle for the divine sphere and a lower circle for the human sphere. Eponymous Tiryns rules in the name of the god and goddess, honors both of them in like manner, and thus makes the Argolis flourish and prosper.
We find a marvelous complexity and multitude of enfolded messages, achieved with a peculiar alphabet of 45 pictograms, among them for example six alphas, allowing to render Elaia's grove and Tiryns both in words and as pictures.
A Greek alphabet from around 1650 BC, invented in the laboratory of writing that was Minoan Crete.
Fifteen baking ovens on the Elaia disc as emblem of Demeter have a counterpart in fifteen shields on the Tiryns disc, Argos eye, emblem of a watchful union of towns in the Argolis, also of the organization of a single town – in the center the ruler of the focused mind CO surrounded by guards of the open eyes OC along the enveloping palisade or wall LOP, together CO OC LOP overformed by Cyclops, the most famous one having been Polyphem, Homeric symbol of Troy, his one eye overlooking the wide river plain, his body downtown Troy VIIa that provided protected shelter for 5,000 till 10,000 people. Consider also the term 'cyclopic wall'.
PAS LOP Penelope was the personification of the Argolis, everywhere PAS towns enveloped by palisades or walls LOP, and POL LOP PAS named the Peloponnese, fortified settlements POL enveloped by palisades or walls LOP everywhere PAS.
A further numerical symmetry are the five portable beehives on the Elaia disc and five eagles on the Tiryns disc. The bee is an emblematic animal of Demeter, also of Elaia, goddess of olives (Greek elaia 'olive'), see the gold ring from Mokhlos in Crete elaia.GIF and the eagle was a guise of Zeus. The flying eagle on the disc holds a snake in his talons. Perhaps the farmers of Tiryns trained eagles to catch snakes? Then there is a political and military aspect. Zeus in his guise of an eagle, protecting the palisade of Tiryns (banning formula along the rim, covering the entire margin) punishing intruders symbolized by snakes?
Maybe there is more information regarding the social organization of the Argolis in the Middle Helladic period of time, made accessible by Derk Ohlenroth with his fine decipherment.
Three signs on the Elaia disc and three signs on the Tiryns disc represent a vertical olive twig. They return in the three vertical olive twigs between the lion-wolf-dog-bee men on the gold signet ring from a cache of Tiryns in the same form and nearly the same size (10 vs 12 mm high). May we assume an open air sanctuary of three sacred olive trees in Middle Helladic Tiryns?
Plenty double axes of bronze and some of gold were deposited in the cult cave of Arkalokhori on Crete. One of the bronze double axes bears a hieroglyphic inscription. Three of the signs (no correspondence with the number three above) closely resemble pictograms on the Phaistos Disc. Also this inscription was deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth
DAeIOYS LO(Y)S(I)AS EIMI I belong to the goddess Lousia
Lousia means 'Angry One'. She was the Cretan equivalent of Demeter-Elaia from Phigalia in Arkadia who turned into Black Demeter-Melaina and caused a famine. So we have not only a connection of the scripts but also of the underlying myths. Apparently the votiv gifts were deposited in order to mollify the goddess and prevent a famine.
The first six pictograms in the center of the Tiryns disc tell the basic story of Eponymous Tiryns in form of the shortest possible summary
rosette for SsEYR Zeus
profile of Eponymous Tiryns
ear of grain for Demeter
vertical olive twig
ground plan of a palace
Eponymous Tiryns, worshiper of Zeus and Demeter, had come from Elaia's grove at Phigalia in Arkadia, bringing twigs of edible olives with him, grafted them on wild olive trees, averted a famine, and was appointed king of Tiryns the shining town ...
Remember the promising and ambitious young man from Lycosoura visiting Elaia's grove at Phigalia, consulting the oracle of Nyx. What did she tell him via her priestess? Maybe she gave him the advice to learn about agriculture? and prophesized that one day he may be appointed king?
The reading direction leads from the end of the Elaia disc evoking Nyx to the six first pictograms in the center of the Tiryns disc, which, when read as emblems and pictures, convey the summary story of Eponymous Tiryns. Can they also visualize the prophesy made by Nyx that came true?
From a 'shadowy late night' in Arkadia to the brightness of the Middle Helladic day ...
If you magnify the six first pictograms in the center of the Tiryns disc, the beginning of the spiral evokes a nautilus shell (and the man fixes the ear of grain before him as if saying that he studied agriculture). A Minoan seal from the Idaean cave, where Zeus was born according to a Cretan legend, shows a priestess holding a triton shell before her mouth. Beautifully colored spiraled conch-shells were found in many Minoan shrines, nearly always the narrow end cut off, so they were used as megaphones by a priestess conveying the message of her goddess.
The spirals on the pair of discs have then a further meaning, and thus confirm the context of an oracle as found by Derk Ohlenroth in his fine decipherment.
Even astronomy is encoded in the Phaistos Disc – beyond the rosette of eight petals that also adorns beautiful Kamares Ware from Middle Minoan Crete.
On the Elaia disc we count 119 and on the Tiryns disc 123 in all 242 = 11 x 22 pictograms which provide better definitions of the lunation and year than the lunisolar calendar of the rosette.
But first of all they provide titles for the pair of discs. The one of the Elaia disc is given by the 11 pictograms of the first 3 fields
EN / YLAeI / ELAiAS / in(to) Elaia's grove
and the one of the Tiryns disc by the 22 pictograms in the first 6 fields
SsEyR / KI / PhAAiNNOS / SsEyR / Ai YL / KIOS /
Zeus is the shining one also when Zeus is the Lycaion one
The Elaia disc evokes the 'noble late Night' Nyx, daughter of Demeter-Elaia, personification of night, and the Tiryns disc a sunny day provided by Zeus.
Analogously the number 11 of the Elaia disc refers to the moon. 400 periods of 11 days correspond to 149 lunations or synodic months, mistake half a minute per lunation.
Count lunations in the 30 29 30 mode. 15 and 17 lunations yield 443 and 502 days respectively
17 15 17 15 17 or 17 32 49 64 81 lunations
502 443 502 443 502 or 502 945 1447 1890 2392 days
81 64 4 sum 149 lunations
2932 1890 30 29 30 29 sum 4400 days
Result: 400 periods of 11 days are 4,400 days and correspond to 149 lunations; mistake half a minute per lunation.
Moon by night, sun by day. 119 123 123 sum 365 days in a regular year. Four regular years plus one leap day are 1,461 days. 83 periods of 11 days are 1,826 days for 5 years; mistake one hour per year
365/1 (plus 1461/4) 1826/5 3287/9 4748/13 6209/17 ... 9131/25
These and further additive number sequences were known to the Minoans, helped them find a way through the 'labyrinth' of demanding astronomical calculations, and were later on dubbed 'Ariadne's thread'.
The myth of Minotaur in the labyrinth of Knossos and the round kernos in the royal court of Mallia encode lunisolar calendars based on a number sequence relating lunations (l) and years (y)
l/y 37/3 99/8 136/11 235/19 (Knossos) 371/30 (Mallia)
The Mallia calendar uses a period of 11 days (returning in Elaia's number).
Derk Ohlenroth found a phonological parallel between the Phaistos Disc and the altar stone inscription of Mallia which he translates as follows: May the goddess (Britomartis) let it rain. So the concern was again agriculture.
The Phaistos Disc in the light of Derk Ohlenroth's decipherment is of a marvelous complexity which allows to combine various fragments of the Minoan and Helladic past.
Not enough with astronomy, the numbers also reveal a system of early geometry.
The Elaia disc has 119 or 7 x 17 and the Tiryns disc 123 or 3 x 41 pictograms.
17 and 41 appear in the basic number column for calculating the square and octagon
1 1 2
2 3 4
5 7 10
12 17 24
29 41 58 and so on
41 and 123 belong to the basic number column for calculating the cube, equilateral triangle and hexagon (the construction of a hexagon is indicated by the geometrical sun on the gold signet ring from a cache of Tiryns)
1 1 3
2 4 6
1 2 3
3 5 9
8 14 24
4 7 12
11 19 33
30 52 90
15 26 45
41 71 123 and so on
17 and 123 are present in the basic number column for calculating the double square and decagon
1 1 5
2 6 10
1 3 5
4 8 20
2 4 10
1 2 5
3 7 15
10 22 50
5 11 25
16 36 80
8 18 40
4 9 20
13 29 65
42 94 210
21 47 105
68 152 340
34 76 170
17 38 85
55 123 275 and so on
Elaia disc 119, Tiryns disc 123, sum 242 pictograms. Let the circumference of a circle measure 242 units. How long is the diameter? practically 77 units, value for pi 22/7
77 x 22/7 = 11 x 22 = 242
Here we have again the number 11 of the Elaia title and number 22 of the Zeus title involving night and day, lunar month and solar year, final evidence for the validity of the decipherment achieved by Derk Ohlenroth.
A pseudo-decipherment is a window painted on the wall. A genuine decipherment opens a window on a far away scenery and events in a long bygone era.
There might be even more geometry encoded in the Phaistos Disc, again based on Egyptian – Mesopotamian – Minoan methods.
The Elaia title of the first three fields has 11 signs and the Tiryns title of the six first fields has 22 signs, 11 x 22 = 242, number of all signs
on the Phaistos Disc. The Elaia disc has 30 fields and the Tiryns disc 31 fields, 30 x 31 = 930, an interesting number.
Basic pi sequence, followed by the most important one
4/1 (plus 3/1) 7/2 10/3 13/4 16/5 19/6 22/7
3/1 (plus 22//) 25/8 47/15 69/22 ... 465/148
Double the numbers of the last value and you get 930/296 for pi (3.14189... instead of 3.14159...).
A rectangle measuring 12 by 35 units has a diagonal measuring exactly 37 units. Multiply the numbers by a factor of 8 and you obtain a rectangle measuring 96 by 280 units, diagonal exactly 296 units, while the circle circumscribing this rectangle has a circumference of practically 930 units, 930 the product of the number 30 of Elaia fields and 31 of Tiryns fields.
The over-determination of laudatio and mythology and topography and astronomy and geometry might explain some of the linguistic peculiarites of the early Greek as deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth – anyway a secret message, because the name of Nyx was taboo, her public name Despoina 'Mistress', but is given as her proper name Nyx on the Elaia disc, daughter of Demeter-Elaia.
Spirals in the Neolithic art of the Balkans have the meaning of regeneration, growing, waxing, and giving birth. Double spirals curving in and out – for example on the womb of a Vinca (Vincha) goddess – are a symbol of the sequence of generations, one following the other.
The goddess on the Elaia disc gives birth to Nyx over and over again, while SsEYR on the Tiryns disc 'sired' offspring his equal, Zeus in Homer's Odyssey founding the lineage Arkeisios – Laertesm – Odysseus – Telemachos, Lord Laertes the gardener being the alter ego of Eponymous Tiryns and his dynasty, hero of the Phaistos Disc.