LASCAUX CAVE, an amazing lunisolar calendar practical calendar / a solved task / Sacred Calendar , and a hypothetical reconstruction of the Magdalenian language spoken in the Guyenne some 17,000 years ago (83 Usenet messages, written in freestyle English; the Usenet, you must know, is the Wild Wild West of the World Wide Web, nevertheless a great facility, where new ideas can be developed and published)
© 2005 by Franz Gnaedinger (www.seshat.ch) written in the spring of 2005 [provisional version]
midsummer / axial gallery / midwinter // composite animal / entrance / rotunda // apse (hall of stags or shamans) / pit // birdman as map of Guyenne / Lascaux-Laussel / Venus from Laussel // Venus-Bison (Chauvet) / Venus / Bison // practical calendar / a solved task / Sacred Calendar // hand - star
Why all the interest in long bygone times? We archaeologists are hoping that by understanding the past we may perhaps have a glimpse into the future. And how could we possibly comprehend signals from another civilization somewhere out there in space when we don't even understand the 'signals' from the past? the heritage of our forebears on our own planet? All the ancient and very ancient civilizations I studied so far reveal the same pattern: simple yet complex. This, I believe, is the very key for success. Keep it simple and functional, thus you allow complexity. Google follows that policy, and so, not surprisingly to me, they are very successful. My humble glimpse into the future: if they stand by their policy, their success may last. (quote from message 27, below)
are in the
Our shaman wishes to go further by reconciling the lunar cycle with the solar one. He observes the sun at midsummer and midwinter, for many years. He lays out many long lines of yellow and reddish pebbles. And then, finally, he solves his problem with sets of 40 yellow and 41 reddish pebbles. Nine sets yield a solar year: five yellow and four reddish sets a regular year of 365 days, six yellow and three reddish sets an occasional leap year of 366 days.
As you have seen above, 11 lunations yield 325 days. Add a solar period of 40 yellow pebbles and you obtain a year of 365 days; add a solar period of 41 reddish pebbles and you get a leap year of 366 days.
Now the shaman draws a large square grid of 3 x 3 houses a b c d e f g h i, and presses 40 and 41 holes into the nine clay fields, according to a symmetrical pattern:
h i b 41 40 41
g a c 40 41 40
f e d 41 40 41
Start a calendar cycle with a full moon marking the begin of the first solar period a in the center of the grid 3x3. The moon will move erratically across the houses of this calendar, however, it will again be full at the begin of period i, and in the following years at the begin of the solar periods h, g, f, e ...
lunar calendar of
I I I I 30 29 30 29 30 29
I I I I I 29I30 29 30 29 30
Begin at the top left corner and count cycles of twelve lunations in counter-clockwise direction. 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 plus 30 29 30 29 30 ... days yield 30 59 89 118 148 177 207 236 266 295 325 354 384 413 443 472 502 ... days for 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 ... lunations. If you stop at the line that halves the bottom left field you get 11 lunations yielding 325 days.
The solar calendar of
h 41 i 40 b 41
g 40 a 41 c 40
f 41 e 40 d 41
The nine houses a b c d e f g h i represent nine solar periods and yield a regular year of 365 days. If the first period in the center of the grid, solar period a, begins with a full moon, it will again be full moon at the begin of the solar period i, and in the following
years at the begin of the solar periods h g f e ...
30 29 30 29 30 ... 325 ... 649 ... 974 ...
year 1) 41 41 40 41 40 41 40 41 - 325 - 40
year 2) 41 41 40 41 40 41 40 - 649 - 41 40
year 3) 41 41 40 41 40 41 - 974 - 40 41 40
and so on
Those familiar with the
stag, I believe, was the symbol of the shaman, while the giant stag Megaceros giganteus
was a symbol of the arch shaman. In the axial gallery of the
(In this view of the axial gallery you can just recognize the head of the megaceros in the top right corner: axial gallery)
A grid of 28 times 13 houses yields the best,
namely regular representation of the lunisolar calendar of
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - S - - 82
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - S - - - - - 163
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - S - - - - - - - - 244
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
M - - - - - - - - - - - - 354
- X - - - - - - - - - - - 325 days
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - M - - - - - - - - - - 295
- - - M - - - - - - - - - 266
- - - - - - - - - - - S - 41
- - - - M - - - - - - - - 236
- - - - - M - - - - - - - 207
- - - - - - - - S - - - - 122
- - - - - - M - - - - - - 177
- - - - - - - M - - - - - 148
- - - - - S - - - - - - - 231
- - - - - - - - M - - - - 118
- - - - - - - - - M - - - 89
- - S - - - - - - - - - - 284
- - - - - - - - - - M - - 59
- - - - - - - - - - - M - 30
S - - - - - - - - - - - - - 365 days
4) Marie E.P. Koenig sees the horse in Paleolithic art as symbol of the sun, and the bull as symbol of the moon. The ascending young mares in the rotunda (hall of bulls) of the Lascaux cave show the morning sun, Marie Koenig believes, while the descending horses in the small room at the rear end of the axial gallery symbolize winter; the pair of opposing ibices (ibexes) midwinter; and the grid of 6 fields in between them 6 winter moons, hence the winter half year: midwinter
The rotunda leads into the axial gallery, which ends in a small room. If the ascending mares in the rotunda symbolize the morning sun, and if the descending horses in the small room at the rear end of the axial gallery symbolize winter, and the opposing ibices the midwinter solstice, then the mares in the rotunda, rising above the cave's horizon, symbolize glorious midsummer.
The ascending mares are heading for the left wall of the axial gallery, while the Chinese horses on the opposite wall of the axial gallery, and the red horse before them, are heading for the rotunda. The axial gallery would then represent a year: between midsummer and midwinter (left wall if viewed from the rotunda), and between midwinter and midsummer (wall of Chinese horses and red horse before them).
Now for the geometrical figure between the opposing ibices: a standing rectangle, divided by a horizontal and two vertical lines into 3 small rectangles at the bottom and 3 tall rectangles on top of the small ones. Modifying Marie E.P. Koenig's interpretation I propose an underlying annual calendar:
h41 Apr01-May11 i40 May12-Jun20 b41 Aug01-Sep10
g40 Feb20-Mar31 a41 Jun21-Jul31 c40 Sep11-Oct20
f41 Jan10-Feb19 e40 Dec01-Jan09 d41 Oct21-Nov30
The 3 small rectangles of the grid between the ibices correspond to the winter periods d e f (41 40 41 days). The winter solstice occurs in the middle of period e, December 20/21. The summer solstice occurs between the periods i (40 days) and a (41 days), June 20/21.
5) Along the SW wall of the axial gallery that leads from the small midwinter room to the wide midsummer hall run a line of ponies in their winter coat, and ahead of them the pair of Chinese horses ...
horses (resembling the Przewalski's horse, a wild subspecies discovered in
Hunting magic? I plead for an astronomical meaning, which is revealed by the other signs that accompany the leading horse:
A twig of nine branchelets appears on the round belly. Another twig, before the breast, has five branchelets: four under the stem, plus the one at the end of the stem (while the four upper ones are missing). The twig of nine branchelets may symbolize a solar year of nine periods, beginning at midsummer, June 21 of our modern calendar, while the twig of five branchelets only may symbolize the five cold periods that end on March 31 of our calendar.
Next to the twig of five branchelets and before the horse's mouth appears a second sign of five elements: two horizontal lines above; two horizontal lines below; and under the empty space between them a vertical line. The black lines may again refer to the five cold periods of the Lascaux calendar: upper lines 40 days each; lower lines 41 days each; vertical line 40 days, from December 1 till January 9, in between midwinter: December 20/21.
Above the horse appears a red calendar grid, incomplete as the one between the pair of opposing ibices in the small room of midwinter at the rear end of the gallery. However, this time the upper side is emphasized, and the single small square in the upper right corner evokes the warmest period of the year that begins on the first day of our August.
So the arrows and the spear do not really
menace the Chinese horses but
symbolize the end of the five cold periods in the calendar of
6) The shaggy ponies in the axial gallery symbolize winter, while the Chinese horses ahead of the ponies mark the end of the five cold periods: March 31 in our calendar.
Ahead of the Chinese horses appears a jumping red horse, its round, strong and amazingly plastic body moulded into the curvy line of 28 dots, which ascend softly, perform a loop that hides the horse's forelegs, and then ascend very steeply. This would be the sun of spring that climbs ever higher on the sky ... In the free space between breast, hidden foreleg and dots another sign: two long parallel lines from which sprout three short lines, pointing upward and touching the hidden foreleg.
This sign would symbolize the four warm periods of the year, with midsummer, New Year, in between. Upper long line: a period of 41 days, April 1 - May 11, sun rapidly ascending, therefore a long line. Upper short line: a period of 40 days, May 12 - June 20; sun hardly climbing anymore, therefore a short line. Short line in the middle: midsummer, New Year, between June 20 and 21, occasional leap days (preferably two days
every eight years). Lower short line: a period of 41 days, August 1 - September 10; sun steeply descending, therefore a long line. The lengths of the lines may rely on the experience of climbing a mountain: ascending and descending are both demanding.
The curved dotty line belongs to the geometric
drawing under the proud stag with the antlers of a Megaceros giganteus. The 9
points of the simplified, modified and styled antlers (I compared them with the
antlers of a megaceros from
7) Now let us have a look at a key scene in the rotunda, or hall of bulls: midsummer
A line of ponies are rising above the horizon (a dark band of rock), while a red horse has climbed the sky and represents midsummer.
A long red spear comes from the upper right side and touches the head of the midsummer horse, as if saying that the solar horse - or the sun - has finally reached the highest point of its long ascending journey. Now, from midsummer on, it will descend again, and so the red horse with a black mane is heading for the axial gallery and the small room at its rear end, where a line of horses descends and gives way to a pair of opposing ibices - according to Marie E.P. Koenig the symbol of the midwinter solstice.
There is no hunting magic in the
When the sun has reached the highest position on the sky, it is bound to descend again. But not so quickly. There is another red summer horse high on the marvelous ceiling of the rotunda ...
8) Here again the small room of midwinter at the rear end of the axial gallery: midwinter Between the pair of opposing ibices a calendar grid pointing out the 3 winter periods (bottom fields), while the calendar grid above the leading Chinese horse denotes the 3 upper fields, especially period b, warmest time of the year (beginning with August 1):
- - - h i b 41 40 41 + + b
- - - g a c 40 41 40 - - -
f e d f e d 41 40 41 - - -
On the right side of the ibices and their calendar grid a part of the lunar calendar (on a bulging wall, hardly recognizable in the above picture). The same calendar, only turned around, appears before the head of a bull:
I I I I 30 29 30 29 30 29
I I I I I 29I30 29 30 29 30
On a natural ledge two meters above the floor of the nave parade a line of horses overlapped by a large cow, which, as a bovine, is a lunar symbol. Behind the cow and under her hind legs appear 3 colored calendar grids. As far as I recognize the colors there is bright ocher (orange), dark brown (or blueish?), and black:
brown ocher ocher ocher brown brown brown brown ocher
brown ocher ocher ocher ocher brown brown brown black
ocher brown brown brown ocher ocher brown ocher brown
The first and second patterns have complementary colors: bright ocher in one grid turns into dark brown in the other grid. The large cow places her hind hoofs on the second and third grid; the left hoof on the right grid: periods h (ocher) and i (brown); and the right hoof on the left grid: period g (brown), thus marking the solar calendar of the horse with a bovine influence.
This calendar is a lunisolar calendar.
Astronomically speaking, the lunisolar calendar of
This calendar is amazingly well expressed by the lunar periods of 30 and 29 days, and the solar periods of 41 and 40 days:
h 41 i 40 b 41 30 29 30 29 30 29
g 40 a 41 c 40 29I30 29I30 29I30
f 41 e 40 d 41
Lunar phases are counted like this: 30 29 30 ... days, yielding 30 59 89 118 148 177 207 236 266 295 325 354... days for 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ... lunations.
Solar phases are counted as follows: 41 41 40 41 40 41 40 days, and again 41 41 40 41 40 41 40 41 40 days, and so on, yielding 41 82 122 163 203 244 284 325 365 days for the first year.
Multiples of 11 lunations and 8 solar periods yield 325-325 974-974 1298-1298 1947-1947 2272-2272 2596-2596 2921-2920 days. The lunar and the solar cycle go along for seven years, then the lunar cycle passes the solar cycle by one day (2921 against 2920 days).
Now let us have a look at the exact multiples of 11 synodic months and 8/9 tropical years (modern values):
324.836... 649.672... 974.509... 1299.345...
324.659... 649.319... 973.978... 1298.638...
1624.182... 1949.018... 2273.855... 2598.691...
1623.298... 1947.958... 2272.618... 2597.277...
10) Having established all the mathematical tools required for calculating the Lascaux calendar, and having found that over a period of 8 years the lunar cycle will pass the sun by one day (exactly 1.59073... days), we may have another look at the key scene in the rotunda: midsummer If a full moon occurs at midsummer, begin of period a in the lunisolar calendar of Lascaux, it will again occur at the begin of period h, while the following years will see a full at the begin of the periods h g f e d c b a -- within 8 years we are back to the original constellation, a midsummer full moon.
However, not really, for the lunar cycle has advanced by one day according to the Lascaux numbers (exactly 1.59073... days), and this very situation, I believe, is shown in the midsummer hall or New Year's hall: behind the red horse appears a white bull, going along with the horse, but also passing the horse ...
Going along with the midsummer horse means: the
knew that the lunar cycle is slightly swifter than the solar one.
Before the head of the bull appears a sign of 3 times 3 elements, which evoke the calendar of 3 times 3 fields or periods, and may say that the solar calendar does also belong to the moon.
If you are so lucky to own a copy of the 1988 issue of the National Geographic, you may look up the beautiful panorama on the pages 482-3-4. On the upper left side you see the big head of the midsummer bull; below him a black horse; before him a red horse and an opposing bull; and in the free space of that meaningful scene three small stags with proud antlers, looking toward the midsummer bull and midsummer horse: these would be astronomer shamans observing the sun and moon in midsummer - throughout the whole year, but especially during midsummer. And the megaceros in the gallery might honor the astronomer genius who had discovered that marvelous lunisolar calendar ...
Paleontology relies on bones, for example in the case of Sahelanthropus
or Toumai, Child of Hope, a hominid (now confirmed), seven million years old
(twice as old as Lucy, who, presumably, was a Lucian). Archaeology relies on
artifacts, for example in the case of the some 400,000 years old spears of Homo
heidelbergensis. And history relies on documents we can read. When we can read
the signs and pictures in the
For the fun of it: let me look out for the
language that might have been spoken by the
A first Guyan word or word-root is easily
found: ac. Richard Fester drew a map of
12).. Etymology is fun, so let me go on looking out for words in the Old Magdalenian language I call Guyan (ghi-an).
The first word ac means a large area of land with
water, where animals are grazing, especially horses, cows and bulls. The
largest ac is the
Have a look at a pair of drawings that place the birdman into a map of the rivers of the Guyenne, whereby the Gironde forms the beak (the colors of the first drawing should be a red ocher for the birdman, a yellow green for the land, and a deep blue for the rivers): birdman as map of Guyenne / Lascaux Laussel
The world is made of nine ac: the Guyenne in
the center, surrounded by the ac of marshes and sea (W), Britanny (NW),
northern France (N), Switzerland, where mammoths survived until 10,000 years
ago, and where Magdalenian hunters from the Rhone Valley had been spending
summer (NE), Rhone Valley (E), Mediterrannean (SE), Spain (S and SE). The
heavenly counterpart of the 9 earthly ac are the nine ac of the sun horse and
moon bull. So the lunisolar calendar grid of
Richard Fester says that names of places can
persist for a very long time. A hamlet of shacks by the name of Niffer in
If the name of the Guyenne should go back to Magdalenian times, 'Guy' might originally have imitated the call of a bird: ghi, sharper ki (seagull?).
The ruler of an ac may have been a sh'ac. The birdman of the Guyenne would have been the ghi'shac. Later on, ghishac may have designated every worthy dweller of the Guyenne, simply meaning human being (perhaps real human being). The word ghi'shac would survive in the French names Guy and Jacques, and in the Basque word gizaki, man, human. (Yes, Jacques Guy, I find this very funny.)
13) A further word in Guyan (ghi-an), the language spoken by the Magdalenian dwellers of the Guyenne, is provided by a map: Languedoc, a province in southeastern France. The name Languedoc comes from langue d'oc, a southern form of French that uses the word oc for eye*, whereas the eye is called oeuil in northern France. Oc might well have been a Magdalenian word for eye, also for the verb looking, to look, and for the call: look. *(That mistake will be corrected in the next message or chapter)
An ac, we have seen, was an expanse of green land with a hill and water, where horses and bisons have been grazing. Paleontologists are assuming that a clan or tribe needed 40 to 60 kilometers of land along a river. Hunting deer, fishing salmon, and gathering herbs and berries on such an expanse of land requires good eyes. Picture yourself watching out for deer. When you happen to see one you will alert your hunting comrades, but of course without alarming the deer. Softly croaking oc oc oc may well do. In my language it would be a soft: lueg lueg. In English: look look. And the same word can be shouted out loud, alarming your comrades of a danger: OC - watch out, careful, attention ..
The word oc for eye would have become oculus in Rome, from where it returned to Gaul, where it was kept in the southern province of Langedoc, while it became oeil in northern France, ojo in Spain, eye in England, Auge in German. The same oc became eg in Basque begi for eye; ik in Basque ikusi for see (will also be corrected); and ok in Basque osoko for eye again (apparently a rarer word than begi). The oc root is also present in English look, German lug, lugen (rarely used, a deer looking out from bushes does lugen), in Swiss German lueg, luege, a very common word, which turned the original oc into eg, pronounced ag, looag. And there is the lovely and funny English word ogle ...
14) Oc, we have seen, means eye, also: I look, and: look. A further meaning of oc may be darling (eye apple). My mon mio mein - the possessive mine could have been, say, ma. Now we need light for to see. Let me propose lic for light. Latin lux was light; Hittite luk was the morning light, Hittite luha was the verb to shine. Seeing the sun rise makes happy, and so does looking into the eyes of one's darling. Well then, let me propose the same word for luck. Ancient Greek leukos means shining, white, bringing luck. Richard Fester mentions Nordic lykt for light and lykka for luck. The German words are Licht and Glueck, close to the English words light and luck.
Now we have all the words we nee for declaring our love to a Magdalenian sweetheart: Oc lic ma oc. This means: I see light in your eyes, my darling, I am happy, I am so very happy, and look, there is light in my own eyes, meant to make you happy too.
You may convey the same message by giving your darling a pretty, small, round and shining white pebble as symbol of a shining eye, and if you give her that sign of your affection secretly, or send it via a messenger, it would be a Magdalenian love letter ...
15) If ac was land, ca might have been the sky (s-ca-y). Combine ca for sky with lic for light and you obtain calic for a bright, luminous sky. The word calic might have traveled along the Ligurian coast (lig lic, hence a bright shore) into Italy, where it would have turned into coelus for sky; lic alone into lux; and into lum in illuminare. The lum form is kept in French lumière.
Indirect evidence comes from archaic caliginous for misty, dim, dark, going back on Latin caliginosus for misty. Ca-lig-in-osus. Here you have a ca for sky, and lig for light, yielding bright sky, followed by in, which would be a negation: no, not a bright sky, a misty one; a dim or dark sky. In/un is a very common negation in Western European languages and may thus be very old. If 'calic (stress on ca) or ca'lic (stress on lic) was a bright sky, calic'in (stress on in) would have been a misty, dim or dark sky.
Basque zeru for sky goes along with ca and coelus, while urdin for blue might explain a further part of "Liguria" on the Côte d'Azur: blue coast, Lig-ur-ia. If -ia should be a form of ac, we might read: lic-ur-ac, land (shore) of light and blue. The form ac-ur as name for a stretch of land by the blue sea would have become azur, a deep and beautiful blue as seen along the Ligurian coast.
Now, in the context of a lunisolar calendar, we need words for the sun and moon. The word for the sun might have been ca'leq, leq being a form of lic, namely the brillant light provided by the sun, while the rump –eq would have become equus, horse, in Latin (and eguzki, sun, in Basque). The word for the moon might have been ca'lun, lun meaning the light provided by a full moon. Ca'lun would have become se'lenae in ancient Greek, and 'luna in Latin. Caleq caleq caleq caleq … for the gallopping sun horse, calun calun calun calun … for the running moon bull . If the above deductions hold, light (going along with luck) would be a very old word, since there are so many old versions: lic lig leq lun lux lum luk (Hittite for morning light, while Greek leukos means shining white, bringing luck), and so lic might even come from, say, Dolni Vestonice, and be some 26,000 years old.
16) Miguel Carrasquer corrected my silly mistake regarding Languedoc. I should have known that oc means aye, not eye. I learned that in school, a long time ago. Funny that so many words for yes and eye sound similar: aye ay I (yes), eye eie ie (eye); oeil uelh (eye), oui(l) (yes). Old English I for aye allows even three words: yes, eye, and me.
Let me try a modification of my thesis regarding oc and yes. The early form of saying yes might have been a firm look into the eyes of the person to whom you make a promise or give an answer. When a mother asks her child: did you do the homework?, and the child mumbles an answer, the mother may say: look me in the eye ... A look into the eye, perhaps going along with a nod, may have been the first yes. When a word was needed, the situation of one pair of eyes locking with another pair of eyes might have been imitated by saying oc oc, meaning eye eye; (confirmed from) eye (to) eye. However, oc oc sounds rather silly. A better word would be a combination of two words for eye, say, oc-il. This word could have turned into Latin oculus for eye, and survived in Basque jakile, see, look, also man, human (I am not really sure about jakile). Oc-il, eye eye, might have given rise to Latin hoc ille for yes, meaning: this that, maybe: this (pair of eyes and) that (pair of eyes). When the Romans brought their language to Gaul, hoc ille could easily have been adopted, since the old meaning was shining through, so hoc became oc in southern Gaul, the old word for eye, while ille became uelh for eye, keeping a memory of the old il for eye. And in northern Gaul hoc ille became oui(l) for yes, and oeuil for eye. The English (or rather Scottish?) aye aye sir would be another version of eye eye, from eye to eye, from man to man. One might even muse whether the somewhat mysterious okay combines the old oc with an eye, or rather doubles the oc, since the Old English forms of eye were ege and eage (oll/orl korrekt, and O-ld K-inderhook Club, would then be false explanations).
The il-word for eye could have survived as pars pro toto in French cil, eyelash(es), and oc-il or oc-cil might have turned into Sanskrit aksi for eye.
17) Provisional first glossary of Guyan, pronounced ghi-an, hypothetical language spoken in the Magdalenian Guyenne, on the substratum of a much older paleolithic language, delivered in three messages
AC - an expanse of green land with water, where horses and bisons are grazing and drinking, surviving in names of rivers (Richard Fester), in Galloroman acum-names of villages, also in Latin ager (agricultura)
SH'AC - ruler of an ac, surviving in the name Jacques, Jacobus, Giaccobo, Jacob, Jack, Jakob, also in Arabic sheik, Persian shah, Japanese shogun (titles mentioned by Richard Fester as versions of his TAG word)
GHI (sharper ki) - call of the seagull, name of the birdman, surviving in the name of the Guyenne as land of the birdman, especially the Gironde and Dordogne, and in the French name Guy
GHI SH'AC - birdman, ruler of the Guyenne, over, say, some 30 clans of some 500 persons each; then the word for human being in general (perhaps: real human being) used for any worthy dweller of the Guyenne; surviving in the French names Guy and Jacques, also in Basque gizaki for man, human (according to Miguel Carrasquer Vidal also for human flesh: giza-ki; then perhaps a composite: ghi'sh'ac gizak gizak-ki gizaki)
CA (inverse of AC) - sky (s-ca-y), nine heavenly ac of the solar horse and lunar bull. The grids of 3 times 3 fields in the Lascaux cave would be a world map of nine large ac, the Guyenne in the middle; and the same map would represent the nine heavenly ac of the solar horse and lunar bull above the nine earthly ones ...
18) LIC - bright, light, luck; a very old word occurring and surviving in many forms, for example in Latin lux, coe-lum, il-lum-inare, French lumière, Hittite luk for morning light, Greek leukos for shining, white, bringing luck, in German Licht and Glueck (the initial g- being a plural according to Richard Fester), in English light and luck, in Nordic lykt and lykka (Richard Fester)
CA LIC - bright sky, became early Latin cae-lum, and later coe-lum for sky, while lic alone became lux
CA LIC IN - not a bright sky (negation), a misty sky, a dim or even dark sky, Latin ca-lig-in-osus for misty sky; negation surviving in the forms in- un- (a-)
CA LEQ - solar horse, leq meaning the light coming from the sun; onomatopoiesis: caleq caleq caleq caleq ... for the gallopping sun horse; rump -eq developed into Latin equus for horse, and Basque eguzki for sun
CA LUN - lunar bull, lun meaning the light of the full moon; onomatopoiesis: calun calun calun calun ... for the running moon bull; ca'lun became Greek se'lenae and Latin 'luna
UR - blue, deep blue of sky and sea, especially along the Ligurian coast (linguistic bridge between Guyenne and Latium)
AC UR - land blue - land by the blue sea,
especially the Ligurian coastline known as
LIG UR AC - bright blue land - bright land
along the blue sea:
19) OC - eye, man (a responsible person who can look into your eyes), also darling (eye apple); as a verb: see or look; imperavtive: look; warning: watch out, careful, attention. Became Latin oculus, and survives in many forms: Italian occhio, Spanish ojo, English eage ege ie eie eye, German oug aug Auge, English look, German lugen lug (rare), gucken guck, Swiss German luege lueg (pronounced looag), English ogle ...
CIL (inverse of LIC for bright, light, luck) - a second word for eye, survived as pars pro toto in French cil for eyelash(es)
OC (C)IL - eye eye: from eye to eye, from man to man; an early form of yes. Originally a look into the eyes, perhaps accompanied by a nod. Became Sanskrit aksi for eye, and Latin hoc ille, this that, for yes, perhaps meaning: This pair of eyes and That pair of eyes: from eye to eye, from man to man. Hoc ille became oc for yes and uelh for eye in southern Gaul (Languedoc), oui(l) for yes and oeil for eye in northern Gaul, keeping a memory of the old forms oc and cil for eye, oc(c)il for eye eye, from eye to eye, from man to man. Eye eye might survive in English I ay aye "Aye aye, sir." Yes goes back to the c/k/g word gese. Okay is explained in two ways: either as abbreviation of oll/orl korrekt, or as keeping a memory of an O(ld) K(inderhook) Club. If these explanations should be insufficient, one might consider a possible old root of ok-ay meaning eye eye: confirmed from eye to eye; agreed upon from man to man and "sealed" by a firm look into each other's eyes
MA - mou meus mei mio mia mis mi meu mon ma mes mijn mine min mit -m mai mein mine my
OC LIC MA OC - eye/see light/luck my/mine eye/darling, meaning much as I love you: I see light in your eyes, my darling, I am happy, I am so very happy, and look, there is light in my eyes, meant to make you happy too!
20) If the geographical names Liguria and Côte d'Azur go back to very old words, the original names might have been lic-ur-ac, bright land by the blue sea, and ac-ur, land by the blue sea.
The Basque word for blue is urdin; the Irish and Gaelic word grom, pronounced gorom, whereby ac-ur would have become gor- in the spoken version gorom.
There is also a resemblance between ac-ur and ocher. So ur may not only mean blue, but a conspicuous color, whether blue or red: land by the blue sea in the case of Liguria and the Côte d'Azur; red land, red earth in the case of ocher.
The Irish and Gaelic word for red is deorg, pronounced d(j)arak. This time ur-ac would have become -arak in the spoken form d(j)arak.
An older archaeological atlas I have at home shows me that the Magdalenian culture comprised the Provence and the Ligurian shoreline. So it could well have been that ocher from Siena was traded along the Ligurian coast and reached the Guyenne. If so, we may perhaps speak of a Magdalenian Ocher Road (in analogy to the later Silk Road) from Siena along the Ligurian shore to the Guyenne and Cantabria, and lic-ur-ac would have had a double meaning involving the colors red and blue: especially fine and precious red earth (namely from the region of Siena) transported along the bright land (shoreline) of the blue sea (namely the Ligurian coast including the Côte d'Azur).
Picture a Magdalenian dweller of the Côte d'Azur on an evening, looking across the Ligurian Sea, where a yellow or even reddish full moon rises above the horizon. How beautiful! Upon rising higher, the moon turns a silvery white, loosing its colors. Where do they go? They must fall as a fine shower of dust on Tuscany across the wide Ligurian bay, and this must be the reason for the yellow and even reddish earth in the region of Siena.
The name of the moon was calun, and the original name of Siena was ca-lun-ac, moon earth. When calun became Greek selenae and Latin luna, calunac became seluna, and then Siena ...
(A phenomenon of red dust occurs in Italy and rarely even in Switzerland: fine dust of an amazingly strong color from the Sahara)
21) We have seen two inversions: ac for land along water, ca for sky; lic for bright, light, luck, and cil for eye. The first word for eye is oc. Also the inverse form co might hold meaning. As far as I know, Basque gogoan means reasoning, thinking. One may also think of Latin cogitare for reasoning, thinking; actually co-agitare, gathering knowledge together in one's mind. Sapere, to know, has the meaning of taking in knowledge as if by eating. According to Miguel Carrasquer Vidal, the same applies to Basque jakile, knower, originally taster. Comparing seeing with eating has a psychological truth to it: children have to learn about the world by touching, and if possible by sticking things into their mouth, only then can they fully develop their visual sense.
Co as Guyan word for reasoning would survive in co- con- com-, and may even originally have had the meaning of together, wherein (if true) I see a fine piece of Stone Age philosophy that will be valid for all times.
Reasoning involves other people. I get precious help by Miguel Carrasquer Vidal, who explains Basque words to me (thank you very much, Miguel). I rely on books by other people, for example on a book by Richard Fester with inspiring explanations and tables of his ACQ KALL TAG BA words. I am "hunting" words, while the Stone Age people have been hunting animals, which required cooperation, planning, reasoning. When I reflect my own situation in life I do it in respect of other people: with whom can I go along, how shall I behave with this or that person, and so on. I try to get the best possible for me, and by doing so I support my community, for a society depends on the ability of a large majority of its members to maintain their own life; on the other hand I do favors to other people, thus I earn respect, which helps me leading my own life. You can look at reasoning in any which way, there is always a co- involved.
22) In my previous message I argued that Magdalenian co meant reasoning; as inverse of oc for eye and to see. The word co would survive in the modern prefixes co- con- com-, implying that reasoning always involves a co, a together - either we are putting together impressions and experiences for ourselves, or we are planning common actions, or we consider our own life with regard to our respective communities, or ponder what we can do for others, either by means of actual deeds, or then by gathering knowledge that may be useful for our respective societies.
A wonderful and witty illustration of this can be found at the entrance of the Lascaux cave. As I shall explain in a later message, that cave served for initiating aspiring sh'ac (lairds of the some 30 clans in the then Guyenne), and this would have happened at midsummer. The original entrance allowed daylight to shine into the cave. It would have been closed during the year, and opened during the midsummer weeks. Now picture yourself an aspiring sh'ac gazing into that famous cave. The rock resembles an eye socket, and looking into the cave you see a strange animal running behind a horse: composite animal / entrance / rotunda Let me quote from the October 1988 issue of the National Geographic: Creature of imagination has the hind end of a bison, the belly of a pregnant mare, the front legs of a feline, a mottled hide, and two straight horns - although it was once dubbed the unicorn. Some observers see in the odd head the profile of a bearded man. Is it a shaman in animal dress? Or a creature drawn from a verbal description? I think it is a witty illustration of what a sh'ac has to be: powerful as a bison (a man), caring as a pregnant mare (a woman and mother), decided as a feline, and making a mindful and reasonable use of weapons, which is why the lances grow as horns out of the head of this human animal ... Which, as a meaningful composite, illustrates the sense of the Magdalenian word co for reasoning, and goes along with oc for eye.
23) By considering French words beginning with c/k/g-a I stumbled over galet, polished pebble. If this word should go back to a Magdalenian word, it may have been ca-let, meaning sky-stone: a perfect word for the walls and ceilings of a painted cave, especially for Lascaux, where ca-leq horses represent the sun, and ca-lun bulls the moon on their respective journeys across the sky (Marie E.P. Koenig; confirmed by the newly discovered lunisolar calendar in the Lascaux cave).
Now the word ca-let is close to ca-leq. Even too close. How can we possibly resolve that problem? By trying a different pronounciation for ca-let. We produce our 't' by placing the tip of the tongue to the upper front theeth and quickly pulling it back. An other 't' may be produced by sticking the tip of the tongue to the lips, and then quickly retiring it. If you have a problem doing this, you may say: these these these these ..., each time sticking the tongue out a little further.
The impression you get by doing so is one of spitting, and this would make perfect sense. Michel Lorblanchet has very covincingly demonstrated that the Paleolithic cave paintings had actually been _spat_ at the walls. By placing his hands for templates on a wall, or by using other templates, and spitting colors onto the stone, he produced a really remarkable copy of the Pech Merle horses, hand negatives, dots, a salmon, a medusa (Michel Lorblanchet, Les Grottes Ornèes de la Prèhistoire, Nouveaux regards, Editions Errance, Paris 1995). By spitting colors on the walls, Michel Lorblanchet believes, the cave painters gave life in form of warm moisture and breath to their creations. Very plausible to me. So if ca-let means the stone of a cave's wall and ceiling, the t at the end would be a "spitting" t, henceforth given as t-: (lip t). And so it came that let-: for stone could turn both into Greek lithos (a t-form) and Latin lapis (a p-form).
24) Right hand mhayn, left hand clyn, right foot p'hed, left foot yolg.
Mhayn: man - manus (Latin), hay - cheiros (Greek), mayn - main (French), han - hand (English) Hand (German); han - handle (English) handeln (German); man (English) Mann (German); right manner (English) manière (French)
Clyn: cl - claw (English) Klaue (German) klon (Tibetic), cyn - kynnae (Finnish); cyn - sinister for left (Latin), (c)lyn - links for left (German); clyn - cling, clinch (English)
P'hed: ped - pedes for feet (Latin), p(e)d - podoi for feet (Greek), p'hed - pied for foot (French), ph(e)d - foot (English) Fuss (German) // preferred by so-called Indo-European languages
Yolg: jalga for foot (Ugric-Altaic) juolge (Lappish) jalka (Finnish); jog, jolly jollies, jail (English), Schalk for rogue, prankster (German)
Note a preference for the right hand and foot, whereas the left hand is rather a claw, meant to hold firmly a piece of work, while the usually more skilled right hand does the actual work. The form of the right foot served for both feet in Latin and Greek, while the left foot may perhaps be associated with a funny behaving - jolly jollies Schalk - which, however, can bring you in jail. Latin sinister has also a negative connotation. (Negative aspect may be limited to "Indo-European")
Calling each hand and foot with a name of its own would have been helpful for hunters. Imagine a group of men lying on the ground, watching the ac (land) before them. If one of them notes a bull, say, in the area covered by the left arm, he may simply whisper: clyn. - Picture a hunter lying on his belly, looking northward. Now one may name astronomical directions: rising midsummer sun mhayn, setting midsummer sun clyn, rising midwinter sun
p'hed, setting midwinter sun yolg ...
'Yolg' for the setting midwinter sun and 'yolk' may be more than a pretty coincidence.
The right hand mhayn would prevail in the astronomical sense, as it names the rising midsummer sun. And the same word mhayn could have given rise to the word man - someone who behaves in the right manner.
25) The hypothetical names for the left and right hand and foot are mhayn and clyn, p'hed and yolg. We might use them for numbers: mhayn 5, clyn 10, p'hed 15, yolg 20. Let me propose dig for 1, inspired by Latin digitus for finger; du for 2, inspired by Latin duo for 2; der for 3, inspired by Latin ter for thrice; and dag for 4, inspired by Greek daktylos for finger, also by Turkish dag for mountain: the supreme Hittite god Teshub, god of the Celestial Weather, ruled from mountain tops, where he overlooked the four regions of the world.
Now for my Magdalenian numbers. Common people (I claim) learned how to count from 1 to at least 28:
1 dig 2 du 3 der 4 dag 5 mhayn 6 mhay()-dig 7 mhay-du 8 mhay-der 9 mhay-dag 10 clyn 11 clyn-dig 12 clyn-du 13 clyn-der 14 clyn-dag 15 p'hed 16 p'he()-dig 17 p'he-du 18 p'he-der 19 p'he-dag 20 yolg 21 yol()-dig 22 yol-du 23 yol-der 24 yol-dag 25 yol-mhayn 26 yol-mhay-dig 27 yol-mhay-du 28 yol-mhay-der
Tributes to the sh'ac and shaman of a clan were due every 28 days, for each family on another day, 13 or clyn-der times a year, from which came Latin calendare, pay tribute, on the calendae, at the begin of a month, and from this comes our word calendar ...
Higher numbers include multiples of 20 and are formed in the peculiar way the French are counting from 80 to 99 (quatre-vingt-dix-neuf, 4x20 plus 10 plus 9):
30 29 yol-clyn yol-mhay-dag (lunar periods)
41 40 du-yol-dig du-yolg (solar periods)
325 p'he-dig-yol-mhayn (16x20)+5 lunisolar number
13 28 clyn-der yol-mhay-der rhythm of tributes
364 365 p'he-der-yol-dag p'he-der-yol-mhayn year
- - - - - o o o o o o o o yol-mhay-der
- - - - - o o o o o o o o yol-mhay-du
- - - - - o o o o o o o o yol-mhay-dig
- - o o o o o o o o S o o yol-mhayn
M - - - - o o o o o o o o yol-dag
- M - - - o o S o o o o o yol-der
- - - - - o o o o o o o o yol-du
- - M - - o o o o o o o o yol-dig
- - - M S o o o o o o o o yolg
- - - - - o o o o o o o o p'he-dag
) - - - M o W o o o o o o p'he-der
- X - - - M o o o o o o o p'he-du
- - - - - o o o o o o o o p'he-dig
- - ) - - o M o o o o o o p'hed
- - - ) - o o M o o o o o clyn-dag
- - - - - o o o o o o S o clyn-der
- - - - ) x x o M o o o o clyn-du
- - - - - ) o o o M o o o clyn-dig
- - - - - o o o S o o o o clyn
- - - - - o ) o o o M o o mhay-dag
- - - - - o o ) o o o M o mhay-der
- - - - - S o o o o o o o mhay-du
- - - - - o o o ) o o o M mhay-dig
- - - - - o o o o ) o o o mhayn
- - S - o o o o o o o o o dag
- - - - o o o o o o ) o o der
- - - - o o o o o o o ) o du
S - - - - o o o o o o o o o dig
Picture the above table on a clay bank in a cave, layed out with small pebbles of various colors. this would be the practical calendar, as indicated by the geometrical signs under the megaceros in the axial gallery of the Lascaux cave. - Let us read the record of the shaman. Before New Year (June 21) occured a waxing moon (small arc at the right base). The same lunar phase will occur again on the days marked with further small arcs. A full moon occured mhay-dig (16) days ater New Year, first M. All the further full moons can be predicted by counting mhay-dig (16) positions upward from the arcs. We are now in row mhay-dag (9), line dag (4). Since New Year have passed clyn-dig-yol-mhay-der (228) days; since Midwinter W du-yol-du (42) days. We have day yol-mhayn (25) of the winter period der (3) in the Sacred Calendar of mhay-dag (9) ca-leq (solar) periods S (February 1). All families have payed their tributes, family yol-mhayn even der (3) times in advance; only the clyn-du family couldn't pay, already du times.
You see, one can actually work on a Mac Lascaux using Magdalenian Windows ... The names of the numbers, derived from so-called Indo-European and non-Indo-European word fields, are well pronounceable, distinct (so they won't be confounded), and in most cases shorter than the English ones.
27) Why all the interest in long bygone times? We archaeologists are hoping that by understanding the past we may perhaps have a glimpse into the future. And how could we possibly comprehend signals from another cilization somewhere out there ins space when we don't even understand the 'signals' from the past? the heritage of our forebears on our own planet? All the ancient and very ncient civilizations I studied so far reveal the same pattern: simple yet complex. This, I believe, is the very key for success. Keep it simple and functional, thus you allow complexity. Google follows that policy, and so, not surprisingly to me, they are very successful. My humble glimpse into the future: if they stand by their policy, their success may last.
In my previous message I presented the practical version of the lunisolar calendar of Lascaux, as layed out in a variety of colored pebbles on a clay bank in a cave, and jokingly dubbed it a Mac Lascaux using Magdalenian Windows. Upon sending my message I noticed a resemblance of Mac and Mag-, and on my daily walk, especially nice in spring, a chain of quick associations led me to a possible poetic explanation for Magdalenian.
Mhay ac dal lun ac, abbreviated to m'ac-da'-lun-ac - five land valley moonshine land - five expanses of land belonging to the wide land of the moonshine valley ...
Mhayn ac would have been abbreviated to m'ac, and may designate five clans that form a larger connumity in a river valley. The chieftain of such a community of five (up to five) clans might have bee a mac, which title would survive in the Scottish name Mac, and his wife would have been a mha'a' or Maja, which title would survive in the name Maya and Maja, while the name Magdalena would keep a memory of mac-da-lun-ac, meaning a girl or a woman of the Moonshine Valley. English maid; Old German magdelin (if memory serves), became Maedchen for girl, also Magd for maid-sevant. A German Meyer Meier Mayer Mayr was the chief of a farm with manor, houses, workshops, stables and all, and the same may perhaps be true for Scottish muir (as in Alan Dunsmuir): once a title, then a name.
He have a new word: dal for valley, surviving in German Tal, probably also in French val, Italian valle, English valley. Lun is the light coming from the moon. Ca-lun is the moon (actually moonshine). The Moonshine Valley would be the valley of the winding river Vézère with Montignac / Lascaux, Belcayre, La Madeleine, Les Eyzies, Bara-Bahau.
Girls and women called Magdalena, Madeleine, Maddalena, have then a name that originally meant a Maya from the Moonshine Valley in the Dordogne, which has been dubbed Land of Game and Honey in the October 1988 issue of the National Geographic.
28) As we have seen last time, m'ac-da'-lun-ac, surviving in Magdalena and Magdalenian, means five regions of the Moonshine Valley, namely the valley of the winding river Vézère with Montignac / Lascaux, Belcayre, La Madeleine, Les Eyzies, and Bara-Bahau. That river valley is really winding, and, funny enough, a same winding line appears when we note the moon phases 30 29 30 ... in a different way than before. Regular way: begin at the right bottom corner and count always upward. Alternative way: begin at the same corner, but count to the left side, then to the right side, then again to the left side, and so on, always making horizontal U-turns:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - o - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I o - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - o - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - o - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - o -
o - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- o - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - o -
- - o - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - o - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - o - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - o - - - - - - - - I - - - - o - - - - - - - -
- - - - - o - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I o - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - o - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - o - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - o - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - o - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - o - - - I - - - - - - o - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - o - - I - - - - - - - - - o - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - o - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29) I don't know how the rock-shelter La Madeleine got its name, nevertheless I found a poetic explanation for Madeleine and Magdalenian: m'ac-da'lun-ac, long version mhayn-ac-da-lun-ac, meaning five regions of the wide land of the Moonshine Valley, namely the winding river valley of the Vézère in the Dordogne.
The cave is between the rock-shelter La Madeleine and Montignac with the Lascaux cave is called Belcayre, which name sounds rather ancient to me. Let me try to explain it by means of a word root found by Richard Fester, present for example in Basque beloo for warmth. Other versions of that common word are e.g. Lappish boaldet and buoll for burn, Finnish pola and Lappish buella for fire, also Baal and further mythological names including Volcano, which testify to a very old word meaning warmth, fire, burn, heat. If so, there would be a very interesting combination: ca-bal, sky heat, for the red summer sun horse, as in the rotunda or midsummer hall of the Lascaux cave. Ca-bal would survive in Spanish caballo, Italian cavallo, French cheval. Onomatopoiesis: cabal cabal cabal cabal ... for a horse running on soft ground.
So there would be two words for the sun-horse: caleq and ca-bal, perhaps also ca-bel.
Bal might have meant heat, bel warmth. Belcayre may go back to a hypothetical composite bel-ca-ur-ac, meaning warm sky blue land - land under a warm blue summer sky (ca meaning sky; ur a color, often blue, sometimes also red like sometimes a morning sky or an evening sky; ac being an expanse of land with water, inhabited by a clan).
30) We found several inverse forms: ac for land with water, and ca for sky; oc for eye and to see, co for reasoning; dal for valley, lad for hill.
Bal meant heat and hot, bel warmth and warm. The inverse of bal would be lab and could have meant cold, coldness. This word may have survived in Lapland, meaning cold land perhaps also in Greek labros for wild, stormy, if originally referring to winter storms on a cold northern coast. The inverse of bel would not have been cool as opposite of warm, but lips (lèvres in French, labbre in Italian), from which comes warm breath ...
Pesh might have been the word for fish, Latin pesces, French poisson, and for swim, as in French piscine for swimming pool. The name of the cave Pech Merle could also refer to pesh, the more so as the well-known scene of two horses and several hand negatives comprises a salmon and a medusa.
The river Vézère was teeming with salmon, and so pesh might have served as name for the number 400, given as a 'school' of 20 by 20 pebbles. If so, we are now living in the year mhay-pesh-mhayn (5 times 400 plus 5) AD.
The inverse of pesh would be sheb, and this could have been the name of smaller and medium-sized land animals, a word that would survive in sheep, French chèvre for goat, chevreau for kid, chevreuil for roe-deer and roebock. It may also be the origin of Latin ibex. Sheb as verb may have meant run. Shdeb could have been walk, surviving for example in step, while shdib may have been the word for shoes or boots: leather wound around the feet and lower legs, filled with moss, a pleasure to walk with, as experimental archaeology has proved. This word root survives in many forms and languages, no need to quote them all here. I dare say that this (of course hypothetical) word goes back to at least Dolni Vestonice, 26,000 BP. For the fun of it, let me give that number in Guyan: der-yol-mhay-pesh, 3x 20 plus 5 yield 65, and 65 x 400 yields 26,000.
31) Dal, we found, may have meant valley. The inverse, lad, may then mean hill. The origin of "ladder" was something that slopes.
Ac was an expanse of land with water, where horses and bisons were grazing, and which was inhabited by a clan. The inverse, ca, means sky.
Ur was a consipcuous color, especially a blue sky, or the deep blue of the river Vézère; also red, the sky on some mornings, when the su rises, and evenings, when the sun sets (ur survives in French azur and vermeuil).
Now combine the three words: lad-ca-ur, and you obtain hill sky color, which may be the origin of Lascaux, meaning hill of the painted sky within ...
The Lascaux cave is found some two kilometers from the village Montignac on the Vézère, in a limestone massive that forms a flat round hill. So the name Hill of the Painted Sky Within would be well appropriate for that marvellous masterwork, which was discovered only in 1940, der-yol-mhayn (65) years ago, and is already decaying. Our time, the Early Concrete Age, is very good at destroying the heritage of old. A reason for me to go on with my interpretations - an act of saving what can be saved, of extracting the spiritual meaning before the material bsis decays and is lost forever.
32) Bel meant warm, warmth, and the inverse leb meant lip, also exhaling warm breath between the lips: live, life. This may be indicated by signs before the mouth of an animal, for example the short strokes before the mouth of a hind in the grotto of Pergouset (dep. Lot). Leb can also been indicated by the sticking out tongue of bisons, for example in the Lascaux cave. Leb would survive in English live and life, in German leben and Leben; ()b for the tongue between the lips may have become bio in Greek, which ma have turned into Latin vita, and French vie and vivre.
Long strokes before the lips of an ibex in Jordania, Kilwa, Mount Horsfield, however, mean the contrary: bleeding from the mouth, bleeding out, die. The word for die could have been ble, persisting in blood and bleeding, perhaps also in pale, in French blême for getting very pale, and in German bleich, erbleichen, erblassen for getting pale, verblichen for deceased (now rare, in former times common).
So we have three words of the same letters: bel for warm and warmth; leb for live and life; ble for blood, bleeding (out), and die.
Ur was the word for color, for the blue sky and water, for a red morning or evening sky. Gol was the word for mouth and throat. Gol-ur may then have been the word for a painter's color prepared in the mouth, then blown and spat on the wall of a cave as demonstrated by Michel Lorblanchet. We may assume that ocher was mixed with fat as binder, and perhaps the juice of a herb or root for sweetening the bitter ocher. The color would have been a warm and moist mixture blown on the wall with breath and thus gave leb / live to the painted animal ...
Col-ur would survive in color, British colour, French couleur. Gol may also have meant language, gol-ac the Land of Language, surviving in Gaul, gallic, Gaelic for Welsh, and Welsh in Switzerland means French.
If gol was the word for mouth and throat, eat may have been glo, perhaps surviving in glutton, and drink gla, onomatopoietic, as in our funny gloo gloo.
The inverse of gol is log, which can be pronounced with a clicking l. This could have been the word for tongue, speak, argue; it would have become Greek logos for word and reasoning, and would survive in our logic, also in French langue, which means both tongue and language.
33) Col may have been a narrow passage, a word that would survive in French col for pass, couloir for gangway, and couler for flow. The inverse loc may have been an enclosure, a lake, an enlocked bay, as in Latin locus for place, lacus for lake, and in Gaelic loch. English lock would have the same root.
As verbs, col and loc may have been hunting terms: driving animals into a natural enclosure, which may have been enforced by adding branches and stones (loc), and then through a narrow passage (col), where they are easily killed, without too much danger for the Magdalenian hunters.
A spear could have been a piq, surviving in French piquer for sting and pierce. A spear-thrower could have been a sh'piq (man, device, action), surviving in German spicken for lard. The inverse of piq, namely qib, might perhaps have been a knive, Old English cnif (qib cnib cnif).
Tap and the inverse bat may have been words for beating, which would survive in French taper and battre, also in English battle.
The cave Bara-Bahau on the river Vézère has a fairly uncommon name, whose original form might have been bar-ac-bhau, meaning bear water/land cave: a cave near a river, once inhabited by bears, before it was taken over by Magdalenian hunters. If so, bar would have been a bear, German Baer; ac an expanse of land with water; and bhau a grotto or cave, surviving in German Bau for both building and cave of an animal such as a fox or a dachs, Haus for house, Behausung for shelter.
People lived in the Bara-Bahau cave, but not in the Lascaux cave, where animals became symbols of heavenly bodies, the horse a symbol of the sun, and the bison a symbol of the moon (Marie E.P. Koenig), while hunting events became astronomical or calendar events: spears hitting the Chinese horse in the axial gallery mean the end of the five cold solar periods, and the spear hitting the red midsummer horse in the rotunda or midsummer hall means the end of the old year, hence New Year. - Man has always projected his technical facilities on the sky. Newton turned the cosmos into a mechanical clockwork, and physicists of our days are trying to explain it as a computer ...
34) Ca-leq, we saw, was the sun horse, a mare, while ca-lun was the moon bison, a bull. Now let us try to find sense in the inverse forms. Qel-ac is easily understood as fertile land: Périgord in the Dordogne, a river land of plenty; land of game; of deer, ibices, horses, bisons, and salmon galore, of honey and herbs, and everything a Magdalenian could dream of ... According to Richard Fester, kell and its many variants were and still are a very frequent word having to do with women, sexuality, fertility, and giving birth. You may also consider German Quelle for well, spring, source. Ca-lun was the moon bull, the moon, lun alone moonshine, especially coming from a full moon, so the inverse would suggest a new moon, and nul-ac the land under an new moon hence a real dark night. Nul would have became Latin nihil for nothing, English nul, German Null for zero, and Nacht for night, close to null-ac for a really dark land under a new moon, or rather empty moon, as in German Leermond.
Ca-bal for the summer horse; inverse lab-ac for cold land, Lapland. Ca-bel for warm summer sky, inverse leb-ac for land of life, providing the Magdalenian hunters with plenty of meat ...
One may look out for syllables and their inverse forms and consider their possible meaning. One such pair is dib and bid. Dib may have been a spoon and a vessel, a dipper, verb dip, while bid may have been a cooking pit layed out with leather, filled with meat or salmon, herbs and water, whereupon a hot stone was taken from the fire and rolled into the water in order to make it boil and the meal cook. Bid would survive in English pit, in French bidon for bucket, also in familiar bide and bidon for belly ... Manger et boire "comme Dieu en France" - eat like God in France, and drink a fine Bordeaux, in my opinion the best wine in the world (which, by the way, was the gift of an Englishman who told the dwellers of the Guyenne how to make a real good wine).
35) Ac, we saw, was the word for land with water. Was there also a word for just water? If so, it may have been vad. Latin aqua would then have combined ac-vad into aqua. Vad for water may survive in English wade, water, wet, while the inverse dav may have been the word for moist air, mist, fog, surviving in English dew and German Tau.
Dra may have been the word for dry. Dra-ac would have meant dry land, and may have become Latin terra. It would have survived in English dry, German trocken. A permutation of dra, ard, may have been the origin of German Erde, also present in irden, made of clay, and Kartoffel for potato, ard-appel (or so), earth apple (also Grundbirne, ground pear); Swiss German Haerdoepfel. English version earth, French terre. Dra-ac may have become dra'c and would survive in dragon, German Drachen, as symbol of a really dry, even fiery hot ground - a dragon lived in a cave, hence inside the earth, and most dragons are known from Asia, where draughts are a severe menace.
Ca was the sky, ca-vad would have been the wet sky, rain, a cloudy sky, ca-vad cvad cloud. French ouatte for cotton wool may have the same origin: of a cloudy appearance, soft and fuzzy (and able to soak up drops of body liquids).
Ca-leq was the sun-horse, or simply the sun, also the word for day (when the sun shines), whereby the combination of both meanings survives in our Sunday, German Sonntag. Ca-lun was the moon bull, also the word for a moonlit night, while the inverse nul-ac was a real dark land under a new moon, hence night, in German Nacht. Ca-bal was the red summer horse, or summer; the inverse lab-ac was cold land, winter, (Lap-land). Ca was the sky, ac-ur was the land under a blue sky, surviving in azur. Ca-vad was a cloudy sky, meaning rain. Vad-ur means blue water, and may well have been the original name of the blue river Vézère in the moonshine valley of the five clans m'ac-da'-lun-ac. You may also remember ca-lig for a bright sky, and the negation ca-lic-in for a caliginous or misty sky.
36) Meanwhile we found explanations for several local names. Lad-ca-ur, hill sky color, hill of the painted sky within, Lascaux. Vad-ur, water blue, blue river Vézère. Mhayn-ac-dal-lun-ac, m'ac-da'lun-ac, five land valley moon land, moonshine valley of the five clan-regions, rock-shelter La Madeleine, Magdalenian. Bel-ca-ur-ac, warm sky blue land, land under a warm blue sky, cave Belcayre. Pesh, fish, rock-shelter Le Poisson, between Haute-Laugerie and Les Eyzies. Bar-ac-bhau, bear land cave, cave of the bear land, cave Bara-Bahau.
The five clans of the Moonshine valley of the river Vézère would have been the ones of 1) Montignac and Lascaux, 2) Belcayre, 3) La Madeleine, 4) Le Poisson, 5) Bara-Bahau.
I still have no explanation for Les Eyzies, but I found a pretty one for Montignac. The original name might have been mon-dig-lun-ac, mountain one moon land. This would mean: mountain or large hill, on whose top the aspiring shamans were spending the midsummer moon (a month around June 21), studying the starry sky in the warm nights, taught by the arch-shaman of the lad-ca-ur (Lascaux) university, whose portrait is seen in the axial gallery of the Lascaux cave, given as a roaring megaceros, and he had to shout when he was teaching all those young men on top of mon-dig-lun, Mount One Moon, high above dal-lun-ac, the Moonshine Valley of vad-ur, of the beautiful deep blue river Vézère ...
The inverse of mon is nom, French for name. This could mean that the names of the important astronomer shamans, the roaring megaceroi, were remembered on mon-dig-lun, perhaps by means of wooden statues bearing inscriptions?
Gallic means both French and wit. The roaring megaceros in the axial gallery of the Lascaux cave as portrait of a teaching shaman would surely be witty. If you happen to visit Paris, don't miss climbing on top of Notre Dame and have a look at the grotesque figures along the lofty balustrades: these, my first big love found, caricated the preachers in the church below ... Gallic wit.
37) Lovely midsummer has come. Over der-yolg (3x20) young men and some yolg (20) young women have gathered on mon-dig-lun (Mount One Moon) near lad-ca-ur (hill of a painted sky within, Lascaux). The aspiring shamans are wearing a piece of an antler on a fine leather string around their neck, while the aspiring rulers of their respective clan are wearing a feather in their hair. Each one prepared an area of clay, empties a bag of pesh (400) small pebbles, lays out the regular calendar of yol-mhay-der (28) by clyn-der (13) pebbles, with a full moon marking the night before New Year. Now the arch-shaman poses a problem. He has to shout in order to be heard by all: CA-LUN (a full moon) CLYN-DIG (occurs eleven days after New Year), CA-LUN, CA-LEQ, NUL-AC DER (lay out the calendar for such a year, give the full moons, the solar periods, and the new moons of three nights each). Below on the left side the regular calendar; on the right side the solution to the above task; m stays for a full moon, s for the end of a solar period, x for a coincidence of a full moon and a solar period, n for a new moon, W for midwinter. A full moon coincides with Midwinter, marked w, the begin of a new moon period of 3 nights with the end of a solar period,marked z. The dots and letters replace small pebbles of various colors:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . m . . . . . . . . . n n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m . . . . . . . . n n
. . . . . . . . . . s . . . . . . . . . . . . s . n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . s . . . . . . . . . . . . s . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m . . . . . . .
. . . . . . W . . . . . . . . . . . . w . . . . . .
. . . . s . . . . . . . . . . . . s . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m . . . . .
m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m . . . .
. x . . . . . . . . . . . . s . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . m . . .
. . m . . . . . . . . . . n n . . . . . . . . m . .
. . . m . . . . . . . . . n n . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . s . . n n . . . . . . . . x .
. . . . m . . . . . . . . . . n n . . . . . . . . m
. . . . . m . . . . . . . . . n n . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . s . . . . . . . n n . . . s . . . .
. . . . . . m . . . . . . . . . . n n . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . m . . . . . . . . . n n . . . . . . .
. . . . . s . . . . . . . . . . . . z n . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . m . . . . . . . . . . n n . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . m . . . . . . . . . n n . . . . .
. . s . . . . . . . . . . . . s . . . . n n . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . m . . . . . . . . . . n n . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . m . . . . . . . . . n n . . .
s . . . . . . . . . . . . . s . . . . . . . . . n n . .
38) A further lesson for aspiring shamans and rulers, given on top of mon-dig-lun, lad-ca-ur university, free for Usenet members
Lay out squares of small pebbles and count the pebbles, 1 or 1x1, 2x2 are 4, 3x3 are 9, 4x4 are 16, and so on:
1 dig 4 dag 9 mhay-dag 16 p'he-dig 25 yol-mhayn 36 yol-clyn-mhay-dig 49 du-yol-mhay-dig 64 der-yol-dag 81 dag-yol-dig 100 mhay-yolg 121 mhay-dig-yol-dig 144 mhay-du-yol-dag 169 mhay-der-yol-mhay-dag 196 mhay-dag-yol-mhay-dig 225 clyn-dig-yol-mhayn 256 clyn-du-yol-mhay-dig 289 clyn-dag-yol-mhay-dag 324 p'he-dig-yol-dag 361 p'he-der-yol-dig 400 (yo-yolg) pesh
Do you notice a regularity? Answer: there is a pattern emerging, dig dag dag dig (-) dig dag dag dig (-) ..., while no square numbers end on -du or -der.
Give the lunar periods of 30 and 29 days, and the solar periods of 41 and 40 days, as sums of squares. Solution: 5x5 plus 2x2 (plus 1x1) and 6x6 plus 2x2 (plus 1x1)
Do the same for the lunisolar number 325, and for the year of 365 days. Solutions: 18x18 plus 1x1, 17x17 plus 6x6, 15x15 plus 10x10; 19x19 plus 2x2, 14x14 plus 13x13.
Now consider the Sacred Lunisolar Calendar and find a square number:
(h) 41 days (i) 40 days (b) 41 days
(g) 40 days (a) 41 days (c) 40 days
(f) 41 days (e) 40 days (d) 41 days
Solution: the row i-a-e and the line g-a-c yield mhay-dig-yol-dig days or pebbles each that can be given as squares of clyn-dig by clyn-dig pebbles.
Well, the lesson is over, but you got some homework. Consider the above calendar. Neither 40 days nor 41 days nor the sum of all nine solar periods, 365 days, are square numbers. Nevertheless, the numbers 40, 41 and 365 can be given as nine small squares in one big square. Find out how this can be done (a puzzle of Lascaux mathematics, 17,000 years old, still rather demanding, and worth trying, since the solution is beautiful and elegant).
) ) ) ) ) O O O O ) ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) O O O O O ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) ) O O O O ) ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) O O O O O ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) ) O O O O ) ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) O O O O O ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) ) O O O O ) ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) O O O O O ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) ) O O O O ) ) ) ) )
O O O O ) ) ) ) ) O O O O
O O O O O ) ) ) ) O O O O O
O O O O ) ) ) ) ) O O O O
O O O O O ) ) ) ) O O O O O
O O O O ) ) ) ) ) O O O O
O O O O O ) ) ) ) O O O O O
O O O O ) ) ) ) ) O O O O
O O O O O ) ) ) ) O O O O O
O O O O ) ) ) ) ) O O O O
) ) ) ) ) O O O O ) ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) O O O O O ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) ) O O O O ) ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) O O O O O ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) ) O O O O ) ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) O O O O O ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) ) O O O O ) ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) O O O O O ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) ) O O O O ) ) ) ) )
40) The Lascaux cave, I believe, was used for initiating aspiring rulers of the clans that populated the Guyenne in the Magdalenian period of time. The composite animal seen from the entrance told a young man how a ruler must be: strong as a bull, caring as a pregnant mare, decided as a feline, and making a mindful use of weapons, which is why the lances grow as horns out of the head of that bearded human animal ...
The glory of the rotunda promised a young ruler fame. However, he was then lead to the room of stags, which, I believe, were the symbol of shamans, and then to a four meters deep pit, wherein are shown a wounded bull, a falling birdman, and a bird on a pole that points downward into the ground. Their eyes, according to Michael Rappenglueck, symbolize the stars of the summer triangle. Left of them a running rhinoceros, behind her a line of 3 dots above, and a parallel line of 3 dots below. Marie E.P. Koenig sees in the rhinoceros the goddess of life, and in the dots behind her 3 earthly and 3 heavenly lives for the each the bison, the birdman and the bird: apse (hall of stags or shamans) / pit
In my opinion, the birdman is the ruler of the Gironde and Dordogne, the bull the ruler of the French Alps, and the bird the ruler of the Pyrenees, while the upper line of 3 dots are a heavenly life for a worthy ruler of either region, whereas the lower dots mean that an unworthy ruler will just be dropped. And even the fame of a worthy ruler will fade in time, as the glory of the rising midsummer sun eclipses the brilliant stars of the magnificent summer triangle ...
A good lesson for the young men who wish to rule their clan. The task of a ruler is demanding, even dangerous, and fame can easily be eclipsed, so what really counts is to life for the community of the Guyenne, whose glory may persist for a very long time - as it really does.
41) Marie E.P. Koenig believes that the rhinoceros in the Lascaux cave was the goddess of life. I agree. Have a look at the so-called Venus from nearby Laussel: “Venus” from Laussel
The woman holds a horn before her round empty face, evoking the rhinoceros from Lascaux. She lays one hand on her womb, promising a new life to a good ruler, presumably among the stars of the summer sky.
Her first name may have been ma-dra, meaning my earth, the earth is mine ... Ma, we have seen earlier on, was a most common possessive pronoun, while dra was the earth, dry earth, matter - the Biblical dust of which we are made and to which we shall return. There would have been many emanations of that goddess, including the rhinoceros, a powerful animal thundering across the earth as if owning it ... Now the second name of the goddess of Laussel may have been leb-ac, a word we encountered before, as inverse of ca-bel warm sky, leb-ac fertile land. Note the difference between ac and dra; dra was dry, dry earth, matter, earth per se, while ac was land with water.
Now these hypothetical names are fascinating. Ma-dra would have become both matter and mater, Magna Mater, mother, while the inverse ard-am would have become Adam, the one who was made of clay ... Leb-ac may have become leb-a eba Eva Eve, also live life leben Leben, and the inverse of leb-a is, yes, a-bel Abel ...
Even the names in the Bible could go back to ancient words and early ideas.
In my humble understanding, truth is an eternal task, engaging every generation, and all ages.
42) Ma dra, says the goddess of earth and life: the earth is mine; dry earth, matter itself, from which comes every life, and into which returns every life. The inverse of dra, namely ard, would survive in earth, Erde, irden, and many other forms. The inverse of ma-dra, namely ard-am, would survive in Adam, the one who was made of clay. Ard may have become ars in Latin, art in English - as the first works of art presumably were sculpted in clay, but survived very rarely, as for example the pair of bison deep in a subterranean recess of the French Pyrenees, Tuc d'Audoubert, Magdalenian, 14,000 years old. A permutation of dra and ard is dar, which became Latin terra, ma-dar mater, English mother, German Mutter, while Italian madre returned to the original ma-dra form, madra madre.
Ca-bel was the warm sky, the inverse leb-ac, life land, was the fertile land, second name of the goddess, which became leb-a eba Eva Eve, while the inverse of her leba name became the name of her son Abel.
Her other son was Cain, easily understood as ca-in: ca s-ca-y sky, followed by the negation in. The inverse of ca-in would be ni-ac, whereby ac is land with water, Ni might be another negation, as in Latin nihil, and survive in the French double negation ni ni for neither nor; also Italian no, French non, English no, German nein, Russian njet. A confirmation comes from the cave of Niaux, which name can be read as ni-ac-ur, no ocher, and really are the animals in that cave drawn in black.
Cain slew Abel, which is why he got no place in heaven, among the stars, ca-in. The inverse ni-ac says that there is neither a place on land for a felon.
Old Irish cain means statute, law, rent, confirming the aspect of law. The original form of the law would have been a list of what makes one a criminal or even a felon and lose ones right of a place in heaven (ca-in) and on land (inverse ni-ac). "Thou shalt not" was the old law.
43) The hand negatives on cave walls, I believe, were from rulers, claiming a place among the stars of the summer triangle - first symbolically on a stone sky ca-let-: (as explained in an earlier message), then for real on the actual sky (consider that an Egyptian star had five rays, corresponding to the five fingers of a hand hand - star ).
Cain murdered his brother Abel. So there is no place for him in heaven (ca-in), nor on land (inverse ni-ac).
In the cave Cosquer near Marseille appear many hands. A few of them have been wiped out. These may be cases of bad rulers who lost their right of a place among the stars of the summer triangle, in heaven.
Now for the so-called blessed men on cave walls. The one at Le Gabillou, Dordogne, a man with a bull's head, is hit by three lances, two of which aim at his eye. The bullman, I believe, was a ruler of an eastern clan. Hence a ruler of such a clan had either been attacked - or had been executed for having committed a felony.
Above the blessed man of Pech Merle is a large bird: this might be the ghi'shac, supreme ruler of all clans in the Guyenne, inflicting death on a felon by touching him with the tip of his left wing - a black feather?
In the Cougnac cave is shown a megaceros, which animal, I believe, symbolized the arch-shaman, ruler of all shamans in the Guyenne. On his flank appear in clock-wise direction: on the left side, near the neck of the megaceros, a stag, probably a local shaman; above the mane and back line of a horse, probably a weak sun; on the right side a fat, fully drawn out ibex, probably indicating midwinter (remember the opposing ibices at the rear end of the axial gallery of the Lascaux cave); at the bottom a blessed man (head omitted) who is hit by three lances - a felon, whose life was sacrificed at midwinter in order to reinstall order and reinforce the weak winter sun and make it ascend again?
Another male megaceros in the Cougnac cave is followed by a female megaceros - the arch-shaman's wife? or an arc-shamaness in her own right?
44) Oc vad-ur? pesh, pesh pesh pesh, bhau shde' piq, ca-bel pesh, log / Shdeb-in, ble yolg / Oy, oc-cil, sheb vad, vad vad dra -: ac-ur shdib / Oc lic ...
Did you see (oc) the blue river? (vad-ur, Vézère). The fish are coming. Salmon galore (pesh pesh pesh, 400 400 400 fish). Go (shdeb) to the cave (bhau) and get your harpoon (piq); the weather is fine (ca-bel, sky warm), so let us go fishing (pesh), I propose, I say, I have spoken (log). / I can't walk (shdeb-in), my left foot (yolg) is wounded (ble). / Oy, I see (oc), I see (cil). I run (sheb) to get water (vad). Then I wash your wound, thoroughly and carefully (vad vad). Then I dry your foot (dra). Then I chew the herb the shaman gave me and spit the juice as a blood-stilling disinfectant on your wound (-:) and then I place a layer of medicinal ocher as further disinfectant on it (ac-ur), may the red color give you back the blood you lost! (implicit in ac-ur for red ocher), and then I wind a protecting strip of soft leather around your foot (shdib as noun and verb). / I see (oc) light (lic), I am glad (lic also means luck), thank you ...
When I use Guyan (ghi-an) for inventing dialogues I see that many words are still missing, for example for wait, lay down, herb.
Guyan may have had some pesh or du-pesh (400 or 2 x 400) basic words, such as ca for sky and bel for warm (both adjective and verb) and warmth; or pesh for fish, swimming and fishing, and as number 400, or simply meaning plenty; allowing many composites: ca-bel for warm sky, fine weather; and whole sentences: ca-bel pesh - the weather is fine, so let us go fishing. Bal means hot, so ca-bal pesh means: it is so very hot, let us go swimming …
Why did Homo sapiens sapiens (Cro Magnon) prevail over Homo sapiens (Neanderthal)? One theory says the reason was a higher manual and mental skill; another theory proposes a better communication among the Cro Magnons. I guess both theories are right, and communication was playing a crucial role.
Magdalenian might have sounded something like the above dialogue - although a then dweller of the Périgord might roll on the floor laughing if he could hear me babble in such a way. But, who knows, he might understand me.
45) The stag, I believe, symbolized the shaman, while the giant stag megaceros was the symbol of the arch-shaman, and the female megaceros following a male in the cave of Cougnac may either be his wife, or an arch-shamaness in her own right.
In the apse of the Lascaux cave are drawn many stags. Especially nice are the swimming stags, which might keep a memory of the shamans who gathered at Lascaux and had to cross the vad-ur, the blue river Vézère ...
Such a meeting may have happened once in eight years, when the lunisolar calendar was re-adjusted by adding two leap days, and when the young rulers were initiated. The cave would have been opened one single day once in eight years. This would make 125 days in 1,000 years. The very rare visits could explain why the paintings were so well conserved when discovered in 1940. And why they were so quickly growing funghi since then, what with all the many visitors that came every day.
Looking out for a word for the shaman stag I found C'HER NOT-: (ending on a "spitting" t, produced by touching the lips with the tip of the tongue). C'her would mean stag, not-: would be mind, reason, together stag with a human mind (while a real stag was a most common prey of the Magdalenian hunters).
C'her-not-: allows many derivations: Greek noos or nous for mind, reason, will, opinion; Latin notare, English note, notch, notion; French cerf and German Hirsch for stag; English horn and German Horn; and Cernunnos, name of the oldest Celtic god who was wearing horns, most often antlers of a stag, as for example on the silver cauldron from Gundestrop, Denmark.
The spitting t-: refers to the shaman as painter, who blew and spat his colors on the wall, and to the shaman as healer, who chew the herbs and spat them on a wound. You may know that saliva is a natural disinfectant.
If ble means wound, blessed, blood, bleeding, pale, and die, the inverse elb means help and heal.
Erb may have meant grass, herb; Italian erba for grass, erbe for herbs and vegetables. Bre may have been a tree, French arbre; also branch. Reb may have been a bush or a tree bearing fruit; German Rebe for vine. Ber may have been a berry, German Beere; as fruit pear, German Birne.
46) Dig was a finger, as verb touch, also poke, poke a hole, and this may have been the origin of ancient Greek dia, through.
A shaman was a stag C'HER with a human mind NOT-: ending on a spitting t (tip of the tongue touching the lips). This would have a humorous aspect, for the shaman was chewing herbs like a deer, and then spitting them on a wound, while a painter shaman was preparing his colors in the mouth and then blowing and spitting them on the wall of a cave (see Michel Lorblanchet).
DIG NOT-: may be the origin of diagnosis, meaning touch know - as children have to touch everything in order to really know it. A shaman takes the hand of a pale man lying on the ground: is there a pulse? if yes, the man is still alive; if not, the man is probably dead. By touching his patient, a shaman can see through (dia) the skin, learn and know and have an idea (not-:) of what is going on inside a human being.
The inverse of DIG would be GID and may mean give, take, surviving in give, gift, and get.
47) Magdalenian lic for light, shine, luck, would have become the name of the Celtic sun-god Lugh, meaning 'the shining one.' In Gaul he was known as Lugus and gave his name to the city of Lugdunum / Lyon. Lugh's festival Lughnasadh (Loo-neseh) was held on August 1. This is the National Day of Switzerland; we celebrate it by means of fires on hills, lanterns, and fireworks. Interestingly, the second solar period in the lunisolar calendar of Lascaux began also on August 1:
h41 Apr01-May11 / i40 May12-Jun20 / b41 Aug01-Sep10
g40 Feb20-Mar31 / a41 Jun21-Jul31 / c40 Sep11-Oct20
f41 Jan10-Feb19 / e40 Dec01-Jan09 / d41 Oct21-Nov30
The other festivals of the Celtic year refer to pastoral events and therefore do not fit into the above calendar, which, I claim, was the calendar of the Magdalenian hunters in the Guyenne.
The Magdalenian festival celebrated on August 1 would have been CA-LIC, sky bright, perhaps represented by the second red horse in the rotunda or midsummer hall in the Lascaux cave, ahead of the red midsummer horse. Might also have been called CA-BAL, sky hot.
We may assume that the begin of every solar period of the above calendar was celebrated. For example the end of period g and begin of period h would have been the end of the five cold periods, symbolized by one of the "Chinese" horses in the axial gallery (the one ahead). April 1 is our fool's day; might originally have been a day when everybody was overjoyed by the final end of winter and begin of the warm season, and thus in the mood of making silly jokes ... The name of the spring festival could have been CA-BEL, marking the begin of the warm season, inverse leb-ac meaning life land, name of the goddess of land and life, the Venus from Laussel, whose son was ca-bel, surviving in 'a-bel Abel.
48) Ghi may have been the name of a birdman, a ruler of a clan in the Magdalenian Guyenne, surviving in the French name Guy, and in English guy for man. His wife might have been a ghyn. Ghi ghi ghi - ghyn ghyn ghyn ... may pass for a male bird and female bird calling each other.
Ghyn would have become Greek gynae for woman; Nordic kvinna and kvinde for woman; Old German kinden for woman (Kind for child.); Anglo-Saxon cwen for woman; Scottish quean for a single woman; ghyn as wife of a ruler ghi survives in queen; the old Celtic form cyning goes back to cyn for tribe, clan; Norwegian kona means wife; Anglo-Saxon cund means birth, gennan give birth; Latin genus means kind in one sense of the word, while the other sense of kind as friendly also applies to women, says Richard Fester, in whose book on the Ice Age I find all those words. Scottish kin means a cleft, while Latin vagina, also mentioned by Richard Fester, may, in the light of Guyan or Ghyan as reinvented until now, combine vad for water and ghyn for woman: vad ghyn - water woman, amniotic fluid in a woman's womb; while vad not-: (ending on a kissing t, tip of tongue softly touching the lips) means water mind, surviving in Venus, the goddess of love emerging from the water ...
3 very small figurines of a Magdalenian bird goddess, 15,000 years old, had been found in western Switzerland (neck, womb, upper leg), in the steatopygic form Marija Gimbutas explained as a birdwoman carrying an egg.
Mammoths survived in Switzerland until some 10,000 years ago, which was a reason for Magdalenian hunters to life here. Also the Region of the Three Lakes in western Switzerland can be seen as a birdland, which is a main idea of the menhirs at Yverdon-Clendy. (You may look up the illustrations in the menhir chapters on my website www.seshat.ch, or my lost thread Chauvet Lascaux Laussel Willendorf)
49) Water is a vital element, so we may look out for further words concerning water.
What we found until know: vad means water wade wet wash, while the inverse dav may survive in English dew, German Tau. Vad ghyn, water woman, refers to the amniotic fluid, and may survive in vagina, and in the name of the Sabine harvest goddess Vacuna. Ac means land with water. Ac vad enforces the aspect of water and would have become Latin aqua. Dra ac enforces the aspect of earth, of dry land, and would survive in draught, in German trocken for dry, also in English dragon and German Drache, for a dry land 'burning' under a fiery sun, and really burning in the case of a forest-fire. Ca vad, sky water, rain, would survive in cloud; ac vad, land with water water, could also have been a flood, while oc vad, eye water, would survive in German Augenwasser, poetic for tears …
Combine bal for hot with lit-: for pebble and you get a hot stone. Roll it into a pid (cooking pit) filled with vad (water) and you heat the water, bal vad. Both combinations, bal lit-: and bal vad, may survive in English boil, French bouillir, and Italian bollare.
Vid may be drained water, surviving in French vide for empty, while the inverse div may survive in dive.
Val may mean water in motion, also a waving motion. This word may survive in vale and valley, French val, Italian valle, in German Welle for wave, in wallen for the wave-like motion of a cloth, also in English well, well up. The combination ac val would survive in German Quelle for a well, a spring.
The inverse lav would mean remove by means of a liquid, as in French laver and Italian lavare for wash, also the effect a moving liquid can have, a meaning that may survive in lava, a fiery liquid removing everything in its way. The first syllable vol of volcano may have come from bal (hot) and val (liquid in motion) and may have been combined into bal val, Baal. Bal val as indication of a volcano reminds of Humbaba, Sumerian god of the volcanoes. Hum may then be a sound, especially a remote rumble, while the inverse muh reminds of a snorting bull or a lowing cow, as in German Muh. So Humbaba would have been an abbreviation of hum-bal-val: rumbling (mountain) hot liquid in motion.
50) Dra means dry, earth per se, materia, matter, while dar may have been a flash followed by a thunder, surviving in the name of the Celtic god Taranis and the nordic god Thor. Consider Welsh taran and Irish torran for thunder. Rad, inverse of dar, may have been a flash, surviving in radiare, radiate. Rad (pronounced quickly, r’d, rshd) dar (long, rolling) would be onomatopoetic for flash and thunder.
Dar would have become da, de ... De-ac as god-land became dea for goddess. De-oc as god-eye became deus theos for god.
The name of the supreme Celtic god was Dagda, meaning good (dag) da (god), actually able god, for he can all the other gods can. Magdalenian dag was four, and its religious and ethical implication may have been: Four (Main) Commandements for rulers who wish to become a star in the region of the summer triangle in their next life (or simply go to heaven, as we say): Being strong, caring, decided, and wise. This ca-dag-log / sky-four-sayings / four heavenly commandments are well illustrated by the composite animal near the entrance of the Lascaux cave. That animal combines a bull with the round belly of a pregnant mare, the mottled hide of a feline, and a bearded (male) head with a pair of horns growing out of his front and ending in blades, hence representing lances, of which a wise use must be made rotunda / composite animal If you wish to become a ruler, and to be a good ruler who can hope to be reborn as a star in the region of the summer triangle, you must be STRONG as a bull, CARING as a pregnant mare, DECIDED as a feline, and making a WISE use of your lances, which is why they grow out of the head of that bearded human animal.
Greek kata means from above, down, completely, going along with ca-dag-log as four heavenly commandments. Dag is the name of an Anatolian mountain. The supreme Hittite god Teshub, God of the Heavenly Weather (note Te- as variant of de) resided on mountain tops, where he overlooked the four heavenly regions, and, we may assume, embodied the four commandments (log) which came down (kata) from his mountain. Zeus, originally a sun- and weather-god, resided on Mount Olympus, from where his word (log) spread.
Log would have been pronounced with a clicking l, which l or ) might once have been a hunter's call that warned of a feline. Clicking ) would have turned into lys leo leone leon lion Loewe, leopard, and lykos lupus for wolf, also into log or )og for word, speak, rule, one who has the say, a possible title for a ruler in very early times, when the man with the lion head from Hohlenstein was carved from a piece of ivory, some 32,000 years ago.
51) MA was my, mine, and could also have been the word for me, myself (I), French moi (je). The inverse AM could then have been the word for be, have: (I) am, have. MA AM, abbreviated MA'M would have been: I am, I have.
TA might have been the word for you, your, and yours; French tu for you, ton (masculine), ta (feminine), tes (plural) for your. The inverse AT may then have been the word for be and have in the second form. TA AT or TA'T would have meant: you are, you have; French tu est, abbreviated t'est, pronounced t'e for you are; tu as, abbreviated t'as, pronounced t'a for you have.
SA might have been the word for he, she, it, while the inverse AS would have been the word for be and have in the third form. SA AS or SA'S would have meant: he or she or it is or has; French il est, elle est, c'est, and il a, elle a, ça a (sa a, that has).
The plurals may simply have been ME for we, and EM for be, have in the first form plural, ME EM or ME'M for we are, we have; TE for you and ET for be and have in the second form plural, TE ET or TE'T for you are, you have; SE for you, ES for be and have in the third form plural, SE ES or SE'S for they are, they have.
Picture a Magdalenian making a fire in the cave and asking his darling: MA OC TA'T BEL? This means: My darling (actually eye), are you warm? do you have warm? She shudders and replies: MA'M LAB, I am or have cold; so you lay some more DRA BRE (dry wood) in the fire, and then you hug her, in oder to give her more warm, whereupon she may reply: MA'M BEL, OC LIC, yes, I have warm now, I see light, the fire is burning brightly, I see the light reflecting in your eyes, see the light shine in mine eyes, and you will see I am happy ...
Someone else might visit a shamen and say MA'M BAL, I am hot, I have hot, I catched a fever, whereupon the shaman will DIG (touch) him, and find out (NOT-:) what he has (making a DIG NOT-: or diagnosis), and give him a blend of ERB (herbs) to chew. Pronounce ERB in the English way and you get a notion of chewing ...
52) Here you are with a couple of words I deduced in a more synthetic way and then looked out for evidence: mas sam ams sma, dov vod ovd dvo, cal lac alc cla.
MAS might survive in mass, much, in German Mass for size and Masse for mass, a great number of people or goods. Further meanings: many, more, multiply, grow in number and size, a lot, plenty, more and more.
The inverse SAM may survive in some, lonesome. Further meanings: few, little, less; all words on some have a negative aspect, troublesome, cumbersome, German einsam for lonely, muehsam for cumbersome and tiresome.
AMS may survive in ample, big, wide, plenty; French ample for wide, spacious, comprising, embracing; amphi as ancient Greek adverb means on both sides, all around.
The inverse SMA would survive in small, in German schmal for narrow. Interestingly, French smala means family, hence unit of a society (I found smala in a dictionary and am not really sure whether I can subsume it here). One may also think of smart in the meaning of achieving a lot (mas) by means of a small (sma) effort.
DOV may have meant toward, in German zu (zur zum); the inverse VOD may have meant from, in German von (vom). OVD may have meant often, grow in number, size, weight and effect, as in over, overflow, overload, oversize. Ancient Greek ophello means increase, amplify, multiply, magnify, enlarge, extend, enhance, raise, heighten ... The inverse DVO may have meant decrease in number, size, weight and effect, as in dwindle, or in dwarf (German Zwerg). Ancient Greek duae has the meaning of misery.
Ma shdeb dov lad-ca-ur: I go to Lascaux, to the hill of the painted sky within. Ta vod bar-bhau shdeb: You came from the Bear Cave Bara-Bahau. Dov lad-ca-ur shdeb me? Shall we go to Lascaux together? (Magdalenian me translates to English we, together)
CAL - head, skull. Inverse LAC - standing firmly on the feet; ancient Greek lax, with the foot, laxis for a plot or parcel of land. ALC - strong, daring, brave; ancient Greek alkimos. CLA - making noise while attacking, getting fame as a hunter, being the founder of a clan; ancient Greek klazo klaggae kleinos klados.
53) Combine cal for head, holding the head up high, with lac for feet, or rather standing on the ground, and you obtain CALAC. This may be a pun, as it also combines ca for sky, with a clicking l for a leader, one who has the say log, a lys-leo-leone-leon-lion-Loewe-man, a leopard-man, a lykos/lupus(wolf)-man, and ac for land with water.
Calac reminds of galaxy. The Milky Way might have been considered a lic vad, bright water, surviving in liquid, some kind of river that leads from a far horizon to the stars of the summer triangle, where a leader of a clan hoped to spend his next life.
The idea of the Milky Way as a jet of milk released by a goddess may be very ancient, even of Aurignacian origin. Water dropping from the ceiling of a limestone cave generates columns of stalactites and stalagmites, which, when meeting, connect the ceiling ca as heaven (or cal as head), and the ground ac (or lac as feet on the ground, or as ground whereupon one stands).
White sinter on cave walls may have reminded of dropping milk, and as the animals are painted on sinter, they are perhaps shown traversing the Milky Way, their lic vad, their nourishing milk provided by the goddess ...
The word for milk may have been gal, the word for drop lag, their combination galag. Ancient Greek gala means milk, stalagma a drop. Gla may then have been the verb drink, as found before, while the inverse alg may have been the word for full, onomatopoetic for the belch and overflowing milk of a satisfied baby. In the case of an adult, alg would have meant release a liquid from the mouth, vomit, caused by a sickness or injury, and this meaning of alg would have been the origin of ancient Greek algos for pain, grief, sorrow.
Now there is a problem. Gal cal, lag lac, gla cla, alg alc sound too similar, so I propose that the c-forms cal lac cla alc were pronounced with a clicking l, from now on given as an arc ) which may indicate the curved tongue whose tip moves along the palate: ca), )ac, c)a, a)c. The last word a)c for strong, daring, brave, would have become ancient Greek arkos for defense, protection, as verb arkeo, and may survive in German stark for strong.
The binder for colors might well have been breast milk gal, while a worthy leader of a clan, reborn on the sky, will be nourished by the milk of the goddess, and become a)c, a strong man, able to climb the sky along the calac or galaxy.
Ala might have been the word for white, may have become Latin albus for white, surviving in albino.
A)a might be a call, surviving in hullo hello hallo alo, while ca)a might have been a prayer, calling the goddess and the former leaders of the clan who now live among the stars of the summer triangle on the Milky Way ...
54) Ca) with a clicking l indicated by the arc ) was the word for head, for holding the head up high, while the inverse )ac was the word for standing firmly on the feet, for standing his man, and for the place one stands upon, origin of ancient Greek laxis for a plot or parcel of land. )ac may also be read as ) ac, now meaning the ruler, the former lion-leopard-lykos/lupus-man and his ac, the land with water his clan dwells on. Ca) may have been used for the head of a ruler, and would survive in skull, perhaps testifying to a special worship of a dead ruler's head or skull. The skulls from Jericho come to mind, covered with clay, and sculpted in order to make the deceased appear living again.
Looking out for other words I found cap and pac, hed and deh.
Cap may have been the body, especially the top of the head. Cap became Latin caput for head, corpus for body, in German Kopf and Koerper, while ancient Greek kephalos may combine cap and ca) to capca), perhaps the word for a human clad in the costume of an animal. The ruler of an eastern clan, I believe, more specifically of a clan in the Rhone Valley, was a bullman; the ruler of a western clan, Gironde and Dordogne, was a birdman; and the ruler of a southern clan in the Pyrenees was a bird; hence the rulers of these tribes may have worn masks of their animals on special occasions. Ca) would then be the head of a ruler, cap the mask of his animal worn on the head, and this meaning of cap as something worn on top of the head would survive in English cap, German Kappe. Cap as a group of animals may survive in cattle.
The inverse pac would have been the body again, but now the bulk of the body, also a group of people or animals. Pac would have become Latin pectus for breast, and bestia for animal. It survives in many variants, perhaps in bulk and body itself, in German Backe English cheek, in English back German Ruecken, in German Bauch and Becken, English pelvis and belly, in French pacage English pasture, also in English bacon German Speck. French pechtel means live-stock, bétail cattle. Pac as group of people would survive in English pack. A further version of pac was ancient Greek pachys for fat, broad, dense, obese, full, strong, powerful, noble, compact, coarse, stupid, plump. The many variants and meanings of pac testify to a very old and important word.
Hed was the top of a human being, surviving in head and German Haupt, while the inverse deh marks the other end of the human body, toe, German Zeh.
55) Clicking l, given as ) for the curving tongue whose tip moves along the palate, would have became l and r and t.
)AC was the ruler of a clan ) on his land with water AC; as verb stand firmly on one’s ground, rule one’s land. The l-form became ancient Greek lax, with the feet, and laxis for a plot or parcel of land. The t-form became tagos, ruler; tagma, legion; tageia, supreme command; tacheuo, I lead, rule; taxis, order, marching formation; tachys quick. The r-form became ancient Greek raka for: you moron, and rakos for rascal
CA) was the first ruler of a clan, its founding father. The r-form became ancient Greek kar for head, kara for head and face, kardia for heart, soul, mood, mind, reason, in Italian caro for dear, while the l-form became kalos for beautiful, brave, good, successful, favorable, useful, noble, honorable, lucky, and survives in English call, the t-form perhaps in cat as a reminder of the lion-man of old (man with the head of a lion from Hohlenstein, 32,000 years old)
A)C for strong, daring, brave, became ancient Greek arkos, and survives in German stark for strong. The l-form alc became ancient Greek alkar for protection, defense, alkae for defense, protection, rescue, power, braveness, courage. The t-form atc is hardly pronounceable, but may survive in the permutation act, from ancient Greek ago, I lead and move, with many more meanings, agogos for leader, aktis for ray, light, sunshine.
C)A, as inverse of a)c, was making noise while attacking animals, being a famous hunter, being the founder of a Magdalenian clan. The l-form became ancient Greek klazo klaggae kleinos klados. The r-form survives in croak and crow, in German Krach for noise, in kraehen and kraechzen for croak, and Kraehe for crow (Latin corvus and ancient Greek koronae for crow, raven). You may look up the menhir-chapters on my website for the raven-man of Yverdon-Clendy.
56) A)A with a clicking l was a call, as in hullo, hello, hallo, ala. The t-form became ata, patros, patriarch, pater, father, Vater; while the r-form became ancient Greek ara for prayer and request, also for curse, thus indicating the power of a patriarch who can either help or reject.
CA)A was a prayer to the goddess and the founding father of a clan who live among the stars of the summer triangle, which can be seen as the vad-ghyn or vagina of the the goddess, or as the head of the bison-man, as indicated by a painting in the rear hall of the Chauvet cave in the Ardèche Valley close to the Rhone Valley, on a limestone outcrop of the ceiling in the shape of a cone ending 110 cm above the floor of the cave, showing the vulva and legs of the goddess, while a male bison shares one leg with her, and places his head on her womb - as if he had been reborn by her in the sky, presumably in the region of the summer triangle on the Milky Way; photograph National Geography, drawings by the author: Venus-Bison / Venus / Bison. The t-form of ca)a became ancient Greek kata, from above, down. The r-form survives in Italian cara, dear (female form).
)OG was the word, speak, having the say, and became ancient Greek logos for word and reason. The l-form survives in French langue and langage, in English language, also in logic. The t-form became ancient Greek toge, just because, here, that’s why, used in a logical argument. The r-form became roger for begging vagabond, then rogue (the r-forms can either be very positive, as in ara for prayer and in caro and cara for dear; or negative, as in ara for curse, in raka for: you moron, in rakos for rogue, in roger for begging vagabond, and in rogue).
57) Mhayn was the word for the right hand, clyn for the left hand, p'hed for the right foot, yolg for the left foot. Now arb may have been the right arm, inverse bra the left arm, bar the right leg, rab the left leg. The hand belongs to the arm, the foot belongs to the leg, so the complete forms are arm-hand and leg-foot. Let us combine the new words for the arms and the legs with the old ones for the hands and the feet:
Arb-mhayn, pronounced ar'mhayn for the right arm and hand. From this word would have come Latin arma for weapon, as most hunters and soldiers threw their lances with the right arm and hand. The same ar'mhayn survives in English arm and hand, German Arm and Hand. Mhayn was the origin of Latin manus and French main for hand.
Bra-clyn for the left arm and hand. This word would have become ancient Greek brachion for arm, Italian braccio and French bras for arm; also bracelet, more often worn on the left wrist. Clyn survives in English claw, German Klaue, Finnish kynnae, all three words meaning the same.
Bar-p'hed for the right leg and foot. This word would have become ancient Greek pous for leg, Latin per pedes, meaning on feet, walk; furthermore English barefeet and German barfuss; in analogy to mhayn perhaps also German Bein for leg, English bone and German Gebein
Rab-yolg for the left leg and foot. Rather difficult to pronounce therefore modified. The inverse order, yolg-rab, might have been the root of Old Netherlandish and Middle English leggr, further simplified into leg. If the opening r was modified into sh / g, rab would have became shab / gab, and may be the root of French jambe and Italian gamba for leg. Modify the opening r into l and you get a possible explanation for Finnish lahje for leg, while Finnish yalka, Lappish juolge and Old Ugric-Altaic jalga are words for foot, close to the hypothetical Magdalenian yolg for the left foot. Ancient Greek rabdos means rod, staff, scepter; rabdalos lean; radinos lean, tender, agile, swift. German Rappe is a black horse. Rab might also be the oldest form of run, along the line of rab rad radinos rinna renna rinnan rennen run …
If bar was the right leg and rab the left leg, we get a new explanation for bear: bar-rab barrab barra arra bara bar – the animal that rears and stands on the hind legs bar and rab. The short form arra might have been the root of ancient Greek arktos, Latin ursus, Italian orso, French ours for bear. Rab-bar may then have been the word for a rearing horse and would survive in German Rappe for a black horse.
58) The special sound produced by the tip of the tongue touching the lips would have survived in English th, and would have become s (c z) / p (b ph f) / t (d th).
I -: O became iso ipo ito. O -: I became osi opi oti. -: I O became sio pio tio. O I -: became ois oip oit. I O -: became ios iop iot. -: O I became soi poi toi.
Looking up ancient Greek words for these and further variants I found: Isos for equal; hippo for horse; istaemi for stand, hold up, weigh, resist, arrange, dispose (and many more meanings); eido for look, form, opinion, picture, idea. Osia for divine right, pious duty and obligation; opis for observance, obligation, followance; oti for because. Sio for god; bio for life, Latin pius pia Italian pio pia for pious; tio tino for pay, award, atone, revenge. Oios for lonely; hoiper for where to?; oitos for lot, destiny, fate, ill-luck, misfortune, death. Ios for one and the same; also ios for arrow and poison; io (omega) for an exclamation, when calling a god, or when being hurt; iotaes for wish, will, order. Hoi soi for your kinfolk; poi for where to?, poieo for do, make, produce, organize a feast, induce fear, do a favor, make a poem (poesy), represent, accept, appoint, estimate, respect, poiaeis for grown over with grass, poimaen for herdsman, ruler, poimnion for herd, poinae for penance, revenge, compensation, reparation, satisfaction; toi for certainly, really.
These words evoke an arch-shaman:
I -: O -- arch-shaman: the firm one; equal to his forerunners, thus warranting a long tradition; maker of opinions, ideas and pictures; voice of the divine
O -: I -- awe inspiring divine law, ultimate reason
-: I O -- judge in the name of the divine, requiting good with good, bad with bad
O I -: -- one exluded by the arch-shaman: where can he go now? his fate is misfortune, even death
I O -: -- plead: help me, One and the Same, arch-shaman in a long line of arch-shamans, have mercy with a pious believer
-: O I -- plead: do me the favor, maker of ideas and pictures, let me safely return to my kinfolk ...
59) Magdalenian as spoken in the Guyenne some 17,000 years ago may have had some pesh (400) or du-pesh (2 x 400) words. A two-year-old child in our time comprehends already some 400 words, a four-year-old 1,600 words, while an American student knows an average of some 14,200 words. My estimation for the number of Magdalenian words might even be on the conservative side.
Here are some more words which I found in the synthetic manner: mel lem elm mle.
Mel could have been something sweet, as ancient Greek meli for honey, French miel for honey, and something edible in general, as in ancient Greek melinae for millet. Also a sweet melody, ancient Greek melos.
Lem would have meant collect, either berries or herbs or honey ... Ancient Greek lambano means touch, take, seize, chase, conquer, get, also comprehend, perceive; (with many more meanings).
Elm would have been a shrub or a tree bearing sweet fruit. One of the oldest and most venerable shrubs or trees of humankind is the hackberry, belonging to the genus Celtis of the elm family, bearing cherrylike fruit, so "elm" could even go back to Africa, where, as far as I am informed, the hackberry was also known. Old English elm means noble and survives in the given name Elmer.
Mle could then have been the contrary of elm, ignoble. Hindi Mlechi means barbarian, untouchable, not Indian.
So the word field mel lem elm mle could be very ancient, having spread from Africa to Europe and Asia ... By the way, ancient Greek melas melaina melan means black. Richard Fester muses whether the Paleolithic dwellers of the Guyenne were black, did come from northern Africa, and lost their skin color during the Ice Age. Homo sapiens sapiens came from Africa, and the oldest rock painting due to Homo sapiens sapiens found so far is an oblong trapezoid with a regular rhomboid pattern on a rock wall in Africa, some 70,000 years old.
Bon may have been the word for good, Latin bonus bona bonum, Italian buono buona bene, French bon bonne bien, while the inverse nob would have kept the positive meaning of good, as in noble, Latin nobilis, nobilitas; a variant may be ancient Greek nomos for custom, manners, morals, principle, rule, law, regulation, melody (!), song, a musical key.
60) The hypothetical words bar for the right leg and rab for the left leg deserve some more consideration. Hebrew bar means son, perhaps the one walking at the right side of his father. Hebrew rabbi means master, perhaps the one who walks on the side of the father, by a son's or pupil’s or client’s left leg.
Ancient Greek para may have had the same origin, surviving for example in parallel.
Bar-rab barrab barra arra bara bar might have been the word for bear as animal that can rear and stand on the hind legs bar and rab. Also the inverse form may hold: rab-bar. A short form of barrab, namely arra, might have been the root of ancient Greek arktos - perhaps in combination with a)c for strong -, Latin ursus, Italian orso, French ours for bear, while rab-bar might have been a stealing bear, a robber. Rab-bar could have been the origin of Old French robber for rob, steal. Barabbas in the Bible was a robber.
If ancient Greek barbaros came from bar bar, it might have held a satirical meaning: someone who is so very righteous that he got two right legs (remember the preference for the right hand) and can't walk anymore but hops around … Hoi barbaroi were the Persians, but also other foreigners, who certainly cherished their own religious belief - also the Celts were fighting in the name of their religion, and might, moreover, have worn bear hides … Sanskrit barbara meant stammering, not Aryan. So we have: not walking properly, not talking properly, not going properly (as go means both walk and talk).
Also bar as noun for a relatively long, evenly shaped object of some solid substance ... used as a guard or obstruction ... (Webster's), and as verb, bar barred barring, of obscure, perhaps pre-Latin origin, might have come from Magdalenian bar for the right leg. French barrière means a bar that holds up. There are places in Switzerland called Bar and Barra, designating woods that serve for protection, also horse pastures, confirming rab-bar as rearing horse, surviving in German Rappe for a black horse. Interestingly, Baer (bear) was also used for bulls, going along with the strong hind leg(s) of a leaping bull. A robe might originally have been a hide covering the legs rab and bar. Aramaic abba for father may be an abbreviation of rabbar, ‘abba’ abba, meaning a man who stands there for his family. Much as a bear: female bears are known for their fierce will to protect their young ones. Abba was also a female day name for Thursday.
61) Glossary of Guyan (ghi-an), Old Magdalenian spoken in the Guyenne, continuation, delivered in 19 messages (for the first part of the glossary please look up the messages or chapters 17-18-19). A t-: stays for a stronger spitting or softer kissing t, produced with the tip of the tongue touching the lips, a milder form of t-: survives in the English th, and the arc ) stays for an especially strong clicking l, symbolizing the curved tongue whose tip moves along the palate pa)ate …
CA LUN AC - moon earth; became seluna (when calun for moon turned into Greek selenae and Latin luna) and then Siena; ocher of Siena, understood as dust falling from a yellow or reddish moon rising above Tuscany, as seen from the Ligurian coast and Côte d'Azur. This idea would rely on the observation of red dust falling on Tuscany, which dust, however, comes from the Sahara)
LIC UR AC / AC UR - Liguria, Côte d'Azur; Ocher Road, leading from Siena to the Guyenne and Cantabria
CA LET-: (t produced with tip of tongue touching lips) - sky stone, painted cave walls and ceilings. "Spitting" t refers to the technique of spitting colors on stone (Michel Lorblanchet). Surviving in French galet. Let-: for stone became Greek lithos (th) and Latin lapis (p)
CO inverse of OC, eye, see, look - mind, reasoning; surviving in co- con- com-, thus involving a together, which is elementary for any form of reasoning; Latin co(a)gitare means gathering knowledge in one's mind. An exemplary and witty illustration occurs in the composite animal seen in the entrance of the Lascaux cave, which human animal, I believe, tells an aspiring ruler of a clan that he has to be strong as a bison, caring as a pregnant mare, decided as a feline, and has to make a mindful use of his weapons, which is why lances grow as horns out of the head of this bearded human animal
MHAYN CLYN P'HED YOLG - r/l hand, r/l foot. Numbers 5 10 15 20. Heavenly sector N-E mhayn, rising midsummer sun; sector N-E clyn, setting midsummer sun; sector S-E p'hed, rising midwinter sun; sector S-W yolg, setting midwinter sun (yolg 'yellow' yolk)
DIG DU DER DAG - 1 2 3 4
PESH - as noun fish, as verb swim and fish, as number 400
62) 1 to 28: dig du der dag mhayn mhay-dig mhay-du mhay-der mhay-dag clyn clyn-dig clyn-du clyn-der clyn-dag p'hed p'he-dig p'he-du p'he-der p'he-dag yolg yol-dig yol-du yol-der yol-dag yol-mhayn yol-mhay-dig yol-mhay-du yol-mhay-der
CLYN-DER - 13, nickname for the practical version of the lunisolar calendar, grid 28 by 13 pebbles, as indicated by the geometrical drawing under the megaceros in the axial gallery of the Lascaux cave; name relying on the obligation to pay tribute to the ruler and the shaman of a clan, and this 13 times per year, every 28 days, for each family on another day. Latin calendare: to pay tribute; on the calendae: at the begin of a month. Would be the origin of our calendar
Key numbers of the lunisolar and tributary calendar: 30 yol-clyn, 29 yol-mhay-dag, 41 du-yol-dig, 40 du-yolg, 325 p'he-di(g)-yol-mhayn; 13 clyn-der, 28 yol-mhay-der, 364 p'he-der-yol-dag; 365 p'he-der-yol-mhayn (18x20)+5. A cylce of 8 years are 2,920 or mhayn-du-pesh mhay-yolg (5+2 x 400 plus 5x20) days and require du (2) leap days
M'AC-DA'-LUN-AC from MHAYN-AC-DAL-LUN-AC - five land valley moonshine land: five regions of the Moonshine Valley. This would be the valley of the winding river Vézère, with Montignac/Lascaux, Belcayre, La Madeleine, Les Eyzies, Bara-Bahau; m'ac-da-lun-ac Magdalena Maddalena Madeleine
DAL - valley, val, valle, Tal
MHAYN-AC - five ac: a community of five (or up to some five) ac, each inhabited by a clan
M'AC - an abbreviation of mhayn-ac: chieftain of such a community of five (some five, or up to five) clans; surviving in Scottish name Mac
MAYA - another abbreviation of mhayn-ac: chieftain's wife, surviving in the name Maya or Maja
CA AC – sky land: possible root of kyklos, cercle and cycle, circle and cycle, also of comos and cosmic
63) BAL and BEL - heat and hot, warmth and warm; surviving for example in Basque bello for warmth, Lappish boaldet and buoll for burn, Finnish pola and Lappish buella for fire (Richard Fester)
CA BAL - sky heat, red summer sun-horse; survives in Spanish caballo, Italian cavallo, French cheval for horse; a horse running on soft ground: cabal cabal cabal cabal ...
LEB inverse of bel for warmth and warm - lip or lips, from which comes warm breath; surviving in lip, Lippe, labbra, lèvres (more in the next chapter)
BEL CA UR AC - warm sky blue ac: land under the warm blue summer sky; cave Belcayre between rock shelter La Madeleine and Montagnac with the Lascaux cave (bel warm; ca sky; ur a color, mainly blue, sometimes red, as the sky; ac an expanse of land with water, inhabited by a clan)
LAD inverse of dal for valley - hill; surviving in ladder, originally something that slopes
LAD CA UR - hill sky color: name for Lascaux, hill of a painted sky within; the Lascaux cave is found some two kilometers from Montignac, in a limestone massive, which forms a flat round hill; ur means a conspicuous color, mainly the colors of the sky and its reflection in the water, the blue sky, or a red morning sky, or the red sky of a sunset
CA BEL – sky warm, yellow spring sun-horse; cabel cabel cabel cabel …
LAB inverse of bal for heat and hot - coldness, cold; may survive in Lap-land, and perhaps in ancient Greek labros for stormy, if that word originally referred to cold and stormy northern shores
CA LAB – sky cold, winter sun-horse; calab calab calab calab …
BAL and LAB – hot and cold
ALB and BLA – active and inactive, dawn and dusk, stand up and go to sleep; Italian alba for dawn, English black; ancient Greek alphaestaes for industrious, energetic, blakeuo for I am lazy
SHEB inverse of pesh for fish - small and medium sized land animals (sheep chèvre chevreau chevreuil), as verb run
SHDEB – as verb walk, as noun step (accentuated form of sheb)
SHDIB - boot, leather wound around foot and lower leg, filled with moss; survived in many forms and languages; also dressing, bandage
64) LEB inverse of bel for warm - lips, warm breath exhaled between the lips, live and life; German leben and Leben; indicated by a sign before the mouth of an animal, for example by the short strokes before the mouth of a hind in the grotto of Pergouset (dep. Lot); also by the sticking out tongue of a bison, e.g. in the Lascaux cave; leb ()b b bh as root of ancient Greek bios, Latin vita, French vie
BLE permutation of bel and leb - bleed, bleed out, die; indicated by long strokes before the mouth of an ibex in Jordania, Kilwa, Mount Hirsfeld; English bleed, French blessé for wounded, blême for getting very pale, German bleich for pale, erbleichen and erblassen for getting pale, verblichen for deceased (rare, once common)
GOL or GO) with a clicking l - mouth and throat, also language; Italian gola, French geule and geuler (inferior)
GOL UR - ocher prepared in the mouth, mixed with fat (or breast milk?) as binder, and perhaps the juice of a herb or root for sweetening the bitter ocher, then blown and spat on the wall of a cave, as demonstrated by Michel Lorblanchet, giving the painted animal leb / life, as the color is blended with warm moisture and blown with warm breath; survives in color, British colour, French couleur
GOL AC - land of language; survives in Gaul for France, in gallic for the French language and wit, in Gaelic for Welsh (Welsh, in Switzerland, means French)
G)O – eat, survives in glutton
G)A - drink (onomatopoetic, as our funny gloo gloo)
)OG - tongue, move the tongue, speak, argue, word, say, have the say, language, argument, reason, explanation; ancient Greek logos for word and reason; survives in logic, in French langue for both tongue and language, and in English language that keeps French langue instead of building a proper English form tonguage
65) COL - a narrow passage; survives in French col for pass, couloir for gangway, couler for flow
LOC inverse of col - a natural enclosure, perhaps strengthened by means of added branches and stones, also a lake, and an enlocked bay; became Latin locus for place and lacus for lake; survives in Gaelic loch for lake, and enlocked bay, in English lock and lake
COL and LOC - hunting terms: driving animals into an enclosure (loc as verb and noun), then through a narrow passage (col as verb and noun) so they can easily be more easily killed, without too much risk for the Magdalenian hunters
PIQ – spear; survives in French piquer for stab, sting, pierce
SH'PIQ - spear-thrower; German spicken for lard
QIP inverse of piq - knive and cut; Old English cnif
TAP and inverse PAT - beat; survives in French taper and battre, in English pat and battle
BAR - bear; German Baer (more in the chapters 60 and 79)
BHAU - shelter, grotto, cave; German Bau for building, also for the cave of an animal such as a fox or a dachs, Behausung for shelter, Haus for house
BAR AC BHAU - bear / land with water / cave: original name of the cave Bara-Bahau on the blue river Vézère, meaning a former bear cave on an expanse of land with water (the cave Bara-Bahau was inhabited by hunters from Magdalenian times onward, while nobody lived in the Lascaux cave)
QEL AC inverse of the sun-horse ca-leq - fertile land
NUL AC inverse of the moon bull ca-lun - land under a new moon, a really dark night
LAB AC inverse of ca-bal for the red summer
sun-horse - cold land;
LEB AC inverse of ca-bel for warm sky, yellow spring sun-horse - land of life, providing the Magdalenian hunters with plenty of meat and fresh herbs
DIB – spoon, vessel, dipper, dip
BID - cooking pit, layed out with leather, filled with meat or fish, herbs and water, whereupon a stone heated in the fire was rolled into the water, made it boil and the meal cook; survives in English pit and in French bidon for bucket, also (familiar) bide and bidon for belly - manger comme Dieu en France ...
66) CA LEQ – sun-horse, sun, day
CA BAL - red summer sun-horse, summer
LAB AC inverse of ca-bal - cold land, winter;
CA LUN – moon-bull, moonlit night
NUL AC inverse of ca-lun - land under a new moon, dark land, night
VAD - water, also English wade, wet, wash
DAV inverse of vad - moist air, fog; dew, German Tau
CA VAD - sky water: rain, clouds (cavad cvad cloud)
VAD UR - water blue: beautiful deep blue river Vézère
DRA - dry, German trocken
DRA AC - dry land, earth; became Latin terra, French terre; permutation ARD became German Erde, irden, Kartoffel (ard appel, Erdapfel); another reminiscence of dra-ac might have been dra'c dragon Drache as symbol of fiery hot earth, hence a draught, also of a forest-fire
MON - larger hill, mountain; Latin mons, English Mount
MON DIG LUN - mountain one moon: top of a mountain or larger hill where the aspiring shamans spent midsummer, a midsummer month, 30 days around June 21, where they studied the starry sky, advised by the arch-shaman of lad-ca-ur (Lascaux), whose "portrait" is shown in the axial gallery of the Lascaux cave: a roaring megaceros, shouting, in order to reach all the young men on top of mon-dig-lun ...
NOM inverse of mon - the important arch-shamans may have been remembered on mon-dig-lun, perhaps by means of wooden statues bearing inscriptions
67) MA-DRA - the goddess of earth and life saying: my earth; the earth is mine; I am the earth, from which comes all life, and into which every life is bound to return ... Dra would be the earth itself, dust, matter, whereas ac would be land with water; ma-dra materia 'Magna Mater' mater madre mother Mutter ... Dar as a permutation of dra became Latin terra; ma-dar again mater mother, while Italian madre returned to the ma-dra form
ARD-AM inverse of ma-dra - survived in Adam, the one made of clay; ard became earth Erde, also Latin ars, English art, for the first sculptures were presumably made of clay
LEB-AC inverse of ca-bel, warm sky - life land, fertile land, name of the goddess of earth and life; became leb-a eba Eva Eve ...
A-BEL inverse of leb-a - Abel, son of Eve
CA-IN and inverse NI-AC - double negation: neither sky nor land; Cain, a son of Eve, murdered his brother Abel, and so, we may assume, he was driven from his land ac, and lost his right on a place in heaven ca, among the stars of the summer triangle; ca-in would have been the word for felon and committing a felony; Old Irish cain means statute, law, rent, confirming the legal aspect of that word and Biblical name; the first law would have been a list of crimes and felonies, thou shalt not ...
-IN NUL NI - three forms of negations, for example ca-lic-in for a caliginous or misty sky; nul-ac as the land under a new moon, or rather empty moon, no moon; and ni-ac no land for a felon ca-in no place in heaven; ni became Latin nihil; survives in the French double negation ni ni for neither nor; in French non, Italian no, German Nein, English no, Russian njet
NI AC UR - no ac-ur, no ocher, name for the cave of Niaux, where the animals are drawn in black, without colors
68) C'HER - stag; French cerf, German Hirsch
NOT-: (ending on a spitting t, produced by the tip of the tongue touching the lips) - human mind, reason, think, know; became ancient Greek noos nous, English note notch notion know
C'HER NOT-: (spitting t) - stag mind: a shaman wearing antlers, a stag with a human mind, as a painter blowing and spitting colors on the walls of a cave, as a healer chewing herbs and spitting them as disinfectants on a wound; giant stag Megaceros giganteus an arch-shaman, female megaceros in cave Cougnac behind a male either his wife, or an arch-shamaness in her own right. English horn German Horn; Cernunnos, oldest Celtic god, was wearing horns, usually antlers
DIG - finger, touch, poke a hole; as number one
GID inverse of dig – give and take; survives in give, gift, get
DIG NOT-: (spitting t) - touch know: possible origin of ancient Greek dia, diagnosis, gnosis
ELB inverse of ble – if ble means wound, blood, bleeding, blessé for wounded in French (English bless for a last blessing a wounded and dying man ble received?), pale, blême for very pale in French, bleich in German, and die, then the inverse elb means help and heal
ERB - grass, herb; Italian erba for grass, erbe for herbs and vegetables
BRE inverse of erb - tree, French arbre; also branch, as verb break, German brechen, (break off a branch)
REB - bush or tree bearing fruit; German Rebe for vine
BER inverse of reb - berry, fruit; English berry pear, German Beere Birne, French baie poire, Italian bacca pera
LIC - light, bright, shine, luck, also present in the name of the Celtic sun-god Lugh
GHI - imitating a bird's call; surviving in French name Guy, and in English guy for man
GHYN - woman, wife of ghi; survives in many words and languages, for example in Greek gynae for woman, or in queen as ruler or wife of a ruler
VAD GHYN - water (inside) woman, amniotic fluid, became va'ghyn vagina, also Vacuna, Sabine goddess of harvest (confirming the equation of woman and fertile land as found in leb-ac leb-a eba Eva Eve)
VAD NOT-: (ending on a kissing t, tip of tongue softly touching lips) - water mind; became Venus, goddess of love emerging from the sea ...
GHYN or variants - birth, give birth, child; also kind, kinship, kinfolk, tribe, clan, mother of a clan; as queen ruler of a clan, either on her own, or at the side of her ghi, birdman, male ruler
69) VAD and combinations - water wade wet wash. Inverse dav survives in English dew and German Tau. Vad ghyn, water (amniotic fluid) woman, survives in vagina, and in the name of the Sabine harvest goddess Vacuna. Ac means land with water. Ac vad enforces the aspect of water and became Latin aqua. Dra ac enforces the aspect of earth, dry land; survives in draught, German trocken for dry, also English dragon German Drache for a land 'burning' under a fiery sun, and really burning in the case of a forest-fire. Ca vad, sky water, rain, survives in cloud. Ac vad, land with water water, could also mean flood, and survives in German Augenwasser, poetic for tears …
BAL LIT-: and BAL VAD - heat a stone and roll it into a cooking pit (bid); survives in English boil, French bouillir, Italian bollare
VID - drained, dried up; French vide for empty
DIV inverse of vid - full of water; survives in dive
VAL - water in motion, moving and winding like water; survives in vale and valley, French val, Italian valle, in German Welle for wave, and wallen for a cloth moving in a wave-like manner, also in English well, well up
AC VAL - land with water moving water: well, spring; German Quelle
LAV inverse of val - remove by means of a liquid, also the effect a moving liquid can have; French laver and Italian lavare for wash; lava, a fiery liquid removing everything in its way
BAL VAL - fiery hot liquid; combined to vol in Volcano, and to Baal, originally a god of volcanoes
HUM - sound, especially for a remote rumble; English hum, rumble, tumble; German grumbeln, rumpeln
MUH inverse of hum - snorting bull, lowing cow; as in German Muh (onomatopoetic)
HUM BAL VAL – rumbling (mountain) fiery hot liquid in motion: became the Sumerian volcano god Humbaba (onomatopoetic)
70) DRA - earth, dry earth, matter, earth per se, reign of the earth goddess of many shapes, among them the mammoth and rhinoceros; inverse ard became earth Erde irden ... Ma-dra was the name of the goddess of earth and life, of giving life and taking life; inverse ard-am Adam as the one made of clay
DAR - (flash and) thunder, weather-god, consort of the thundering rhincoceros; Celtic god Taranis, nordic god Thor; Welsh taran Irish torran for thunder
RAD inverse of dar - flash; surviving in radiare, radiate
RAD (pronounced quickly, r’d, rshd) DAR (long and rolling) – flash thunder (onomatopoetic)
DAR, DA, DE, TE-, SSE-, ZE-, THE-, THO-, JU-, … - originally weather-god, then supreme god, as for example Zeus
DE AC - god land; became dea for goddess
DE OC - god eye; became deus theos for god
CA DAG LOG - sky four sayings: enumeration of the four main qualities a good ruler needed, namely being strong as a bull, caring as a pregnant mare, decided as a feline, and making a wise use of his weapons. These main qualities are shown in the composite animal near the entrance of the Lascaux cave: a bison with the round belly of a pregnant mare, the mottled hide of a feline, and the head of a bearded man, out of whose front grow a pair of horns that end in blades and thus mean lances. Ca-da'-log would have become ancient Greek kata, from above, down, completely; catalogue as list; and Dag as word for an Anatolian mountain, where the supreme Hittite god Teshub resided, the God of the Heavenly Weather, whose name begins with Te- as a variant of dar de ... Zeus resided on Mount Olympus and was in the origin a sun- and weather-god. Log would have been pronounced with a clicking l, which, in very early times, may have been a hunter's call that warned of a feline, and which, later on, became lys leo leone lion leon Loewe, leopard, lynx, and lykos/lupus for wolf. Then also log for word, speak, say, reason, rule, the one who has the say, ruler. A memory of this very early ruler may be kept by the man with the head of a lion from Hohlenstein, carved from mammoth ivory some 32,000 years ago
71) MA - me, myself (I), my, mine; French moi (je), mon, ma, mes, le mien, la mienne, les miens, les miennes
AM inverse of ma - be and have, first form singular
MA AM or MA'M - I am, I have
TA - you, your, yours; French tu, ton, ta, tes, le tien, la tienne, les tiens, les tiennes
AT inverse of ta - be and have, second form singular
TA AT or TA'T - you are, you have; French tu est or t'est (t'e), and tu as or t'as (t'a)
SA - he, she, it, his, hers; its; French lui, elle, çela or ça (sa), son, le sien, sa, la sienne
AS inverse of sa - be and have, third form singular
SA AS or SA'S - he or she or it is / has; French il / elle / ça est (c'est, s'e), and il / elle / ça a
ME - we, ours, plural of MA
EM inverse of me - be and have, first form plural
ME EM or ME'M - we are, we have
TE - you, yours, plural of ta
ET - be and have, second form plural
TE ET or TE'T - you are, you have (plural)
SE - they, theirs, plural of sa
ES inverse of se - be and have, third form plural
SE ES or SE'S - they are, they have
72) MAS - many, mass, much, more, multiply, increase in number and size; German Mass for size, Masse for mass
SAM - some, few, little, less, lonesome, cumbersome; diminish, lessen, decrease, getting hard and tiresome; German einsam for lonely, muehsam for tiresome and cumbersome
AMS - ample, wide, spacious, embracing, on both sides, all around; English ample, French ample, ancient Greek amphi as adverb; Latin amplificare, English amplify
SMA - small, German schmal for narrow, French smala for family as the unit of the society (?), smart for achieving a lot (mas) by means of a small (sma) effort
DOV – toward; German zu (zur zum)
VOD – from; German von (vom)
OVD - often, over, overflow, overload, oversized ..., gaining in number, size, weight, and effect; ancient Greek ophello means (I) increase, amplify, multiply, magnify, enlarge, extend, enhance, raise, heighten …
DVO - dwindle, dwarf, German Zwerg; loosing in number, size, weight, and effect; ancient Greek duae for misery
CA) with a clicking l - head, skull
)AC inverse of ca) - standing on the feet, standing his man, standing ground; ancient Greek lax, with the foot, laxis for plot or parcel of land
A)C - strong, daring, brave; ancient Greek alkimos
C)A inverse of a)c - make noise while attacking, being a famous hunter, being the founder of a Magdalenian clan; ancient Greek klazo klaggae kleinos klados.
73) CA)AC - a pun, combining ca) for head, or rather holding the head up high, with )ac for standing ground, but also ca for sky and ac for land with water, and in between the leader of a clan ) who has the say )og, the former lion-leopard-lykos/lupus-man; columns of stalactites and stalagmites in a cave; Milky Way, galaxy
LIC VAD - bright water, also used for the Milky Way; surviving in liquid
GAL - milk
LAG inverse of gal - drop
GALAG - combination of milk and drop, sinter on the wall of a cave; ancient Greek gala milk, stalagma a drop
GLA - drink (as found before, in a different context)
ALG - full, satisfied, belch of a baby; in the case of an adult a liquid released from the mouth, vomit, caused by a sickness or injury; Greek algos for pain
ALA - white; may have become Latin albus for white, surviving in albino
CA)A - prayer, calling the goddess, also the former leaders of a clan who now live among the stars of the summer triangle on the Milky Way (Atair in Aquila, Deneb in Cygnus, Vega in Lyra), also the voice that comes from the head ca), especially when pronounced by a ruler; survives in English call
A)A - any call; survives in hello hullo hallo alo ...
)OG – may have been the origin of langue, as in language, and of tongue (clicking l as l and t)
74) CA) with a clicking l, especially used with the ruler of a clan – head, face, beautiful, noble, good, honorable, lucky; as verb holding the head up high - an illustration of this would be the head carved from mammoth ivory, allegedly found in a field near Dolni Vestonice, and, if not faked, 26,000 years old, see the cover of the October 1988 issue of the National Geographic (more in the next chapter)
)AC inverse of ca) - standing firmly on the feet, standing his man, also the ground one stands upon
) AC - the ruler, former lion-leopard-lykos/lupus-man, and the land and water of his clan
CAP - body, especially the top of the head, also a group of people or animals; became Latin caput for head and corpus for body, German Kopf and Koerper, while ancient Greek kephalos combines cap and ca) to capca), perhaps the word for a human clad in the costume of an animal; cap as something worn on the head survives in English cap and German Kappe, while cap in the meaning of herd survives in English cattle
CAP CA) - double head, a ruler wearing a mask of an animal's head, namely a cap, over his own head ca); became ancient Greek kephalos for head
PAC inverse of cap – bulk of the body, also a group of people or animals; became Latin pectus for breast, and bestia for animal; survives in many forms, perhaps in bulk and body, in German Backe English cheek, in English back German Ruecken, in German Bauch and Becken, English belly and pelvis; also in French pacage English pasture, English bacon German Speck; French pechtel means live-stock, bétail cattle; pac as group of people would survive in English pack; a further version of pac was ancient Greek pachys for fat, broad, dense, obese, full, strong, powerful, noble, compact, coarse, stupid, plump. The many variants and meanings of pac testify to a very ancient and important word
HED - top of a human being, head, also height; German Haupt for head (old usage, for important people)
DEH inverse of hed - marking the other end of the human body, namely the toe, German Zeh
75) Clicking l, here given as an arc for the curving tongue whose tip moves along the palate, became l, r, and t:
CA) - first ruler of a clan, founding father; r-form became ancient Greek kar for head, kara for head and face, kardia for heart, soul, mood, mind, reason, Italian caro for dear; l-form in ancient Greek kalos for beautiful, brave, good, successful, favorable, useful, noble, honorable, lucky; survives in English call, t-form perhaps in cat as reminder of the lion-man of old (man with lion-head, Hohlenstein, 32000 BP)
)AC - ruler ) of a clan on his land with water ac; as verb stand firmly on the ground, rule the land; l-form became ancient Greek lax, with the foot or feet, and laxis for a plot or parcel of land; t-form became tagos, ruler; tagma, legion; tageia, supreme command; tacheuo, I lead, rule; taxis, order, marching formation; tachys quick; r-form became ancient Greek raka for: you moron, and rakos for rascal
A)C - strong, daring, brave; became ancient Greek arkos; survives in German stark for strong; l-form alc became ancient Greek alkar for protection, defense, alkae for defense, protection, rescue, power, braveness, courage; t-form atc hardly pronounceable, but may have survived in the permutation act, from ancient Greek ago, I lead and move, with many more meanings, agogos for leader, aktis for ray, light, sunshine.
C)A inverse of alc or a)c - make noise while attacking, being a famous hunter, being the founder of a clan, having class; l-form became ancient Greek klazo klaggae kleinos klados, and survives in clan and class; r-form in croak and crow, in German Krach for noise, in kraehen and kraechzen for croak, in Kraehe for crow (Latin corvus, ancient Greek koronae for crow), raven-man was the leader of a later clan (Yverdon-Clendy in Western Switzerland, and on Celtic coins)
A)A - a call, as in hullo, hello, hallo, alo; t-form became ata, patros, patriarch, pater, father, Vater; r-form became ancient Greek ara for prayer, request, also for curse, indicating the power of a patriarch who can either help or reject
CA)A - prayer to the goddess and founding father of a clan, both living among the stars of the summer triangle, which can either be seen as the vad-ghyn (vagina) of the the goddess, or as the head of the bison-man, as indicated by the painting on the natural column in the rear hall of the Chauvet Cave in the Rhone Valley, some 30,000 years old; as verb pray; t-form became ancient Greek kata, from above, down; r-form survives in Italian cara, dear (female form)
)OG - word, speak, having the say; became ancient Greek logos for word and reason; l-form survives in French langue and langage, English language, also in logic; t-form became ancient Greek toge, just because, here, that’s why, used in a logical argument; r-form became roger for begging vagabond, then rogue (r-form can either be very positive, as in ara for prayer and in caro and cara for dear; or negative, as in raka for: you moron, rakos for rogue, in ara for curse, in roger for begging vagabond, and in rogue)
76) ARB and inverse BRA - right and left arm
BAR and inverse RAB - right and left leg
MHAYN - right hand; Latin manus, French main, English hand, German Hand
ARB - right arm
ARB MHAYN, pronounced AR'MHAYN - right arm and hand; became Latin arma for weapon, as most hunters and soldiers were throwing their lances with the right arm and hand; became English arm and hand, German Arm and Hand
CLYN - left hand; became English claw, German Klaue, Finnish kynnae, all three words meaning the same
BRA CLYN - left arm and hand; became ancient Greek brachion, Italian braccio, and French bras for arm; also bracelet, more often worn on the left wrist
P'HED - right foot; became ancient Greek podoi and Latin pedes for feet, English foot feet, German Fuss Fuesse
BAR P'HED - right leg and foot; became ancient Greek pous for both foot and leg; Latin per pedes, on foot (walking); English barefeet and German barfuss; in analogy to mhayn bhayn perhaps also German Bein for leg, English bone and German Gebein, ancient Greek baino for I go (also go away, die)
YOLG - left foot; became Old Ugric-Altaic jalga, Lappish juolge and Finnish jalka for foot
RAB YOLG - left leg and foot; difficult to proncounce, therefore modified; inverse order yolg-rab may be the root of Old Netherlandish and Middle English leggr for leg; modify r into sh, and rab turns into shab, which may be the origin of French jambe and Italian gamba for leg; modify r into l and you obtain lab-yolg, which may be the origin of Finnish lahje for leg and jalka for foot. Ancient Greek rabdos means rod, staff, scepter; rabdalos lean; radinos lean, tender, agile, swift. German Rappe is a black horse. Rab might also be the oldest form of run, along the line of rab rad radinos rinna renna rinnan rennen run … The many variations indicate again a very ancient word
77) I -: O (iso ipo ito) - arch-shaman: the firm one; equal to his forerunners, thus warranting a long tradition; maker of opinions, ideas, pictures; voice of the divine (ancient Greek isos for equal; hippo for horse, here the one who speaks in the name of the sun-horse; istaemi for stand, hold up, weigh, resist, arrange, dispose, and many more meanings; eido for look, form, opinion, picture, idea)
O -: I (osi opi oti) - awe inspiring divine law, ultimate reason (ancient Greek osia for divine right, pious duty, obligation; opis for observance, obligation, followance; oti for because)
-: I O (sio pio tio) - judge in the name of the divine; requiting good with good, bad with bad (ancient Greek sio for god; bios for life, Latin pius pia Italian pio pia for pious; ancient Greek tio tino for pay, award, atone, revenge)
O I -: (ois oip oit) - one exluded by the arch-shaman: where can he go now? his fate is misfortune, even death (ancient Greek oios for lonely; hoiper for where to?; oitos for lot, destiny, fate, ill-luck, misfortune, death)
I O -: (ios iop iot) - plead: help me, one and the same, arch-shaman in a long line of arch-shamans, have mercy with a pious believer (ancient Greek ios for one and the same; also ios for arrow and poison; io with omega for an exclamation, when calling a god, or when being hurt; iotaes for wish, will, order)
-: O I (soi poi toi) - plead: do me the favor, maker of ideas and pictures, let me safely return to my kinfolk (ancient Greek hoi soi for your kinfolk; poi for where to?, poieo for do, make, produce, organize a feast, induce fear, do a favor, make a poem, represent, accept, appoint, estimate, respect; poiaeis for grown over with grass, poimaen for herdsman, ruler, poimnion for herd; poinae for penance, revenge, compensation, reparation, satisfaction; toi for certainly, really)
78) MEL - sweet, something edible, also sweet for the ears; ancient Greek meli for honey, and melinae for millet; French miel for honey; ancient Greek melos for melody
LEM inverse of mel - collect, either berries or herbs or honey ... Ancient Greek lambano means touch, take, seize, chase, conquer, get, also comprehend, perceive; (with many more meanings)
ELM - a shrub or a tree bearing sweet fruit; hackberry, one of the oldest and most venerable shrubs or trees of humankind, belonging to the genus Celtis of the elm family, bearing cherrylike fruit, so "elm" could even go back to Africa, where, as far as I am informed, the hackberry was also known; Old English elm means noble and survives in the given name Elmer
MLE inverse of elm - bad, ignoble; Hindi Mlechi means barbarian, untouchable, not Indian
BON - good; Latin bonus, Italian bene, French bon, bien
NOB inverse of bon - keeps the positive meaning, another word for noble, together with elm; Latin nobilis, nobilitas; a variant may be ancient Greek nomos for custom, manners, morals, principle, rule, law, regulation, melody, song, (musical) key.
79) BAR and RAB - right leg and left leg; Hebrew bar means son, perhaps the one who walks by the right leg of his father; Hebrew rabbi means master, perhaps the one who walks on the side of a father, by a son's or pupil’s or client’s left leg. Ancient Greek para could have had the same root, surviving for example in parallel
BAR RAB, BARRAB, BARRA, ARRA; BARA, BAR, also RAB BAR, RABBA - bear, as a rearing animal standing on the hind legs bar and rab; arra perhaps the root of ancient Greek arktos – combined with a)c for strong? –, Latin ursus, Italian orso, French ours for bear, German Baer; also rearing horse, surviving in German Rappe for black horse. English bar, noun and verb, and French barière may also come from bar for leg. Swiss places called Bar and Barra serve as protecting woods, also as horse pastures, while Baer was not only used for the bear but also for the bull, going along with a leaping bull's strong hind legs. Rabbar may have been the origin of Old French robber for rob, steal, and English rob, robber, robbery, perhaps referring to a stealing bear. Barabbas in the Bible was a robber. If ancient Greek barbaros came from bar bar, it might have held satirical meaning: someone who is so very righteous that he got two right legs (remember the reference for the right hand) and can't walk anymore but hops around; hoi barbaroi were the Persians, but also other foreigners who certainly cherished their own belief - also the Celts were fighting in the name of their gods, and might, moreover, have worn bear hides … Sanskrit barbara meant stammering, not Aryan. So we have: not walking properly, not talking properly, not going properly (as go means both walk and talk). A robe may once have been a hide covering the legs rab and bar. Aramaic abba for father may be an abbreviation of rabbar, ‘abba’ abba, meaning a man who stands there for his family. Much as a bear: female bears are known for their fierce will to protect their young ones, Abba was also a female day name for Thursday
80) An idea from the morning of Pentecost, the festival of the Holy Spirit who came down from the sky to earth and taught people how to speak in every tongue ...
The Hebrew word for spirit, wind, breath, was ru-ach, ancient Greek pneuma, Latin spiritus. In ach we may recognize Magdalenian ac for land with water, while the inverse of ru-, namely ur, were the colors of the sky, blue, also red. Now so many words had meaningful inverse forms that we may ponder a possible meaning of ru as inverse of ur. Ancient Greek rheo comes to mind, flow, drip; a form of rheo was ruae; Rhaeno was the river Rhine; rhaema was the word, also conversation, talk, order, message, a lesson, a topic, a verb. If all these words should come from Magdalenian ru, it might have meant what comes from the sky, namely wind, from a whispering to a howling wind, and rain, from a drizzle to a thundering downpour. Ur as what comes from the sky would have been a symbol for what comes from the mouth of a living being: moist breath, and sounds. Marie E.P. Koenig says that the skull was considered a tiny sky, and she might well be right. And also this idea would have survived in antiquity, namely in the Greek understanding of the living being as a micro-cosmos in analogy to the macro-cosmos. An idea which was revived in the Renaissance, and which may get actual again in a modern form, since we have learned about fractal geometry, which explains that similar patterns occur at every scale, in the very large and in the very small alike ... All ancient civilizations considered the cosmos, or the forces that rule the cosmos, living and intelligent beings. We may hope to find some confirmation for this belief in the future, when physics will not only unite mass and energy, but also intelligence or information and energy. I formulated such a principle at age fourteen: when I do a work in a clever way, I save energy, so intelligence and energy should correspond to each other in some way, and if I had more lives than just one I would study physics and ponder that question. In this life I only achieved a position as a Usenet professor, perhaps the silliest profession one can possibly excert in this outer region of a minor spiral arm of the Milky Way, but still, I enjoy it very much, and I wish to thank Google for the good work they are doing, keeping the Usenet alive, improving it, and maintaining the archive. Silly me still believes that the scientific part of the Usenet could evolve into a free and open university, and when I see the good work done by Google I find my old hope not so very silly anymore.
81) Readers versed in biology will have noticed that my synthetical way of reinventing Magdalenian words goes along with the evolution of the brain, whose areas doubled and took over new tasks. Even the nod of the early brain itself doubled into a pair of hemispheres. Also genes double and are then integrated into other parts of a chromosome where they serve a new purpose.
Mel was the hypothetical word for sweet. Now you may double it, and you get mel again. Mel mel, sweet sweet, very sweet. Thus you have a word mel, and a second word mel. One word mel is enough, so you can play with the second one. How about inverting the order of letters? Mel lem. Lem can take over a new function, preferably in the context of mel. Say: gather berries, herbs, honey. So mel is sweet, and lem gather something sweet, then gather anything. Using mel and lem and changing the order of letters you may find elm and inverse mle. Elm may be the word for fine, noble, and the inverse mle for eech, ignoble. There are two more permutations of these letters, lme and eml, but these are rather difficult to pronounce.
As a further step you may combine the words you found. Mel mel would be sweet sweet. Melmel, melmel, melmel, melmel ... Within millenia, melmel could have become meli, ancient Greek for honey. Combine mel and mle, then you have a word for sweet eech, looking fine but being ignoble; this berry appears to be ripe and sweet, but taste it, horrible. Mel mle, melmle, melmle melmle ... Within a couple of millennia this word could have become ancient Greek meleos for in vain, worthless, useless, careless, unreasonable, unhappy, miserable.
So far, no language genes have been found, and I doubt very much in their existence, while I believe that genes themselves are using a form of language that is mirrored in the evolution of human language, word language. As the law of fractal geometry tells: similar patterns emerge at every scale. So early language could be a magnifying glass hold over the genetic process ...
82) Another quadruple of hypothetical Magdalenian words are bal and lab, alb and bla. Bal means hot, ca-bal sky-hot, summer sun-horse, cabal cabal cabal cabal ..., Spanish caballo Italian cavallo French cheval for horse. Lab was cold, winter, Lapland a cold land, ca-lab sky-cold, winter sun-horse, calab calab calab calab ...
Alb was the dawn, alba in Italian, Albania the region were the sun rises for Italians, alb meant also morning, standing up, being active, ancient Greek alphaestaes for laborious, industrious, energetic. Bla was dusk, English black, ancient Greek blakeuo meant I am lazy, hence bla was the evening, the end of activity, go to sleep, night, when the sky darkens and gets black.
Interestingly, the alphabet begins with alpha. This would be a form of Magdalenian alb. So the begin of the alphabet was not casual but well chosen: dawn, morning, wake up, be active ... The sign for alpha was the head of a bull or a cow. This refers to the old activities of chasing bisons and herding cattle.
Phoenician alpha was aleph, also recognizable as a variant of alb: alb aleb aleph, whereas Greek alpha kept or returned to the alb form: alb alpha alphaetaes, also alphano for I acquire, gain, bring in, furthermore alphitopoiia for the preparation of barley flour – in oder to bake a flat loaf of bread for breakfast, we may assume.
83) LET US JOIN THE SUMMER FESTIVAL OF MONTIGNAC, number 1 Magdalenian hit in the summer of 14,385 BC; you hear first a man sing, then a woman reply, then their voices join in the refrain; accompanied by flutes and drums:
CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB ...
TA'T LAB, MA OC
CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL ...
TA'T BEL, MA OC
CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL ...
TA'T BAL, MEL OC
MAJA VOD MAC-DA'-LUN-AC
CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB ...
MA'M LAB, MA OC
CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL ...
MA'M BEL, MA OC
CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL ...
MA'M BAL, MA OC
ELM MAC VOD BEL-CA-UR-AC
SHDEB MON DIG LUN AC
SHDEB MON DIG LUN AC
Do you hear the winter sun-horse?
You have cold, apple of my eye.
Do you hear the spring sun-horse?
You have warm, my darling.
Do you hear the summer sun-horse?
You have hot, honey,
Daughter of a chief of the
I hear the winter sun-horse,
I have cold, apple of my eye.
I hear the spring sun-horse,
I have warm, my darling.
I hear the summer sun-horse,
I have hot, my love,
Noble son of a chief from the land of the warm blue sky
Let us swim in the deep blue river Vézère,
And then join the summer festival of Montignac
Let us swim in the beautiful deep blue river Vézère,
And then happily join the summer festival of Montignac