Lascaux 2, More Magdalenian Words, a late Magdalenian calendar, many compounds, and a vision of the Paleolithic sky / © 2006-08 Franz Gnaedinger, fgn(a), fg(a), / provisional version in freestyle English (last update March 2008)



lascaux01.htm / lascaux02.htm / lascaux03.htm / lascaux04.htm / lascaux05.htm



pas1.JPG / menhir6n.GIF / menhir6o.GIF / pas2.JPG / menhir6e.JPG / menhjr89.JPG / hind1.JPG / hind2.JPG / cer.JPG / torque.GIF / gen.GIF // lascaux01.htm // menhir6f.JPG // acca.GIF / ouranos.JPG // cyclops.GIF  // anglin.GIF / ring.gif // sky.GIF // goebekli.GIF / menhir5h.GIF / halaf.GIF / halaf2.GIF / beersheb.JPG / disc.htm / menhir5j.GIF / calendar.htm




Let me begin with my definition of language from 1974/75:


Language is the means of getting help, support and understanding from those we depend upon in one way or another ––– and every means of getting help, support and understanding may be called language, on whatever level of life it occurs …


Language, then, is a basic feature of life, and so I assume that language evolves the same way as living beings do. Human evolution occurs mainly outside the body, in culture, and so the language we use goes beyond body language, yet the mechanisms of evolution in human language are the same. I follow the evolutionary model proposed by Nils Eldrege and Stephen Jay Gould on the basis of earlier authors: a new species arises in a relatively short period of time (punctuation of the equilibrium) and can then persist basically unchanged for eons (stasis). A newly discovered mechanism of evolution is hybridization, turning the tree of life (Darwin) or bush of life (Gould and Eldridge) into a web of life. Also this finds parallels in language.


Homo erectus may have communicated via humming (a speculation of mine). Imagine a group of hunters marching in a line, from left to right:


     H    G    F    E    D    C    B    A


Hunter H looks backward; if all is well he hums. G looks to the left side; if all is well, and if H behind him hums, he hums too. F looks to the right side; if all is well, and if G behind him hums, he hums too. E looks again to the left side; if all is well, and if F behind him hums, he hums too. And so on. Finally, the humming reaches the chief hunter A who leads the men and looks forward, and so he knows that all is well behind him and on the sides … Neanderthals assumedly had high, melodic voices. Homo sapiens sapiens of the Blombos cave, South Africa, Middle Stone Age, 75,000 years ago, may have used words of one and two letters, for example: KA --- sky, beyond, what is out of our reach, also inside rock, in a well, or deep inside ourselves, accessible to a shaman in a trance / KU --- woman / AA --- water / AN --- hunger / ED --- eat … CroMagnons may have used words of two and three letters or phonemes: CA --- sky / AC --- an expanse of land with water / GYN --- woman / PAD --- activity of feet, to go, pad along, pad pad pad pad … (onomatopoeic) / PAS --- everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, all in all five places … One Holly identified a domino five in the Brunel chamber of the Chauvet cave, some 30,000 years old, with my hypothetical PAS for everywhere in a plain. The additional dot may be read as CA for sky:


   O   O   O  CA


   O   O  PAS


PAS CA --- everywhere (pas) in the sky (ca): May the supreme ruler of the Lower Rhone Valley (depicted as bison-man on the stalactite in the center of the rear hall of the same cave) be born again (by the Venus on the same stalactite) among the stars of the Summer Triangle in the Milky Way, and may he roam the sky in his next life as he roams the earth in this life … pas1.JPG /  menhir6n.GIF/ menhir6o.GIF


In the late winter and early spring of 2005 I reconstructed an amazing lunisolar calendar from symbols in the Lascaux cave, felt a need for a matching language, found none in literature, went for one myself, inspired by the work of Richard Fester, and reconstructed some 400 words of an Ice Age language in a rather intuitive and playful way. Soon there were two laws emerging: inverse forms have related meanings, and further permutations yield words around the same meme (a word coined by Richard Dawkins)  lascaux01.htm  In the late winter and early spring of 2006 I found two more laws: S-words are comparative forms of D-words, and important words can have lateral associations. Using my four laws I mined about 400 more words of the language I call Magdalenian. This language would have been spoken in all parts of Ice Age Europe, as far as Willensdorf in Austria and Malta in Siberia, but its center would have been the Guyenne, more generally the Franco-Cantabrian space (southern France and northern Spain). Some words would be much older than the paintings in the Lascaux cave, for example CA for sky and PAS for everywhere in a plain, yet Magdalenian would have been the fully developed stage of this language, achieved some 15,000 years ago. Most words are shifting in time, while a few key words rather oscillate, being kept within what I call verbal morphospace (a loan from biology). New technologies change life and language, a major change occurred some 10,000 years ago, with the invention of agriculture at the base of the Karacadag east of Göbekli Tepe, and with the casting of copper in about the same time, another change occurred with the casting of bronze roughly 6,000 years ago, probably in the steppes between the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea (Late Magdalenian LM or Proto-Indo-European PIE becoming Indo-European IE). Here are the four laws of Magdalenian:


1)      inverse forms have related meanings

2)      permutations yield words around the same meme

3)      S-words are comparative forms of D-words

4)      important words can have lateral associations


Letters, especially vowels, have to be read in the Roman way. There are a couple of special sounds:


   humming M given as  Mm

   L-click given as  )

   lip lick given as  -:

   emphatic S given as  Ss

   emphatic P given as  Pp


Produce the L-click  )  as follows: move the tip of the tongue along the palate, and let the tongue smack into its wet bed. Produce the lip lick  -:  as follows: touch both lips with the tip of the tongue. Pronounce letters in the Roman way, Ph as a soft F, Ch as English Kh.


My way of following sound changes along the arrow of time: I pronounce a word or a compound silently, without giving voice (not even whispering) over and over again, and observe what happens …


Follow the permutation groups and compounds, more or less in the order as I found them:




DOM SOMm, MOD MmOS, DMO SMmO, OMD OMmS. MDO MmSO, ODM OSMm --- camp and body


DOM --- a Magdalenian camp; ancient Greek domos for house, building, flat, chamber, hall of men, household, father’s house, layers (of stones and bricks)


SOMm --- a Magdalenian man or woman or child, a Magdalenian tribe; ancient Greek soma for body, life, person, human being, individual, main point, the whole, community


MOD --- a part of a camp; Latin modulus, English module


MmOS --- offspring; ancient Greek moskhos for sprout, rod, offspring, calf, young bull, boy, girl


DMO --- maintaining a camp on the material level, activities in the various parts of a camp; ancient Greek themo for I effect, cause, bring about


SMmO --- maintaining a camp on the human level, to have joy, celebrate, sing and dance, kiss and love; ancient Greek asmos for song, asmenos for pleased, joyful, joyous, cheerful


OMD --- multitude, many people; ancient Greek homados for noise, bustle, multitude


OMmS --- among equals, among people one belongs to and likes, consider also the biblical “to recognize someone” for to fall in love and make love; ancient Greek homoios for equal


MDO --- to administer a camp; ancient Greek medo for I think, care, administer, rule, medon for adviser, ruler


MmSO --- animated, lively, living, having a soul; ancient Greek empsychos for animated, having a soul (en- and em- for inside, within, as derivatives of the very ancient humming Mm marking presence). In 2005 I gave OC for eye, especially the right eye, Latin oculus, and AY for the left eye. OC AY would have been an affirmation, a way of saying yes by looking firmly into someone’s eyes. English yes and eyes go along, especially in old forms, and so do French oui and oeuil, while Occitanian oc for yes goes matches OC for eye. Also English I and eye go along, especially in old forms, and so do French je and yeux. English got three was of saying ego: I, me, myself. French has two ways: je and moi. English me myself and French moi preserve the humming Mm of Magdalenian and denote the inside – me living in the house, so to say – , while English I and French je look out a window, greeting a passerby, or stand in a door, inviting a guest …


ODM --- odor coming from a camp fire or a cooking pit; ancient Greek odmae for odor, fragrance


OSMm --- fragrance of a person, a lover; ancient Greek osmae for odor, fragrance




DAI, comparative form SAI, lateral associations NAI KAI LAI RAI PAI ZAI MAI TAI PhAI KhAI, and their permutations, all in all 72 words around the meme of leading a good life


DAI --- protected area; ancient Greek tegos for roof, ceiling, hall, chamber, tektonikos for builder, architect, technae for art, science (…), Daidalos was the first Cretan/Greek architect, German Dach for roof, French dais for canopy. DAI may have been represented by rectangles or “signes tectiformes” (Michel Lorblanchet) in caves


SAI --- life, existence, to live and be; ancient Greek zoae for life, German sein for to be, Sein for existence, Latin essere for to be (ex-essere, coming from a body, body from body, life from life). SAI may have been represented by lines and areas of dots on cave walls. Red dots on the plastered walls of Neolithic houses in Switzerland could have meant: ‘May this house be filled with life …’ SAI could be onomatopoeic, imitating the sound of spitting, comparable to an actor’s toi toi toi. Body fluids were considered having magic properties, blood, the amniotic fluid of the womb, or the spittle of the mouth, which is antiseptic and was certainly used for cleaning wounds by healers. Michel Lorblanchet demonstrated how the horses and salmons and hand negatives in the cave Pech Merle have been applied by chewing colors and blowing and spitting them on the cave wall, thus giving the animals life …


IAD --- healer, medicine; ancient Greek iataer for medicine, iatreuo for I am a doctor


IAS --- healing, salvation; ancient Greek iasos for healing


IDA --- glad, for example when a cure helps; female given name Ida from a Germanic word meaning happy


ISA --- free, healed from an illness, made whole again, functioning, being like the other members of a tribe, equal; ancient Greek is for sinew, muscle, nerve, strength, power, isazo for I make equal, isagoria for the equal right of speech, equal rights in general, civil freedom, isos for equal, fair, right (…)


ADI --- noble, wealthy; female given name Ada from a Germanic word meaning noble


ASI --- honor, dignity; ancient Greek axia for dignity, reputation


DIA --- through, seeing behind appearances, finding the hidden cause of a syndrome; ancient Greek dia, diagnosis


SIA --- to be well and in good health; ancient Greek zaeo for I live, am still alive, lead a life, am able to live, am neither weak nor feeble, have my strength, live on, flourish; ancient Greek sialon for spittle (see the entry sai)


AID --- origin, reason, to help by finding the cause of an illness; ancient Greek aitia for origin, reason, English etiology for the study of the causes of diseases, French aider for to help


AIS --- fate; ancient Greek aisa for fate




NAI --- to find a good place for a camp; ancient Greek naio for I dwell, live, settle


IAN --- to mark the place of the entrance of a future camp; the Roman god Janus personified an entrance, door, archway


INA --- there, let us build a camp over there …; ancient Greek inae for there, where


ANI --- spirit of a place, souls of people who camped there before; Latin animus for soul


NIA --- exclamation: let us build a camp here, it is a good place …; ancient Greek nae for yes, verily, nae Die for “by Zeus”


AIN --- to praise the place of a new camp; ancient Greek aineo for I praise, extol, recommend, ainae for praise, esteem, reputation




KAI --- to bild a good camp; ancient Greek kairos for right measure, good proportion, favorable place, right moment in time, good opportunity (…), kainos for new (a new camp, then), kai for I kindle, burn down (burning down bushes in order to get more living space), kaino for I kill (snakes and other animals one doesn’t want in a camp, lions and bears in a cave), kaireos for well chained (surrounded and protected by interlinked branches of thorn bushes, brambles for one), kaynmai for to excel (in making a good camp), consider also DOM for camp, and the compound KAI DOM, abbreviations k-om and ka-m, wherefrom ancient Greek komae for village, and the village name of Cham on Lake Zug in Switzerland


IAK --- to be pleased about a good camp; ancient Greek iakkhazo for I cheer, exult, jubilate


IKA --- plenty of everything needed for a good camp; ancient Greek hikanos for plenty, sufficient


AKI --- to lead the building of a camp; ancient Greek aigineo for I lead, guide, bring, bring by


KIA --- exclamation: makes my heart jump of joy …; ancient Greek kea for heart


AIK --- shining; ancient Greek aeglaeis for shining




LAI --- materials for building a camp, stones, pebbles, clay, poles, branches, twigs, bark, grass, reed, hides, water; ancient Greek lainos for made of stone, laix for pebble, laisaeon for a shield made of pebbles, leiphos for cloth (hides in Magdalenian times), lainos for neck (giving special attention to the narrow and weak zone of the entrance), leia for prey, especially cattle, leimon for meadow, pasture (where grass and reed can be gathered), laitma for depth, especially of the sea (water), leibo for I let flow, pour (…, water into ditches and cooking pits)


IAL --- works involving the above materials, sending out people to gather them, stretching hides over poles, depositing various materials on the site of the camp; ancient Greek iallo for I send out, stretch out, throw, throw at


ILA --- laying out walls and digging ditches for protection; ancient Greek elayno for I trace a wall or a ditch


ALI --- a fence of intertwined thorn branches, protecting a camp; ancient Greek alysis for chain, protection


LIA --- to make a camp safe, very safe; ancient Greek lian for very, completely


AIL --- protection; ancient Greek eilar for protection, eileo for I close up (…), eilyma for cover, eilyo for I cover




RAI --- final works of camp building, to remove sharp edges and corners of rock, to smooth a clay floor with water, to cover a floor with bark, twigs, hay, reed, hides, to rest (when the hard work is done); ancient Greek rhaistaen for hammer, rhaino for I sprinkle, strew, asperse, rhaizo for I rest


IAR --- to consecrate a camp, perhaps the entrance, and other special parts of a camp; ancient Greek hieros for holy, sacred


IRA --- pleased; ancient Greek aera for pleasing


ARI --- good, perfect; ancient Greek ari- of about this meaning, possible origin of Aryan


RIA --- exclamation: makes my blood flow, makes me feel alive …; ancient Greek rheo for I flow (see also reo)


AIR --- to raise the arms in joy; ancient Greek airo for I raise




PAI --- zone of recreation and regeneration; ancient Greek paizo for I play, joke, enjoy, dance, sing, paidia for game, joke, entertainment, pais for child, paidmo for I teach, educate, paian for rescuer, savior, healer, English boy


IAP --- to throw pebbles and sticks at a target, learning how to hunt by playing such games (in the case of boys), regaining forces by playing such games (in the case of injured and recovering hunters), ancient Greek iapto for I throw, send, sling, hit (…)


IPA --- to hit a target from near and below; ancient Greek hypo (many meanings)


API --- to hit a target from above and farther away; ancient Greek apo (many meanings)


PIA --- vigor; ancient Greek bia for force, power, strength (…)


AIP --- quick; ancient Greek aiphnidos for suddenly, aipsa for quick, immediately




ZAI --- zone of food; ancient Greek zeidoros for spending food, zeira for mantel (here the hide used for laying out a cooking pit, filled with water, food and hot stones from the fire)


IAZ --- to cook herbs for medical purposes; ancient Greek iataer for medicine, iasos for healing


IZA --- to sit around a fire or a cooking pit; ancient Greek izo for I sit, I seat


AZI --- heat and ashes from a fire; ancient Greek aza for heat, dirt, azo for I dry


ZIA --- to cook a meal; ancient Greek zeo for I boil (…)


AIZ --- to share a meal, or one’s share of a meal; ancient Greek aisa for share (…)




MAI --- zone of women; ancient Greek maimao for I desire very much, maia for little mother, midwife, Latin Maja or Majja for the goddess of the earth


IAM --- pleasure, comfort, relief and healing a hunter finds in the female zone of the camp; ancient Greek iama for remedy, healing


MIA --- a girl or a young woman reaching sexual maturity; ancient Greek miaio for to color, tinge, dye, stain (…, here referring to the menstruation blood), Latin Mia for one of the three graces


AIM --- (menstruation) blood; ancient Greek haima for blood, sex, life, force (…)


IMA --- love; ancient Greek himeiro for I long, desire, wish, himeiros for lovely, charming, sweet, longing, touching, himeiros for longing, desire, love, charm


AMI --- friend, lover; Latin amicus amica




TAI --- clothes made of stripes of hides; ancient Greek tainia for ribbon, tainioo for I adorn with ribbons


IAT --- stripes of fine leather used for winding around a wound; ancient Greek iataer for doctor, medicine


TIA --- headgear of a ruler; ancient Greek tiara


AIT --- to ask a ruler for one’s share in hides; ancient Greek aiteo for I ask, request, aitia for share


ITA --- young animals providing fine leather, became the word for calf in later pastoral communities; ita a word root for young, Latin vita for life


ATI --- grown up animals, providing hides, fur and leather, became a word for bull in later pastoral communities; Etruscan athi for bull



ATI CA --- bull sky, heavenly bull, Attica ruled by the Zeus bull


ITA CA --- calf sky, sons of the Zeus bull, perhaps the early name of the Peloponnesus preserved in Ithaca


ITA LIA --- calf safe, very safe, land where the calves were safely protected, well guarded, thriving and multiplying, Italia was originally the southern part of the “boot,” famed as land of the many calves. Vitulus for calf may be a later overforming of ita




PhAI --- beauty of a well built camp, the shining hides of the tents and huts greeting returning hunters from afar, welcoming them home; ancient Greek phaino for I shine


IAPh --- to enjoy life in the camp; feeling safe, sleeping in peace; ancient Greek iauo for I spend the night, sleep, rest, enjoy


PhIA --- drinking a bowl of berry wine before going to bed; ancient Greek phiala for drinking bowl


AIPh --- spending the night in a camp; ancient Greek euphronae for night, euphronaio for I enjoy, euphrosynae for serenity, pleasure, joy


IPhA --- to wake up in the morning, refreshed, one’s powers restored; ancient Greek iphi for powerful, with strength, ipthimos for strong, full of power, fit, brave


APhI --- to leave a camp in the morning; ancient Greek aphesis for sending off, start (…), aphexis for going away (…)




ChAI --- fine weather, sunshine; ancient Greek chairo for I enjoy, chairon for glad, with pleasure, healthy


IACh --- thunderstorm; ancient Greek iacho for I shout, roar, call loudly, make loud sounds, patter, pelt, rage, also iachazo for I jubilate


IChA --- getting dry; ancient Greek ichano for I dry up


AChI --- swelling water; a creek or river filled with rain, a swelling mountain river rushing down a gorge; ancient Greek agineo for I lead, accompany, bring, bring by, age for let us go, move on, Latin agilis for mobile, agile, quick (…)


ChIA --- rain; ancient Greek cheo for I pour


AICh --- to enjoy good weather, sunshine, but also rain in a dry period; ancient Greek euios for cheering, shouting (of joy), exult, Latin ajo (pronounced aijo) for “I say yes”




DIG SIG, GID GIS, DGI SGI. IGD IGS, GDI GSI, IDG ISG --- human relations, give and take


DIG --- finger; Latin digitus for finger


SIG --- a sign drawn with a finger; Latin signum for sign, signal, ancient Greek sigae for silent (visual signs being silent words or messages)


GID --- give and get; ancient Greek kaedeia for kin, giza for treasure room


GIS --- a gesture, a sign given with a part of the body, a finger, the face; Latin gestus for gesture, English kiss


DGI --- all ten fingers of both hands, plenty; ancient Greek deka for ten


SGI --- kinship; ancient Greek sygenneia for kinship (syn-word a later overforming?)


IGD --- plead; ancient Greek iketeia for plead


IGS --- being able to grant a plead, having plenty, being magnanimous; ancient Greek hikanos for plenty, portly, able (…), eikosi for twenty


GDI --- neighbor; ancient Greek geitniao for I am a neighbor


GSI --- brother, sister; ancient Greek kasis for brother, sister, gaetheo for I am pleased


IDG --- intelligent, sensible, clever, prudent; ancient Greek idya with the same range of meanings


ISG --- strong, powerful, healthy, wealthy, to be someone, being able and capable; ancient Greek ischyos with the same range of meanings




LAD LAS, DAL SAL, DLA SLA, ALD ALS, LDA LSA, ADL ASL --- landscape, human and divine zones, clicking L given as  )


LAD or )AD --- hill, slope; ancient Greek lophos for hill, English ladder


LAS or )AS --- mountain; ancient Greek laas for stone, rock, cliff


DAL or DA) --- valley; German Tal English dale and valley


SAL or SA) --- water in a valley, swamp, pond, river, lake, sea; ancient Greek salos for swaying, especially of the sea


DLA or D)A --- flat river bank; ancient Greek delta


SLA or S)A --- shine and glitter of water; ancient Greek selas for shine, light, ray, spark


ALD or A)D --- steep river bank, high from below, deep from above, a wide view over the river valley from above; ancient Greek aldaesco for I grow, Latin altus for high, deep, wide (…)


ALS or A)S --- sun, sky, moon, stars, shining from above; ancient Greek alaes for the sun at noon


LDA or )DA --- deep water; ancient Greek laitma for deep (depth of the sea)


LSA or )SA --- river in the Underworld, along which the sun horse and moon bull traverse the earth; ancient Greek Lethae for the river in the Hades


ADL or AD) --- hidden; ancient Greek adaela for hidden


ASL or AS) --- invisible; ancient Greek aizaelos for invisible



Two words from 2006: AD --- toward / inverse DA --- away from


AD LAS --- toward (ad) mountain range (las), Eurasian steppes oriented toward the Caucasian mountain range, origin of Atlas Atlantis





PAD PAS, DAP SAP, APD APS, DPA SPA, PDA PSA, ADP ASP --- everywhere in a plain and in space


PAD --- activity of feet, to go, go unhindered, pad along, pad pad pad pad … (onomatopoeic); ancient Greek batos for passable, pateo for I go, step, tread, trample, patos for footstep, path, podilon for sole, sandal, shoe, boot, paeza for foot, Latin pes pedes for foot feet, Padus for the river Po, the one who goes, then, perhaps an attribute of the river god, Padova Padua a town on the river, perhaps built around a former sanctuary of the river god, patens for open, not blocked, pate-fecio for I make accessible, pater for father, perhaps the one who goes, goes hunting, fishing, leads the way, owns the land and marks his presence (I remember having read of a law that granted a father the land he could walk around from dawn to dusk), patria for fatherland would then mean the land where the father goes, impetrabilis for easily accessible, impetus for quick pace, élan (…), French patte for paw, English paddock for an enclosure where animals pad around, paddle an artificial paw to pad along a waterway


PAS --- everywhere (in a plain): here, south and north of me, east and west of me, all in all five places; ancient Greek pas pan for all, every, pente penta- for five, written as domino five in the caves of Chauvet (Holly) and Pech Merle  pas1.JPG / pas2.JPG


DAP --- manual activity, also needed for to get along, moving branches out of the way, holding a tree for security when climbing over an obstacle or sliding down a steep slope; tap, to tap, French tapper for to knock, beat, rap, tap, Taape for hand in my medieval language


SAP ---everywhere (in space): here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, all in all seven places; origin of the number seven in many languages (more below, compound sap pia)


APD --- flat ground, easily passable; ancient Greek apedos for level, flat (a-word a later overforming?)


APS --- hide of a tent, covering the poles, ceiling of a cave, heavenly vault, reached by vapor, humid air, fog and clouds, water dripping from the hide of a tent, from the ceiling of a cave, from the sky; ancient Greek apsis for vault


DPA --- floor, land; ancient Greek dapedon for floor, ground, earth


SPA --- height, vertical dimension, climbing rope, where vapor raises to, where rain comes from; ancient Greek sparton for rope, asparago for I am aroused, asparagos for asparagus, spa in España, Spain, may refer to the heavenly pillars of the Pyrenean mountain range seen from the Guyenne


PDA --- being hindered and hold up, yet going on; ancient Greek pedao for I slow, hold up, whereas petannymi for to spread


PSA --- being hold up, yet going on, getting around obstacles in the way / water draining away, for example spreading in sand, finding a way through sand; ancient Greek psammos for sand


ADP --- being hold up, not going on anymore; ancient Greek adiabatos for impassable (a-dia-pad, a later overforming?)


ASP --- being hold up, really hold up, impenetrable even for water; ancient Greek aspis for shield


PAS CA --- everywhere (in a plain) sky (ca), may the worthy ruler be born again among the stars and roam the sky in his next life as he roams the earth in this life …  pas1.JPG / pas2.JPG  PAS CA would survive in ancient Greek paskha, Russian Paskha, French Pâque, resurrection and ascension to heaven, while the inverse form PAS AC for everywhere (pas) on earth (ac), knowing no obstacles, finding a way to overcome every hindrance, would survive in French/English passage, and in Pessach, the Jewish festival celebrating the Exodus from Egypt.


SAP PIA --- everywhere (sap) vigor (pia), getting everywhere in vigor, wandering about the world, getting everywhere, seeing and experiencing everything there is, becoming world wise, acquiring wisdom; Latin sapiens for wise, sapientia for world wisdom, ancient Greek sophia for wisdom




Two words from 2005: AD --- toward; inverse DA --- away from. Now together with the comparative forms from 2006: AD --- toward / AS ---upward / DA --- away from / SA --- downward


AD LAS --- toward (ad) mountain range (las), Eurasian steppes oriented toward the Caucasian mountain range, more generally all of Eurasia oriented toward the very long barrier from the Cordilleras and Pyrenees in the west via the Alps and the Caucasus and the Iranian mountains to the Himalayas in the east, origin of Atlas Atlantis …


RAA --- light; Latin radiare for to shine (see also ryt), English ray, radiant, Egyptian sun god Ra (supreme god appearing in the sun)

AAR --- air (inhaling, onomatopoeic)

ARA --- space, filled with air, medium of light, also area


SA RAA --- downward light, she who stands in the sun beam, the chosen one, also the one protected from above; the Hebrew name Sarah means princess, while Sanskrit sara means firm, strong


ABA, AMA --- father, mother


-: I -:  (lip lick, produce the sound given as  -:  by touching both lips with the tip of the tongue), derivatives LIL LIB BIB DD … --- forms of desire; ancient Greek lilaeomai for to desire, libido, Latin bibi for I drank (thirst being a powerful desire), Ugaritic DD for loved, beloved (Cyrus H. Gordon), Minoan Dadu for loved by (Walther Hinz), Phoenician Dido for the loved one, consider also Leila in the famous love story of the great Persian poet Hafis


A word from 2005: BRA for the right arm. ABA BRA --- the Lord’s right arm; the abbreviated form Abra may be the origin of Abram in the Bible: he who carries out the Lord’s will


The name of David seems to be a problem of Hebrew philology. We may read it as DA PAD --- away from (da) activity of feet (pad), delivered from the paw of the lion, delivered from the paw of the bear, delivered from the hand of Goliath … The name of Dalilah or Delilah can be explained in a similar way: DA LIL --- delivered from (da) her desire (lil), satisfied; Delilah wanted to find out the secret of Samson, he fooled her three times, then she found out, her desire was quenched. Hebrew meaning of Delilah: she who longs for. – The name of Daniel poses more problems. Have a look at the following permutation group concerning a lion:




LEI IEL, EIL LIE, ILE ELI --- attack of a lion, pronounce the words with a clicking L given as )


)EI --- attacking lion; ancient Greek leo and lis for lion, leianno leaino for I crush, bruise, destroy


IE) --- to shout and yell when one sees a lion, throwing stones and spears at a lion, still yelling, onomatopoeic; ancient Greek iaelo for to send, throw, throw at, iakho for to shout


EI) --- to hide from a lion; ancient Greek eilyo for to cover up, creep, cower, crouch (…)


)IE --- to escape from a lion; ancient Greek liazyomai for to escape


I)E --- to be spared by a lion; ancient Greek ilaemi for to have merci


E)I --- to rest, and thank for having been spared; ancient Greek elynio for to rest, give up



Ckicking  )  then E)I then ELI may have been used as epithet of the one who can avert a lion, namely the Lord who delivered David from the paw of the lion, also from the paw of the bear and from the hand of Goliath. The Hebrew name Daniel may then be read as DA (n) IEL --- freed from (da) having to yell (iel), having no reason to yell, being spared and saved. The Hebrew name means God is my judge – the Lord judged Daniel, found him worthy, and saved him from both Antioch’s men and the lions in the den …


AChI )EI --- swelling river (achi) attacking lion (lei), possible origin of Achilleus




TON SON, NOT NOS, ONT ONS, TNO SNO, NTO NSO, OTN OSN --- sound and knowledge (here, for once, the S-words are comparative forms of T-words)


TON --- thunder, sound, voice (of a ruler, shaman, coming from a powerful or divine source); ancient Greek tonos for rope, chord, tone, tension, meter of a verse, Latin tono for I thunder, make a very loud sound, speak with a booming voice, sing (of God), tonat for it thunders, Tonans for Jupiter and Saturn as thunder gods, Jupiter Tonans, tonitrus for thunder clap, French tonnère German Donner for thunder, German Ton for sound, English tone


SON --- living being (of a high rank?); ancient Greek zoon for living being, German Sohn English son


NOT --- knowledge, to acquire knowledge via the senses, by making  experiences, to observe, learn and know; Latin nosco novi notum with about the same range of meanings


NOS --- mind, soul, feeling, heart; ancient Greek noos for mind, reason, ratio, spirit, insight, way of thinking, heart, feeling, opinion, wish, intention, will


ONT --- reality, the world as it is, knowing the world in all aspects (consider the Celtic Salmon of Knowledge of many colors); ancient Greek ontos for really, actually, indeed, wherefrom ontology


ONS --- benefit from opinions that are based on reality; ancient Greek onaesis for benefit, help, luck, blessing


TNO --- pondering reality, thinking, giving advice; ancient Greek danos for advice, thought


SNO --- to care for each other, finding solutions in a common effort; ancient Greek synoia for care, synnomos for friend, husband, synodos for gatherings where problems are discussed, pondered, and solved (syn-words a later overforming?)


NTO --- false, ignoring reality; ancient Greek nothos for fake, not genuine


NSO --- insane, denying reality, also denying a beyond, a reality transcending our knowledge; ancient Greek nosos for insanity


OTN --- ear, listening to people who know, also, metaphorically, to a divine voice or inspiration; ancient Greek otion for ear


OSN --- request, prayer, asking a ruler, a shaman, a divine being, in the sense of: ‘we heed your words, now we are in trouble, please help us’; ancient Greek osiae for divine law, Oisin (Osheen) Ossian was the son of Fion Finn who ate the Salmon of Knowledge – “much larger than a common salmon and, on its shining skin, all all the colors of the rainbow seemed to dance and swirl” (Ian Zaczek) – and was asked to save Tara from the goblin Aillen, Hebrew Hosanna Hosh(i)-ann-ah ”save we pray”



The Hebrew name Nathan means God gave. The original meaning could have been: NOT TON --- he who knows (not) and makes himself heard (ton), the one who speaks out of a divine inspiration, out of a knowledge God gave him …




Now it’s time for a story in Magdalenian. A young professor of Paleo-linguistics goes on a time travel to Lascaux, arrives there in the spring of 14,681 BC, meets a lovely young woman, takes a few lessons in Magdalenian, then meets her parents and addresses them as follows:




     OC LIC, MA OC.




     SAI SAI


OC means eye and I (ego), LIC means light and luck, OC LIC means I see light, I am pleased. MA OC means my darling, my eye, apple of my eye; OC LIC MA OC means I love you. Humming Mm means I, me. TA means your. The other words are explained above. Imperatives or wishing forms are given by doublings. What he says is then: ‘I am pleased to meet you, father of Sarah, I am pleased to meet you, mother of Sarah, (toward Sarah): I love you. I am a teacher. I desire your daughter. Give her to me, father of Sarah, bless us, mother of Sarah, be it so, be it so.’




In 2005 I gave CA LUN for the moon bull; ancient Greek selenae Latin luna for moon. The inverse of LUN, namely NUL, reminds of German Null for zero, nul, Latin nihil for nothing, evoking the empty moon, German Leermond. In 2005 I gave CA LAB, sky cold, for the winter sun horse, CA BEL, sky warm, for the spring sun horse, and CA BAL, sky hot, for the summer sun horse. Hear them running:








More later. Now for the permutations of BAL or BA) and of BEL:




BAL LAB, ALB BLA; ABL LBA --- sun horse, clicking L


BA) --- hot; from a word field given by Richard Fester, consider for example that Baal was originally a volcano god


)AB --- cold; Lapland (?), ice water stream Labrador


A)B --- summer dawn, Latin alba for white, Albania seen from southern Italy the land where the sun rises


B)A --- winter dusk; black


AB) --- rising midsummer sun; ancient Greek ablaes for new (…), ablabaes for intact, not injured (…), here the fresh morning sun horse of midsummer


)BA --- setting midwinter sun; ancient Greek labae for weak spot, here the sun horse hit on a weak spot, sinking and falling (physical phenomena understood in hunting terms)




LEB BEL, ELB BLE, EBL LBE --- female principle, lip lick


-:EB or LEB --- female, woman; German Leben for life, leben for to live, Liebe for love, lieben for to love, Leib for body


BE-: or BEL --- pretty, warm, lovely, French belle


E-:B or ELB --- hind-woman; ancient Greek elphae for hind, the divine hind licking animals into life. The giant hind in the Altamira cave licks the horns of a small bison under her head and neck. The head of another hind in the same cave is drawn on a ledge, before it a vertical crack in the wall, whose lower part serves as a perfect tongue – we may assume that she will lick a bison out of the crack (animals in caves of Europe and southern Africa are often depicted as if coming out of a crack or a niche, or disappearing into them). Photographs by Michel Lorblanchet:  hind1.JPG / hind2.JPG


B-:E or BLE --- offspring; the animals licked into life by the divine hind, onomatopoeic, ancient Greek blaechae German blöken English bleat


EB-: or EBL --- the moon bull licked into life by the divine hind in the Altamira cave, climbing the sky, shining; ancient Greek epilampos for to light up, dawn


-:BE or LBE --- the tongue with which the divine hind licks animals into life; Latin labia for tongue


Hinds in the Altamira cave, large hind licking a small bison into life, head of a hind drawn on a ledge, her tongue given by the lower part of a vertical crack in the wall




CER REC, CRE ERC, RCE ECR --- shamans, both men and women


CER --- stag, shaman and shamaness, megaceros, arch shaman and arch shamaness; ancient Greek keras for horn, the Celtic god Cernunnos, Lord of the animals, wore stag antlers, shamans in Siberia are known to have been wearing stag antlers when performing a ceremony (another possible cer-word)


REC --- activities of a shaman; ancient Greek rhezo for I do, make


CRE --- to rule; ancient Greek kreion for ruler


ERC --- precinct of a shaman; ancient Greek herkos for hedge (…)


RCE --- root; ancient Greek rhizo for root


ECR --- source, spring, well; ancient Greek ekreo for I flow out (ek-word a later overforming?)



CER --- constellation of the divine stag, summer constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpio seen as antlers, in the rotunda of the Lascaux cave the stags between the pair of opposing bulls:  menhir6e.JPG / cer.JPG  The divine stag ensures the journey of the sun and moon across the sky and through the cavern of the Underworld, he protects the entrance and the exit of the Underworld by means of fires that become visible in an evening red or a morning red, he also ensures the passage of a worthy ruler to the heavenly abode of the Summer Triangle Atair (alpha Aquilae), Deneb (alpha Cygni), Vega (alpha Lyrae).


CER --- constellation of the divine hind-woman, winter constellation of Orion, the sides of the figure are formed by the horns of a pair of opposing ibices, midwinter according to Marie E.P. Koenig:  menhjr89.JPG / cer.JPG  The divine hind licks animals out of cracks in the rock, see the beautiful large hind in the Altamira cave licking the horns of a small bison under her head and neck, and the head of another hind drawn on a ledge of the same cave, in front of the head a vertical crack in the wall, the lower part of the crack forming a perfect tongue … The many bisons in the Altamira cave are moons, or rather lunations, providing the Magdalenians with time: may there be many bulls, many moon bulls, many moons, many lunations, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 … days or nights, plenty of time for our people …


The divine hind-woman may have given birth to a shaman, SA CER --- downward (sa) from the divine hind-woman (cer), wherefrom Latin sacer for sacred. A worthy shaman may have been given a second life in the constellation of Sagittarius and Scorpio as the antler of CER, this would have been CER AS --- upward (as) to the divine stag (cer), wherefrom ancient Greek hieros for sacred. A shaman had many tasks, for example to teach aspiring rulers, to advice rulers, and to oppose bad rulers. The latter was a heroic task, and so CER AS could also have become ancient Greek heros for hero.


The Summer Triangle was the heavenly abode of a worthy ruler, Sagittarius and Scorpio may have been the heavenly abode of a worthy shaman, Orion the heavenly abode of a worthy shamaness. Aldebaran was the young moon bull waiting to go on his heavenly journey, Sirius may have been the place of young shamans and shamanesses, ready for their life on earth.




Cernunnos on the silver cauldron of Gundestrup wears a stag antler and a torque, with his right hand he holds another torque, and with his left hand a snake whose head, decorated with the antlers of a ram, is close to his ear, while the body of the animal performs a loop. The stag symbolizes the shaman, the hind the shamaness (the megaceros of old as arch shaman and arch shamaness, for example in the cave of Cougnac), while the torque may symbolize the trajectory of the sun. Serpent and ram may have been emanations of the divine stag as protector of the sun horse. Relying on serpere as origin of serpens, Latin for snake, I propose the following words for the times of the day:


CER PER --- snake protecting the sun horse in the later morning; ancient Greek pera for beyond, serpere as origin of Latin serpens for serpent, snake


CER REP --- snake protecting the sun horse in the afternoon; ancient Greek repo for I bow, incline, Latin reptilis for reptile


CER PRE --- snake protecting the rising sun horse of the early morning; ancient Greek prepo for I shine, appear, come forth


CER ERP --- snake protecting the sun horse in the evening; ancient Greek herpo for I creep, sneak, herpeton for a creeping animal


CER RPE --- snake protecting the sun horse in the zenith, high on the sky at noon; ancient Greek ripae for cast, throw, swing, flight (…), ripae ophthalmou for a moment in time


CER EPR --- snake protecting the sun horse in the center of the Underworld, where it needs most help and protection, night, midnight; ancient Greek eparkeia for help, oparkeo for I suffice, remain in force, protect, help, assist (…), Latin servo for I protect


CER PRE --- early morning, 4 o’clock on June 21

CER PER --- later morning, 8 o’clock on June 21

CER RPE --- mid-day; 12 o’clock

CER REP ---afternoon, 16 o’clock on June 21

CER ERP --- evening, 20 o’clock on June 21

CER EPR --- midnight, 24 / 0 o’clock


The meeting ends of the torque will then symbolize midnight, when the sun horse, traversing the center of the Underworld, needs most protection  torque.GIF




KAL LAK, KLA ALK, AKL LKA --- Underworld; in honor of Richard Fester


KAL --- cavity, cave, the Underworld traversed by the sun horse and moon bull, as womb of the Goddess the source of life and regeneration; ancient Greek koilon for cavity (…), German Höhle for cave, English hill (many caves are found in hills), Latin calor for warmth and heat (consider the warmth in a deep mine), ancient Greek kallos for beautiful (caves are beautiful), Celtic kald and German Quelle for well, spring, Richard Fester mentions the village name of Kallbrunn as evidence for his word Kall: well-fountain, German Hülle for cover, verhüllen for to conceal (hidden caves), English hall German Halle (spacious caves), English call, German Hall for sound, hallen for to sound, resound (a resounding cave)


LAK --- water in the depth of the Underworld; ancient Greek lakkos for hole, ditch, pond, Latin lacus English lake and loch, German Loch for hole, mentioned by Richard Fester as inverse form of Kall


KLA --- sound the sun horse and moon bull make when traversing the Underworld; ancient Greek klaggae for sound, singing, noise (…), German Klang for sound, Klappern for the sound hooves make


ALK --- protection of the sun horse and moon bull in the Underworld, provided by the divine snake; ancient Greek alkos for protection


AKL --- brightness and splendor of the Underworld when traversed and lit up by the sun and moon; ancient Greek aglaia for shine, splendor, beauty, brightness


LKA --- light of the midsummer sun horse and of the full moon; ancient Greek lykaegenaes for born out of light (byname of Apollo), lyka-baes for year (consider also lic, a word from 2005)


How did the positive Underworld KAL turn into he negative hell, German Hölle? The reason may have been the labor of mining metals. Ancient Greek chalkos for ore may well be a form of KAL. Richard Fester mentions names such as Celtic and Gallia and considers them descendants of his Kall word. The Celts mined metals on a large scale. Why did Julius Caesar conquer Gallia? One of the reasons was the Celtic gold.




GEN NGE GNE EGN NEG ENG --- durations of six lunar phases  gen.GIF


GEN --- 3 days or nights of the young moon; ancient Greek genae for birth (…) time (…), Latin genus for birth, origin, gena for cheek (the arc of the new moon resembling the one of a cheek), eye, eye socket (consider the lunar aspect of the Egyptian Horus eye)


NGE --- 6 days or nights of the waxing moon; ancient Greek nikae for victory, Latin Nicaeus for Jupiter granting victory, consider Zeus as young, strong and victorious bull


GNE --- 9 days or nights of the full moon LUN; ancient Greek ganao for I shine, am resplendent, make a magnificient show


EGN --- 6 days or nights of the waning moon; Latin egenus for I am in need, poor (something missing)


NEG --- sickle of the old moon, 3 days or nights; ancient Greek nekros for dead, nekroo for I kill, take away strength and life, Latin negare for to say no, deny


ENG --- 2 or 3 days of the empty moon NUL



The moon bull running along with the red horse in the rotunda of the Lascaux cave represents the full moon, before his head a sign of nine elements:  menhir6e.JPG  The opposing bulls have a sign of 3 strokes (sickle of the young moon and sickle of the old moon represented in one animal), then of 4 plus 2 = 6 dots on the body (waning moon), then of 4 plus 2 = 6 dots and above the animal (waxing moon, higher than the bull of the waning moon).




ORI IRO, RIO OIR, IOR ROI --- the young moon bull GEN raising from the horizon, like a swallow from a nest, climbing the sky like a bird (a thin sickle resembling the wings of a bird), following a trajectory that evokes a rainbow, joy of traveling across the sky and the heavenly pastures, also the joy of finding the very thin sickle of the young moon in the night sky, a difficult task for early astronomers


ORI --- horizon, the place where the young moon bull GEN begins his heavenly journey; ancient Greek horizon, oreinos for mountainous, horeion for region, land, border


RIO ---mountain top; ancient Greek rhino for mountain top


IRO --- to rise, the young moon bull GEN rising from the horizon like a swallow from the nest, climbing the sky, following a trajectory resembling a rainbow; Latin ire for to go, hirunda (French hirondelle) for swallow, iris for rainbow


OIR --- place where the moon bull starts; ancient Greek moira for allotted land, fate


IOR --- exclamation of joy, hurray; ancient Greek iou


ROI --- imaginary sound the young moon bull makes while climbing the sky; ancient Greek rhoizeo for I rust, hiss, whiz, whistle




PIR RIP, IRP PRI, RPI IPR --- fire, fanning wind, turning smoke


PIR --- fire; ancient Greek pyr for fire, Pyr- in Pyrenees may refer to the sun above the mountain range seen from the Guyenne


RIP --- fan, wind fanning a fire; ancient Greek ripazo for I fan


IRP --- creeping smoke; ancient Greek herpein for to creep


PRI --- turning smoke; ancient Greek peri for round about


RPI --- descending smoke; ancient Greek rhepo for I bow, sink down (…)


IPR --- ascending smoke; ancient Greek hyper for beyond



PIR AC --- fire (pir) expanse of land with water (ac), land under the fiery sun, a landscape in summer; possible origin of Old German peracht for bright, English bright being the same word, German Pracht for splendor


NUL AC --- empty moon (nul) expanse of land with water (ac), land under an empty moon, darkest night in earlier times when there was no light pollution; possible origin of German Nacht English night, in analogy to PIR AC peracht Pracht and bright




The Magdalenians were hunters. We are now coming to words of hunting.


ROP POR, PRO ORP, OPR RPO --- a club, handle of a club, four ways to handle a club


ROP --- club; ancient Greek ropalon for a club


POR --- handle of a club; ancient Greek porpax for handle of a shield


PRO --- to raise a club and beat a target in front; ancient Greek pro


ORP --- to swing a club sideward (branching off from the main direction); ancient Greek orpaex for twig, branch


OPR --- to swing a club in every which direction; ancient Greek opaer ospaer for whatever


RPO --- to let a club sink; ancient Greek repo for I sink (as in the case of smoke above)



MUC --- bull / PAC --- horse / PEC --- game, boar, ibex / PIC --- bird ?


PAC CAP, APC CPA, ACP PCA --- hunting horses


PAC --- horse


CAP --- a group of horse hunters; Latin capere for to capture, also Latin habere German haben English to have, also Latin caput for head (counting a group of animals by the number of heads)


APC --- to deroute a herd of horses and drive them into an enclosure, or over a cliff; several Greek words of the form ap(o)-k-, for example apokrino for I separate, apokino for I move away (a-word a later overforming?)


CPA --- to beat horses; ancient Greek kopae for beating, slaughter (…)


ACP --- infatigable; ancient Greek akopos for infatigable (a-word a later overforming?)


PCA --- to end a horse hunt; Latin pacatus for quieted, peaceful


The last word would be the origin of Latin pax for peace – ending the melee of a horse hunt. The Magdalenians have been hunters, they needed the animals they killed, and honored them by placing them on the sky, the bull as moon, the horse as sun, a pair of opposing ibices as symbol of midwinter (Marie E.P. König).




DAM SAM, MAD MAS, DMA SMA, AMD AMS, ADM ASM, MDA MSA --- how a group of Magdalenian hunters can overcome a big and strong animal such as a bison


DAM --- hunting a bison, how a group of Magdalenian hunters overcomes a bull; ancient Greek damazo for I overcome


SAM --- to cooperate, work together; Sanskrit sam for together, ancient Greek syn- sym-, German zusammen for together


MAD --- to learn how to hunt a bison in a common effort, as a group; ancient Greek mathaema for learning, teaching, experience, lesson, science, art


MAS --- 1) chief bull hunter, the one who commands a hunting expedition, leads the first and all deciding blow by attacking a week spot, making the poor beast raving mad and going blind of rage, whereupon the other hunters attack it from all sides, 2) chief bull hunter as teacher of the young hunters, wearing a bull mask and hides, the boys attack him with toy spears and lances, whereupon he behaves in the way a bull would; Latin mas for man, little man, perhaps in relation to the big animal (see the huge bull and small hunter before him in the cave of Gabillou), masculinus for virile


DMA --- knowledge of the body and behaving of a bison; ancient Greek demos for the way a body is built


SMA --- to command a bison hunt, giving signals, leading a group of hunters, being the one who applies the first and all deciding blow; ancient Greek saemaino for I give a signal, perhaps also English small, German schmal for narrow, lanky (consider the small chief hunter alone in front of the big animal)


AMD --- lacking the knowledge of a chief hunter, not really knowing where and how to apply the first blow, being in the group of lesser hunters; ancient Greek amathaes for ignorant (a-word a later overforming?)


AMS --- to overcome a bison in a common effort, attacking the bull from all sides when the first blow has been applied by the chief hunter MAS; ancient Greek amothei hamothei for out of everywhere, out of all directions


ADM --- fearless; ancient Greek adeimatos for fearless


ASM --- so very fearless that one can even sing, or, the other way round, singing in order to overcome one’s fear; ancient Greek asmae for song


MDA --- to consider everything concerning a bison hunt; ancient Greek medo for I think, care for, think out, give orders, command, rule


MSA --- being led by intuition and inspiration; ancient Greek Mousa for muse; consider that Odysseus who tackled the stronghold of Troy had been assisted by his muse Athena




ARC CRA, CAR RAC, RCA ACR / TYR RYT --- hunting a cave bear


ARC --- cave bear Ursus spelaeus; ancient Greek arktos Latin ursus for bear


CRA --- strength, power and skills needed to hunt a cave bear, rewarded by a successful hunt, and by the privilege of raising a cranium filled with bear blood in order to sacrifice the soul of the bear and thus establish a link with the beyond, imploring strength, power and skills from above; ancient Greek krateo for I am strong, powerful, I overcome (…), German Kraft for strength, power, English craft for skill, Greek krataer English crater, the Ainu of Hokkaido believe that the soul of a ritually sacrificed bear establishes a link with the beyond


CAR --- head of a bear, deposited at a cult place, for example in a cave; ancient Greek kar for head


RAC --- fur of a bear; ancient Greek rhagos for rug, carpet, cover, English rug


RCA --- ritual sacrifice, raising a cranium filled with bear blood; ancient Greek rhezo for I sacrifice


ACR --- depositing a bear head on top of a stone pillar; ancient Greek akros for top, akrothonion for depositing a donation on top



TYR ---  he who overcomes / inverse RYT --- to throw a spear or lance (full permutation group later)


ARC TYR --- he who overcomes (tyr) a cave bear (arc); surviving in Arthur, who slew a dragon (bones and skulls of the long extinct cave bear were regarded as remains of dragons)


CRA  )  --- the power (cra) of the lion man (clicking l) who overcomes a cave bear and has the privilege to raise the bucranium filled with blood, wherefrom grail, German Gral




TOM MOT, OTM MTO, OMT TMO --- to work on hides


TOM --- stone knive; ancient Greek tomae for cut


MOT --- to cut and clean a hide with a stone knive; Latin moto for I move back and forth


OTM --- hide, so named for the specific smell of leather and fur; ancient Greek odmae osmae for smell


MTO --- to knead wet hides in order to make them soft; ancient Greek matto masso for I knead, English massage


OMT --- hides as raw material for making clothes, belts, baldrics, covers, tent walls, and so on; ancient Greek omos for raw, crude, fresh (…), omotaes for roughness


TMO --- treasurer of hides; ancient Greek tamaias for treasurer




ChAR RACh, ChRA ARCh, ARCh ChRA --- fence


ChAR --- poles for making tents and huts and a fence around a camp, some poles may have been decorated with figurines carved from wood; ancient Greek charax for pole, palisade, charis for grace, Charis one of the graces


RACh --- intertwined thorn branches used for a fence, filling the spaces between the poles; ancient Greek rachos for thorn shrub, hedge


ChRA --- to ward off (purpose of a fence); ancient Greek chraismeo for I ward off, hold off (…)


ARCh --- being strong enough to ward off animals; ancient Greek arkeo for I ward off, help, am strong enough


RChA --- small openings in the fence where people could pass, closed by night; ancient Greek rox rogos for opening, crack, crevice, fissure


AChR --- area inside the fence, area of the camp; ancient Greek agros for field, land, estate (while ac for an expanse of land with water was the land around the camp)






KOD --- tent or hut, poles stuck in the ground, bound together at the top, covered with hides; Sanskrit khada and kuti for hut, kota or kotta for fortress, kotara for cave, Middle English cod coth couth for hut, German Kate Kathe for hut, Irish cod for head (casing of the mind), English head and hat and hut, Irish codal for hide, skin, codlida for made of hides, cota for coat, raincoat (a mini-tent), Sanskrit coda for jacket, Indo-European k(u)ot- and Hebrew kot for spiky (poles of a tent before they are covered with hides). Consider also French château for castle


KOS --- heavenly tent or vault; ancient Greek kosmos for arrangement, way or style of building, order, decorum, regularity, status (quo), world, world order, space, cosmos, Earth, humanity, everybody, ornament, praise, fame, honor, Latin costa for rib (the ribs form the cage of the lungs, of breath, identified with wind, spirit and soul in Hebrew, ancient Greek and Latin), English castle


DOK --- poles used for building a tent or a hut; ancient Greek dokos for rafter


SOK --- strong; ancient Greek sokos for strong


OKD --- ground plan of a tent or hut, a polygon defined by the poles; ancient Greek okta for eight, wherefrom octagon, perhaps a common ground plan


OKS --- circumference and size of a tent or hut, amount of materials used; ancient Greek ogkos for mass, great number, weight, periphery (…) pride


DKO --- walls and roof of a tent or hut; ancient Greek teichos for wall, tegos for roof (see also dai)


SKO --- surrounding area of a tent or hut; ancient Greek saekos for enclosure, stable, sacred area or district, sanctuary


KDO --- the large tent of a ruler or a shaman; ancient Greek kydos for fame, being great, honor, glory, pride, ornament, success, prosperity


KSO --- ornaments decorating such a tent or hut; ancient Greek kissos for ivy, giving an idea of how a decorated hut or tent may have looked like


ODK --- those inhabiting a large tent or hut, a ruler, a shaman; ancient Greek

hodaegos for the one showing the way, leader (ruler), teacher (shaman)


OSK --- the art of building a large tent or hut; ancient Greek askeo for I work upon carefully and artistically, I produce, manufacture, decorate, furnish, exercise, practice, endeavor


A drawing in the cave Cosquer near Marseilles, 27 000 BP, shows a rectangle in perspective with triangles that may be two rows of tents, while another drawing in the same cave may be the map of a camp near the confluence of two rivers.




RED RES, DER SER, EDR ESR, RDE RSE, DRE SRE, ERD ERS --- holding a council in a camp


RED --- speaker; ancient Greek rhetor for speaker, German Rede for speech, Redner for speaker


RES --- speech, topic of a speech, concern of the speaker; ancient Greek rhaesis for to speak, talk, word, narration, Latin res with many meanings that cover the topics which may have been discussed at a council


DER --- baldric worn by a speaker at a council, made of leather; ancient Greek derma for skin, fur, leather, hose


SER --- necklace of a supreme ruler or shaman, decorated with perforated shells or teeth of deer; ancient Greek seira for rope, chain


EDR --- seat in the tent or hut wherein a council was held, logs covered with the best hides and furs a tribe could provide; ancient Greek hedra for seat, chair


ESR --- elevated seat for a supreme ruler or an arch shaman or shamaness; ancient Greek thronos for throne


RDE --- protector of a tent or hut wherein a council is being held; ancient Greek rhytaer for protector


RSE --- protectors of a camp wherein a council is being held; ancient Greek rhyesi-polis for the protector of a town


DRE --- finding out what to do, coming to a conclusion, issuing a resolution, making plans for taking action, to plan an undertaking; ancient Greek drao for I do, act, accomplish, dromenon for deed, undertaking, plan


SRE --- being decided about a resolution, a plan, an undertaking; ancient Greek zoros for strong, powerful, vigorous, nourishing


ERD --- to carry out a resolution, a plan; ancient Greek erdo for I do, make, act (…)


ERS --- to carry out a resolution, a plan, an undertaking in a fresh and decided manner; ancient Greek ersais for fresh (…), arsaen for virile



Combine DRE for plan with IDA for happy and you get DRE IDA for a happy plan, a good resolution - origin of druid?




MAN NAM, MNA ANM, NMA AMN --- man; in 2005 I gave MHAYN for the right hand, now I simplify the word to MAN


MAN --- hand, especially the right hand, pars pro toto for a man; Latin manus for hand, English man, hand as worker, German Mann for man


NAM --- name, someone worth being named and remembered by a name; Latin nomen English name German Name


MNA --- virility; ancient Greek menos for (a strong) desire, eagerness, will, purpose, intention, anger, vitality, strength


ANM --- to carry out, effect, cause, bring about; ancient Greek anymi anyo  with the same meanings, ANM was the name of the bad months in the Celtic calendar - perhaps those requiring more effort?


AMN --- to sacrifice; ancient Greek amnion for sacrificial bowl


NMA --- to make rules; ancient Greek nomaion for custom, usus



NAM MAN --- right hand (man), pars pro toto for a human being, someone worth being remembered (nam); nomen name Namen






GYN --- woman; ancient Greek gynae for woman, German Kind for child seems to be an extension of gyn, consider also English kin, kinship


NYG --- night, time one spends with a woman, when women have the say; ancient Greek nyx for night (Nyx was a powerful goddess, alter ego of Gaia, her priestesses gave oracles), Latin niger for black (color of the night), nectar for something sweet (a drink, a fragrance)


NGY --- pretty and clean; ancient Greek naegateos for clean, splendid, nakae for fleece (a fleece one wears for a cloth, or a fleece one sleeps upon)


YGN --- hygiene; from Greek


YNG --- a pregnant woman; ancient Greek enegkein for to bear, bring, aorist of phero for I bring, having brought, a woman who has brought a child into the world, then, so gyn may have been a woman in general, but especially a young mother


GNY --- child; ancient Greek gnaesios for a legitimate child, genuine, true (consider also the saying of truth being the child of time)




COR ROC, CRO ORC, RCO OCR --- how the young behave


COR --- young people; ancient Greek korae for girl, virgin, young woman, daughter, doll, apple of the eye, koros for young man, son, youthful, vigorous, Latin cor for heart, soul, feeling, courage, reason, insight, individual, person, cor meum for my heart


ROC --- the way young people behave, in puberty, when falling in love, when quarreling, when fighting over a woman or a man; ancient Greek rochtheo for I rustle, roar, buzz, race, effervesce, rogalos for torn apart (puberty), English ruction (unexplained until now), ruckus, a rocking boulder, rock ‘n’ roll, the pulsating music of my youth …


CRO --- to beat, knock, a young heart pounding, a quick pulse; ancient Greek krouo for I beat, push, knock, krouros for source


ORC --- instinct, impulse, drive, desire, passion, when the heart is beating fast, when young people blush, when the sexual organs swell; ancient Greek orgao for I brim (over), swell, desire vehemently, organon in the sense of organ


RCO --- being active, youthful and passionate activities; ancient Greek rhezo for I do


OCR --- arousal, easily being aroused, keen on; ancient Greek okrioeis for sharp (sharp in English also has the meaning of keen and eager, scharf in German can also mean horny, juicy, hot), okriaomai for getting angry, akros for pointed, sharp, uppermost, supreme, excelling




LIC CIL, CLI ILC, LCI ICL --- fire in an abri


LIC --- light, luck; Latin lux for light and felix for lucky, German Licht and Glück, English light and luck


CIL --- fire in a camp, used for cooking, giving warm, and warding off animals such as cave bears and cave lions and wolves, light given by fire, the lucky feeling of having a good fire burning; Latin culina for kitchen, English kiln. In 2005 I mentioned French cil for eyelash – one may think of an upshooting flame singeing an eyelash. If also English kill should come from cil we may think of torches used as weapons: poles of green wood whose sharpened ends were coated with birch pitch and set on fire – an array of flaming spears would certainly have warded off any animal


CLI --- abri; ancient Greek klisia for hut, tent, shelter, seat, group of guests, klitus for slope, hill, klino for I bend, turn, ward off, lean on, sink down, sit or lie down at a table, perf. to be situated, live, dwell, English cliff


ILC --- an abri lighted up by camp fires; ancient Greek alaektor for shining


LCI --- site of an abri, land around an abri; ancient Greek laxis for a lot of land


ICL --- to choose an abri for a provisional camp; ancient Greek eklaesis for choice




GRA ARG, RGA AGR, GAR RAG --- rock paintings


GRA --- a cave with painted walls; ancient Greek chaeronos for cave, German graben for to dig, Grab for tomb, vault, ancient Greek graphein for drawing, painting, graphic


ARG --- walls and ceiling of a decorated cave, shining up in the light of oil lamps, representing the sky; ancient Greek argos for white, shimmering


RGA --- fissured, craggy, both for the land as hunting ground and for the walls of a decorated cave as painting ground; ancient Greek rogos for fissured, craggy


AGR --- to catch animals, both in natura, when hunting them, and metaphorically, when drawing them; ancient Greek agreo for I catch, capture


GAR --- opening, crack, crevice, fissure in rock, where animals emerge from and disappear into, according to a very old belief; ancient Greek charade for crevice, crack, gorge, river bed, torrent


RAG --- shape of an animal, especially the line of the back, according to André Leroi-Gourhan the first line when an animal was drawn, making it appear as if by a miracle; ancient Greek rachos for back, also used for hills and mountains, German ragen for to loom, tower, Rücken for back, recht for right, Recht for law, reich for rich, Sanskrit raj for king




NPhO OPhN, NOPh PhON, PhNO ONPh --- snow


NPhO --- to snow; ancient Greek neipho


OPhN --- all of a sudden, first snow, winter comes; ancient Greek aphno for all of a sudden, surprisingly


NOPh --- falling snow, snow storm, plenty of snow; ancient Greek niphas for snow storm, blizzard, Latin novus for new, the world appearing new when freshly covered in snow, novem for nine and November the ninth month, when usually the first snow falls in Switzerland (more later)


PhON --- not seeing each other in a snow storm, calling for each other, staying close together in order not to get lost, wolves howling, dangerous when starving, even for humans; ancient Greek phonos with omega for sound, voice, call (people calling each other, wolves howling), phonos with omicron for mass, lump (people staying close to each other), phonos phonae with omicron for murder (wolves are remembered as murderous animals in fairy tales)


PhNO --- torches on high poles marking the winter camp, visible from afar, guiding hunters home; ancient Greek phanos for torch


ONPh --- a shining torch by night, shining snow by day in sunlight; ancient Greek aenops for shining, white






CED --- to care for people, inviting them; ancient Greek kednos for caring, reasonable, good, honorable, dear


CES --- belt worn by a high ranking person, especially by the ruler of a tribe; ancient Greek kestos for belt


DEC --- being a decent person, helping others when they are in need, a life savior; Latin decus for decency, honor (…), consider also decorated for honored


SEC --- providing shelter in the safety of a camp; ancient Greek saekos for enclosure, Latin securus for safe


CDE --- cooking pit, laid out with leather, filled with water and food, warmed up with hot stones rolled in from a fire; ancient Greek kedos for cauldron, kettle


CSE --- a wooden bowl filled with food from the cooking pit, a spit with roasted meat from the fireplace; ancient Greek kissybion for bowl, chysis for a heap (plenty of food, then)


EDC --- food, meat; ancient Greek edesma for food, meat


ESC --- fireplace, people eating round a warming fire; ancient Greek eschara for hearth, fireplace


DCE--- to welcome a guest; ancient Greek deiknanomai for to welcome, deiknymi deiknyo for to greet, welcome


SCE --- inviting someone into the safety of a camp; ancient Greek skepae for safety


ECD --- a stranger asking for shelter; ancient Greek ektos for outside (here someone standing outside the camp, a stranger asking for protection)


ECS --- to save someone; ancient Greek eksozo for I save




My reconstruction of the lunisolar calendar of Lascaux from 2005 led me to an experimental reconstruction of Magdalenian. Then my linguistic work in 2006 led me to a late Magdalenian calendar:


IAS 1-36 (January 9 till February 13), coldest time of the year, when many get ill, hence IAS for healing


CED 1-37 (February 14 till March 22), a time when the provisions get scarce and people have to care for each other, hence CED for to care. The spring equinox occurs by the end of this period (March 21)


PhON 1-36 (March 23 till April 27), spring comes, a lot of noise and bustle in the camp, hence PhON for noise


DKO --- 1-37 (April 28 till June 3), time when one can leave the camp, hence DKO for the walls and roof of the tent or hut one can leave by now, perhaps with a ceremony


PAS 1-36 (June 4 till July 9), time when one roams the land, hence PAS for everywhere (in a plain). Midsummer occurs in the middle of this period (June 21)


SAI 1-37 (July 10 till August 15), warmest time of the year, lovely summer, hence SAI for life, existence (inverse of IAS)


SAP 1-36 (August 16 till September 20), the world in more dimensions, hence SAP for all the places in the world, here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me (inverse of PAS), origin of September


OKD 1-37 (September 21 – October 27), time for to build a new camp, or to renovate the old one, hence OKD for the ground plan of a tent or hut (inverse of DKO), origin of October. The fall equinox occurs at the begin of this period (September 23)


NOPh 1-36 (October 28 till December 2), time of the first snow, hence NOPh for to snow (inverse of PhON), origin of November


DEC 1-37 (December 3 till January 8), time one spends in the camp and has to behave, hence DEC for decent (inverse of CED), origin of December. The midwinter solstice occurs in the middle of this period (December 21)


A year has 365 regular days and requires one leap day every fourth year, or two leap days every eighth year, as the lunisolar calendar from Lascaux.






Upon entering the Lascaux cave one saw a composite animal with the bearded head of a man, a pair of lances growing as horns out of his front, with the forelegs and mottled hide of a feline, the hind legs and hind body of a bison, and the belly of a pregnant mare:  menhir6f.JPG  This animal may have conveyed a message to an aspiring ruler: ‘Make a wise use of your weapons (which is why the lances grow as horns out of the front of the male head), be patient, quick and decided as a feline, strong as a bull, and caring as a mother …’


CER means stag, GER may be a lateral association for lance; SAP means everywhere in three dimensions (here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me), experienced, wise. LEI is an attacking lion, TAC may be a word for the way a lion behaves (at-tack, inverse cat). MUC is a bull, a bison, CRA means strong. AMA may be the word for mother, CED is the word for to care. Together we obtain a Magdalenian version of that formula for an aspiring ruler:






BRI IRB, RBI IBR, BIR RIB --- Brigid, a powerful triple-goddess


BRI --- fertile, fertility, pregnancy, pregnant women, source of life, a blessed land with plenty of wells and a lush vegetation; ancient Greek bryo for to be full, grow and bloom, well, English bride, also Britain as a green island (more later)


IRB --- herbs, especially herbs used by a midwife to ease labor-pains, perhaps also herbs and mildly alcoholic berries for disinfecting water, and herbs used for medical purposes in general; Latin herba for herb


RBI --- labor pains, giving birth; ancient Greek rhopae for turning point, crisis, decision (…), Latin rabies for rabies, madness (etymology unclear, heavy labor-pains, then), rubidus for dark red, brown red (color of blood)


IBR --- a newborn child; ancient Greek habros for sumptuous, soft, delicate, fine, elegant, beautiful,


BIR --- fur wherein a newborn was laid in order to keep it warm; ancient Greek byros English fur


RIB --- a crib or basket of wickerwork, laid out with fur; ancient Greek rhipizo for wickerwork


Now we got words for the three goddesses:


PIR GID --- fire (pir) giver (gid)

BIR GID --- fur (bir) giver (gid)

BRI GID --- fertility (bri) giver (gid)




BOL LOB, OBL LBO, BLO OLB --- a young child


BOL --- a newborn child, a toddler; ancient Greek bolos for cast, throw, German Wurf also means litter, brood, perhaps also ancient Greek berphos for the young one, Hebrew wolod for child, Russian molod for young, Arabic waladat for she has born, Latin mollis for soft, tender, Arabic malida for he / it was soft, Bolae in my medieval dialect means something round and soft, used as a pet name for a toddler, myn Bolae, my sweet little chubby boy or girl …


LOB --- a newborn sleeping, deep sleep of a child; ancient Greek lophaeo for I rest


OBL --- to increase the members of a family, a tribe, a clan; ancient Greek ophello for I increase


LBO --- to anoint a newborn; ancient Greek lipoo lipao for I shine of ointment


BLO --- to be born, to arrive; ancient Greek blosko for I arrive (…)


OLB --- being happy about a newborn; ancient Greek olbos for luck, blessing, salvation, wealth, power (this word says how much children must have been valued)




POT TOP, TPO OTP, PTO OTP --- power, lateral associations to PAD and PAS


POT --- ruler; ancient Greek potnia for a female ruler, despotaes for ruler, despoina for lady of the house (Despoina was a powerful goddess, her secret name was Nyx, alter ego of Gaia), Latin potentia and potentas for power, English potency and power


TOP --- place and rank, where a ruler lives, also his rank; ancient Greek topos for place, rank, English top


TPO --- appearance, composure and splendor of a ruler; ancient Greek typos for appearance, form, shape (…)


OPT --- a ruler presenting himself, herself; ancient Greek optasia for  appearance, optanomai for to let oneself be seen, Latin optimus for the best


PTO --- a ruler spreading influence; ancient Greek peitho for I persuade (…), patis for step, path, petomai for to speed, hurry, fly – consider the bird as emblem of a ruler, birdman from Lascaux, bird goddess, Horus falcon


OTP --- how a ruler paves the way; ancient Greek odopoieo for I pave the way




TOR ROT, TRO ORT, RTO OTR --- how a bull moves


TOR --- noise and commotion as caused by a bull; ancient Greek tauros for bull, and similar words in many languages (Saul Levin)


ROT --- noises a bull makes; ancient Greek rhotheo for I rustle, make noise, grumble, roar


TRO --- to run; ancient Greek trocha(z)o for I run, German trotten


ORT --- straight on, as a bull runs; ancient Greek orthos for straight


RTO --- the elegant way a bull moves when running; ancient Greek orthos for straight on (…)


OTR--- swift, nimble; ancient Greek otralos and otraeros for swift, brisk, quick, nimble




DIR SIR, RID RIS, IRD IRS, DRI SRI, RDI RSI, IDR ISR --- how to cope with adversities and calamities


DIR --- to look out for signs of adversities and calamities, to face them directly when they arise and occur, although they cause fear, and to speak of them; Latin dirus for announcing calamities, horrible, dirae for signs that announce harm and calamity, directus for direct, perhaps English fear, French dire (pronounced dir) for to speak, talk


comparative form SIR --- to warn of adversities and calamities, sometimes in vain (some people seem to be attracted by danger and risk, while others don’t care, Cassandra warned the Trojans in vain); the sirens, ancient Greek seiraen (singular) Latin Siren (singular) lured many a sailor into doom, whereas our sirens warn of an imminent danger


inverse RID --- to laugh, to laugh a danger away, or to encourage each other laughing; Latin ridere for to laugh


comparative form RIS --- to mock and deride; Latin risus for laughter and laughing stock


IRD --- to be angry; Latin iratus for I am angry


comparative form IRS --- to be very angry; Latin irasco for I am angry


inverse DRI --- being helpless in the case of calamities and adversities, getting hard, harsh, sad and bitter; ancient Greek drimys for cutting, sharp, stinging, astringent, harsh, bitter (…), Latin tristis for sad, afflicted, hurting, harsh, unfriendly, gloomy, angry, horrible, dangerous, earnest, cold, hard


comparative form SRI --- wishing to get rid of adversities and calamities, to eradicate their causes; Latin sario for to weed out (etymology unclear says my dictionary)


RDI --- to cope in a rational way with adversities and calamities; Latin ratio for reason, rationalis for rational


comparative form RSI --- to even out emotions in order to find a reasonable solution and to cope in a rational way with dangers, adversities, and calamities; Latin rasilis for smooth(ed)


inverse IDR --- to cope with adversities and calamities on the basis of knowledge; ancient Greek idris for knowing, experienced


comparative form ISR --- to invoke divine knowledge and advice in order to cope with adversities and calamities; *isaros for strong, sacred




EID EIS, DIE SIE, IDE ISE, EDI ESI, IED IES, DEI SEI --- appearances and reality


EID --- appearances, images; ancient Greek eidos for appearances, idea, notion, concept, imagination, sort, kind, essence, state


EIS --- reality behind all appearances, ideas and notions, idea of all ideas; ancient Greek heis for one, single, alone, only one, (also the only one?)


DIE --- daylight; Latin dies for day


SIE --- to see, feel, reason, be; Latin siem sum for I am, “cogito ergo sum” (Descartes)


IDE --- idea; ancient Greek idea for appearance, form, shape, sort, kind, essence, state


ISE --- equal, what different appearances, notions, ideas and concepts have in common; ancient Greek isos for equal


EDI --- pleasure of looking at appearances and images; ancient Greek hedonae for pleasure (hedonism)


ESI --- meditating; ancient Greek haesychazo for I am quiet, still, have it peaceful (…)


IED --- following appearances, notions and ideas; Indo-European iet for to strive, aspire


IES --- trying to find the basic reality behind ever changing appearances; Indo-European ies for to boil, bubble, well up, foam (Pokorny), appropriate when one considers the “steam” produce in scientific discussions …


DEI --- logical order and sequence; *dein-caps for by turns (Pokorny)


SEI --- basic reality behind all appearances, notions, ideas, and concepts; Latin sei for sic, it is so




AC CA --- an expanse of land with water (ac) sky (ca), possible name of Göbekli Tepe, southeast Anatolia, Urfa region, north of the Syrian Harran plain, 11 600 – 9 500 BP, represented as a lying H  acca.GIF , the horizontal bars meaning earth and sky, the small vertical bar symbolizing the exchanges between earth and sky, prayers imploring rain and the smoke of sacrifices rising to the sky, rain falling from the sky, irrigating fields and filling river beds … The Egyptians mentioned a region in Syria they called aqa, Latin aqua for water, Indo-European akka for the earth goddess (a stammered name according to Pokorny, a meaningful name in my opinion). The goddess of Göbekli Tepe, engraved on a bank in the lion (?) temple, shows a peculiar hairdo reminding both of a mushroom and a rain cloud, while her macrolabiae allude to amniotic water and thus evoke fertility, which the early farmers at the base of the Karacadag east of Göbekli Tepe received in the form of rain for their fields


CER --- divine hind-woman; may have become Hera


CER MAS --- divine stag (cer) master (mas); may have become Hermaes, messenger of the gods, alter ego of Homer in the Odyssey


CER PIR --- divine stag (cer) fire (pir), divine stag protecting the wesern horizon where the evening sun sets, and the eastern horizon where the morning sun rises; may have become Kerberos who guarded the Underworld with fiery breath


CER AC CLE --- divine stag (cer) expanse of land with water (ac) judge and protector (cle as lateral association to cre for ruler); may have become Heraklaes


SHA CA UR --- ruler (sha) sky (ca) color (ur); may have become Sseyr, Middle Helladic name of Zeus (Derk Ohlenroth), and English sky. Sky, in Shakespeare’s time, meant cloud. Clouds, one may say, rule the heavens. When I pondered this idea one day in 2005 I saw a big cloud in the shape of the beautiful profile of a bearded Greek god pass my window …


CA UR MAS DAG --- sky (ca) color (ur) master (mas) four (dag), ruler of the four (corners of the) colored sky; may have become the name of the supreme Persian god Ahura-Mazda


BRA MAN --- right arm (bra) right hand (man); may have become Brahman who created the world by playing his lyra


SHA CA --- ruler (sha) sky (ca); may have become Hebrew Jahve


ABA BRA --- father (aba) right arm (bra); may have become Abram, the Lord’s right arm, he who carries out the Lord’s will


SA RAA --- downward (sa) ray of light (raa), she who stands in the sun light; may have become Sarah


AS RAA --- upward (as) ray of light (raa); may have become Asherah, the Tree of Life whose branches, pointing upward, represented heavenly abodes of deities


GHI SHA AC --- call of a bird (ghi) ruler (sha) sky (ca), supreme ruler of the Guyenne, later of Upper Mesopotamia; may survive in Isaac


SHA AC --- ruler (sha) expanse of land with water (ac), a minor ruler; may have become Jacques Jack Ja’aqob Jacob, also sagan for a ruler of the province of Judah


AS RAA  )  --- upward (as) ray of light (raa) Lord (clicking L); may be the origin of Jacob’s ladder, the Lord appearing on top of a sun ray, and would survive in Jacob’s byname Israel


DA PAD --- away from (da) activity of feet (pad); may have become David: delivered from the paw of the lion, delivered from the paw of the bear, delivered from the hand of Goliath … Consider the increasing size of lion, cave bear, and towering man in arms. David may be an archetypical name, much as Arthur from ARC TYR (he who can take it up with a cave bear).


Asia Minor may have been the place where late Magdalenian met Afro-Asiatic, Magdalenian itself being an early northern branch of Afro-Asiatic.




TYR RYT, RTY YTR, YRT TRY --- to overcome (rule and give)


TYR --- he who overcomes; Sseyr (Middle Helladic name of Zeus according to Derk Ohlenroth), Sseus (Doric), theos, deus, Dis Pater, Tiwaz / Tir (Nordic god of justice and war), ancient Greek tyrant (once positive)


RYT --- spear thrower; ancient Greek rhytaer for archer, protector (the latter attesting for the once positive aspect of tyrant), Latin radius radii (consider spears thrown and arrows shot from one place into various directions), Latin rota for wheel (coverage of arrows), German Rad, English rotation


RTY --- spear; ancient Greek radinos for lean, delicate, agile, swift


YTR --- brave, courageous; ancient Greek haetor for the inner, lungs, heart, liver, courage, mind, soul


YRT --- to survive a fight unharmed; ancient Greek Artemaes for healthy, unhurt, uninjured. Artemis was the goddess of hunting, shown with bow and arrows. She protected her maidens, so that nothing could hurt them. She was also the goddess of women and childbirth. Her “sweet arrows” meant an easy death for women – she couldn’t always grant an easy birth, on the contrary, children and their mothers often died, but at least she could ease their passing away. One may also think of Greek erotica, pertaining to Eros, passionate, and of Cupido’s bow and arrows, weapons that don’t really hurt


TRY --- triumph; ancient Greek thryambos (in Rome, an Etruscan loan word). A successful hunt was certainly rewarded with the love of some pretty Magdalenian maidens



PAD TYR --- activity of feet, he who goes ahead and leads the way (pad), he who overcomes, he who rules and gives (tyr); ancient Greek pataer Latin pater English father German Vater, he who leads the way, overcoming obstacles and enemies and plights, he who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give


TYR AC --- he who overcomes (tyr) an expanse of land with water (ac), may simply refer to a ruler, or to a river that floods (overcomes) a plain, or to humans who cope with a vast amount of water and overcome the overcomer; possible origin of Turicum, my hometown of Zurich






REO ---river, to flow; ancient Greek rheo for I flow, rivers Rhone and Rhine, goddess Rhea


OER --- wife, woman; ancient Greek oar for wife


ROE --- to carry water, a river having water (not just an empty river bed); ancient Greek rhoae for current, flood


EOR --- feast, celebration; ancient Greek eortae for celebration, feast, pleasure


ERO --- love; ancient Greek eros


ORE --- beautiful; ancient Greek oraios for beautiful, ripe



REO MAN --- river (reo) right hand (man), pars pro toto for human being, people living on a river, river people; possible origin of Romani, Roma, Romans, Rome




CA NOS --- mind (nos) of the sky (ca); possible origin of Chaos, god of the primeval universe


AAR RAA NOS --- mind (nos) of the one who is composed of air (aar) and light (raa); possible origin of Ouranos, consider the limestone rings at Göbekli Tepe that show a male face ex negativo – look through such a ring placed on a wall and you see the former ruler in the sky, now as a god … ouranos.JPG  (photograph from: Klaus Schmidt, Sie bauten die ersten Tempel, C.H. Beck München 2006)


CA AC --- sky (ca) earth (ac); possible origin of Gaia (the inverse form ac ca would account for the Indo-European earth goddess akka)


CRE NOS --- ruling (cre) mind (nos); possible origin of Cronos


REO --- to flow; possible origin of Rhea


TYR --- he who overcomes; possible origin of Zeus, Middle Helladic Sseyr (Derk Ohlenroth)


CER --- divine stag, divine hind, also shaman and shamaness; origin of Hera, the divine hind licked moon bulls into life (Altamira hind1.JPG ), a reference to bull and cow is found in the epithet cow-eyed Hera


SA TYR NOS --- mind (nos) of the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give (tyr) from above (sa); Saturnus Saturn, ruler of a golden age (equivalent of Cronos)


APS --- hide of a tent or hut, where vapors condensate and trickle and drop down from, as model of the heavenly canopy where vapors condensate and fall down as rain; may have become Ops, consort of Saturn


A comical and idyllic version of Saturn and Ops may have been the satyrs and nymphs. The former lived on wooded mountains, the latter near springs and wells. The satyrs lusted for the nymphs and overcame them with carnal love (see the satyr and smiling maenad on a water jar from Cerveteri, sixth century BC)


BEL --- warm; became Baal in Asia Minor, Veltune in Etruria, in combination with TON --- sound, he who makes himself heard, with about this meaning: the lively one who makes himself heard via thunder, occurring mainly in the warm seasons


RAA --- light, ray; possible origin of the Etruscan god Rath, perhaps in combination with RYT


PE --- near / EP --- far / PE LAS --- near (pe) mountains (las), mountain people; possible origin of Pelasgians


TYR REO and PE LAS and TYR SA NOS and RAA SA NOS may all have been names for the Etruscans. An Etruscan inscription in Greek letters from the agora of Athens gives TYRSANOS which may be read as follows: obeying the mind (nos) of the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give (tyr) from above (sa)


AAR RAA AC CA --- air (aar) light (raa) ac (earth) sky (ca); possible origin of Hebrew ruach for spirit, with the same range of meanings as Greek pneuma and Latin spiritus, namely wind, breath, spirit …


NOS AAR RAA --- following the mind (nos) of the one composed of air and light (Ouranos); possible origin of Noah


AAR RAA MAN --- right hand (man) of Ouranos; possible origin of Armenians and Armenia




POL LOP, PLO OLP, LPO OPL --- fortified dwellings


POL fortified dwelling; ancient Greek polis for town, fortified dwelling, capital, German Bollwerk English bulwark


LOP --- hedge or wall around a dwelling; ancient Greek lopos for rind, shell, husk, French enveloper English envelope, to envelop


PLO --- walls made in the wattle and daub technique; ancient Greek plokos for texture, wickerwork, tissue, fabric


OLP --- wealth and power concentrated in a fortified dwelling; ancient Greek olbos for luck, blessing, salvation, wealth, power


LPO --- the labyrinth of tents and huts, and of the ways and lanes in between them; ancient Greek labyrinthos


OPL ---protectors of a fortified dwelling; ancient Greek hoplitaes for soldier



POL PLO --- fortified dwelling (pol) walls made in the wattle and daub technique (plo); Old Latin poplo Latin populus Italian popolo French peuple English people, also Latin populus (long o) French peuplier English poplar tree German Pappel, since poplar upshots and twigs were used for posts while more flexible willow twigs were used for the horizontal interlacing (whities) in the wattle and daub technique of building walls


POL DOK --- fortified dwelling (pol) made of poles (dok), woodhenges of Middle Europe from 7 000 BP onward; (poldok polk) folc folk Volk


POL LAD --- fortified dwelling (pol) hill (lad); may be the origin of the Roman Palatin


POL LAS --- fortified dwelling (pol) mountain (las); may be the origin of Pallas, Pallas Athene



CO OC LOP --- gathering information (co, origin of Latin con- com-) provided by the guards who watch out (oc) over the wall (lop); origin of Cyclops, symbol of a well guarded polis, consider the round proto-towns of central Eurasia. The cyclopes in Homer’s Odyssey, one-eyed giants living on mountains, symbolize Anatolian strongholds, the best known Cyclops Polyphem being a symbol of Troy (Odysseus’s travels are dreams that bring him back to Troy, again and again, however, to a Troy in disguise and blended with other places and periods of time). CO OC LOP would also be the origin of ancient Greek kyklos for circle, ring, eye, ring wall, city wall, while the rump form co o- l-- may account for Proto-Indo-European *kwel ‘turn’  cyclops.GIF


CO OC NOS --- gathering information (co) watching out (oc) in the mind (nos); possible origin of Latin cognosco, while ancient Greek gnosis may come from the rump form -- -c nos


CO OC --- to look (oc) with an active mind (co); might survive in German guck for look!


OC CO --- looking (oc) reasoning (co); might be the origin of ancient Greek ego (with omega), Latin ego, while the common form of saying I would have been the very ancient humming Mm (in Australia open Nn) marking presence, surviving in French moi and English me


AD TOR OC CO --- toward (ad) bull in motion (tor) eye (oc) mind, reason (co), a compound used for a bull fighter facing the dangerous animal with an attentive mind, later used for the Minoan bull leapers, and metaphorically for any situation where someone is meeting fate or coping with a dreadful challenge; Mycenaean atoroqo Greek anthropos for human being, also for woman and slave (there were also female bull leapers, and the word may have been used for the Cretans in general, many of whom served as slaves in later times, when Crete had been taken over by the Mycenaeans). The word may also be present in Greek anaer andros, consider the first line of Homer’s Odyssey: ‘Andra moi ennepe, Mousa, polytropon, whose mala polla’ – the first word denotes the hero who will face terrible challenges, mala polla, many bad things, but in the center of the line we find polytropon, he who traveled widely, but also well versed (Douglas G. Kilday), so the very first line of the epic gives us the briefest possible summary: a hero facing awful challenges, but he will survive …




DhAG GADh, AGDh DhGA, ADhG GDhA --- good


DhAG --- able; the supreme Celtic god was called Dagda, the good god in the sense of the able god


GADh --- good; English good German gut, also English god German Gott


AGDh --- noble; ancient Greek agathos for good, noble, brave, valiant, apt, fit


DhGA --- honorable; ancient Greek doxa for reputation, honor, fame, splendor, glory, majesty


ADhG --- of integrity; ancient Greek aethicos English ethics ethical (good in the moral sense)


GDhA --- joyous; ancient Greek gathosynae for joy



DhAG would also survive in dog, the first domesticated animal, an able companion when it came to hunting and guarding the camp, also in fox, consider the foxes on a pair of central pillars at Göbekli Tepe, probably in their role of guiding the soul of a worthy deceased through the labyrinth of the Underworld and back to light, also in German Dachs for badger and in English dachshund. The followers of Zarathustra believe that dogs can tell whether someone really died, or whether the soul lingers on. In ancient Egypt the canid Anubis was the god of mummification, also he playing a role in the journey of the soul through the dark back to light …




ONE ENO, NOE EON, NEO OEN --- raft, shore, swim


ONE --- a raft on a river bank or shore, where it gets loaded and unloaded; Latin onero for I load, fill


ENO --- a raft on a river or the sea; Latin eno for I leave the shore


EON --- the river bank is near, also land in sight; ancient Greek aeion for shore, coast, river bank


NOE --- no landing place in sight, also no land in sight; Latin noemus for nullus, nothing


NEO --- to swim; ancient Greek neo for I swim


OEN --- being alone on the water; Old Latin oenus for unus, the only one, alone



BRI EON --- fertile (bri) shore (eon; possible origin of Britanny and Britain, bri-t-eon Briton, analogous to BRI GNE --- fertile (bri) nine days of the full moon (gne), paralleling the womb of a pregnant woman with the form of the full moon, and the nine days with the nine months of a pregnancy, a word combination surviving in the female given name Britney. The second explanation of Britney would be BRI GNY --- fertile (bri) with a child (gny)


AC EON NOS --- mind (nos) of the shore (eon) land (ac); origin of Okeanos, whose stream encircled the world, surviving in ocean




AC CA --- earth (ac) sky (ca); smoke of a sacrificial fire ascending to the sky, imploring rain, and rain falling down on earth, irrigating fields and meadows, filling river beds, perhaps the original name of Göbekli Tepe, written as a lying H acca.GIF – identical with the Syrian province called aqa by the Egyptians? –, Latin aqua for water, akka for the Indo-European earth goddess (Pokorny)


AD DA --- earth (ac) sky (ca) toward (ad) away from (da); Latin aqua English water, perhaps also the river Addua / Adda in Italy, flowing toward (ad) the confluence with the river Padus / Po between Piacenza and Cremona, coming from (da) Lake Como, perhaps also German Aue for a low meadow land run through by brooks, creeks and rivers (acca awa aua aue), in Switzerland we have many small rivers called Aa (adda awa aa), Avestan udaka for water may combine adda and acca, ancient Greek hydor may ultimately come from adda, while a rump form may account for *da ‘flow’ (if so, the original meaning of *da would have been: coming from, having a source)


AS SA --- upward (as) downward (sa); vapor ascending to the sky and falling down as rain; German Wasser for water, Latin sudor for sweat and any sort of humidity may be a polished rump form of assa adda


SA AS --- downward (sa) upward (as) might have become Latin sax for rock, and might survive in the original form in the village name of Saas Grund (in the valley) and Saas Fee (above, on a steep mountain slope) in the Swiss Alps


AC CA AS --- land (ac) sky (ca) in upward direction (as), a figurative compound naming the sun horse (of Lascaux) traversing the Underworld, then rising to the sky (horses of the Greek sun god Helios), in later times Kurgan horses taking the soul of a dead hero to his heavenly abode; *ekwos Latin equus Mycenaean i-qo Tarantine ikkos ancient Greek hippos for horse


AC CA EON --- land (ac) sky (ca) shore (eon); may have become Acheron, the stream that encircles the world in the lower realms, dividing the living from the dead. Acheron would then have been an equivalent of the stream of Oceanos, horizon of horizons, behind and beyond which the sky begins


PAD AD DA, PAS TON --- activity of feet (pad) going toward (ad) coming from (da), everywhere in a plain (pas) sound (ton), he who follows rivers, getting everywhere and making himself heard; Doric Poteidas ‘Lord of the Water’ (Michael Janda) Greek Poseidaon Poseidon, originally the god of rivers, also the creator of the horse and shaker of the earth


PAC AS --- horse (pac, originally the horse that was hunted and killed) upward (as); ancient Greek Pegasos, the winged horse created by Poseidon from Medusa’s blood, while the inverse form AS PAC may have become Old Indic as’vah for horse


SA AAR RAA AS --- downward (sa) air (aar) light (raa) upward (as), a long figurative compound naming the Milky Way, realm of air and light, moving downward and upward in the night sky, heavenly abode of worthy rulers; Vedic saras for pond, waters, also heavenly river, Milky Way, heavenly abode of worthy souls (Michael Witzel, Michael Janda)


SA AAR RAA AS, PAD --- she who walks along (pad) the Milky Way (sa aar raa as); Old Indic Sarasvati, goddess of the Milky Way, following the heavenly river, abode of worthy souls, while Poseidon follows the rivers on earth, realm of the living


SA PAD AAR --- downward (sa) go (pad) air (aar), what goes down from the air, namely rain; Vedic Savitar, husband of Sarisvati


CA LAB --- sky (ca) cols (lab), winter sun horse, descending horses at the rear end of the axial gallery of Lascaux; to gallop, perhaps also German Klepper for an old and tired horse


CA BEL --- sky (ca) warm (bel), spring sun horse, the lovely m “Chinese” horses in the axial gallery of Lascaux; (cabel abel) abelios afelios ancient Greek haelios helios for sun, (cabel cael sael) Latin sol for sun, (cabel cael sael sulya) Vedic surya for sun, (cabel cael sael) Vedic Saule for the goddess of the sun


CA BAL --- sky (ca) hot (bal), summer sun horse, red horse of the midsummer morning in the rotunda of Lascaux; Latin caballus Spanish caballo French cheval for horse


CA ISA --- sky (ca) restored (isa, a word belonging to the important permutation group of sai for life, existence), dawn; European goddess of the Dawn *H2ausos (Michael Janda) who became Greek Eos


CA ISA CA BAL --- full name of the red sun horse of midsummer in the rotunda of Lascaux: restoring the sky by rising, making it bright again


CA BEL IAS --- the spring sun horse reviving nature; abelios afelios haelios helios, sol, surya, Saule (as explained above)


SPA GADH --- height (spa) good (gadh), a figurative compound denoting mediations between earth and sky, humans and deities, especially imploring rain. privilege, duty and responsibility of a shaman, for example at Göbekli Tepe, and if he or she was successful, clouds appeared, promising rain, ‘height good’; ancient Greek sphoggos Attic spoggos for a mushroom growing on a tree, wherefrom English sponge, Latin fungus for mushroom, perhaps named for clouds that may have been seen as a sort of very light and large sponges filled with water (the head of the goddess akka at Göbekli Tepe, whose macrolabiae suggest amniotic fluids, colloquial waters, probably a symbol of rain with the early farmers at the base of the Karacadag east of Göbekli Tepe, has a peculiar hairdo reminding of both a mushroom and rain cloud), also Latin fungere fungo and English function (originally a shaman’s function of mediating between humans and deities, earth and sky)


REO GEN --- to flow, river (reo) three days or nights of the young moon (gen), later used for anything that comes into being (genesis), rain as origin of rivers; German Regen for rain




KA in the hypothetical language of the dwellers of the Blombos cave, South Africa, Middle Stone Age, 75 000 BP, would have meant: sky, beyond, what is out of the human reach, also within rock (animals come forth from and disappear into rock, both in the rock art of southern Africa and in the European cave art), within a well, and deep inside ourselves, accessible to a shaman in a trance. KA would have been the origin of CA for sky and KAL for the Underworld. KAL survives in many forms, in ancient Greek kallos for beautiful, in chalkos for copper mined from the ground, in Helen, a goddess of Dawn (Michael Janda), hence appearing from the Underworld (once the sun horse leaving the earth), in Homer’s Odyssey a symbol of tin, in the Bronze Age a precious metal that came from the Ore Mountains between Saxony and Bohemia, and from Central Asia, in both cases bound to pass Troy, where the dwellers of Ilium laid hands on it ... Helen of the white arms is a symbol of tin, perhaps of tin ingots in the shape of arms, her glittering robes she made herself are a symbol of the glittering tin ore cassiterite, her thread is a symbol of tin wire, by then cut out of hammered sheets; her husband xanthos Menelaos is a symbol of copper, the color xanthos covering all shades of copper ore, yellow, brown, red; their daughter lovely Hermione who resembled golden Aphrodite is a symbol of bronze, of a golden shine when freshly cast. Menelaos had a slave-woman for a mistress, who symbolizes aurichalcit, a mineral mined in the Troas, a natural alloy of copper and tin, tin in enslaved form, so to say; their son, strong late come Megapenthes, is a symbol of brass, having arrived late in the family of metals and being a stronger alloy than bronze. The Hellenes must have been miners in the origin, and the Celts, called Galli by Caesar, were miners, their names going back to KAL. Also my ancestors the Helvetii must have been miners. – What was the old word for miner? I propose a compound:


DAP ARG --- activity of hand (dap) walls and ceiling of a decorated cave, shining up in the light of a lamp (arg) first used for paintings in a cave such as Lascaux, then also for natural ‘decorations’, namely veins and streaks and loads of precious materials such as crystals, copper, cassiterite, silver and gold (the latter words perhaps also derivatives of kal), the compound would then have meant: he who touches and works on those materials, miner; German Zwerg English dwarf – the seven dwarfs in the fairy tale of Snow White are miners, while the beautiful girl would have been a symbol of tin (like Helen in Greece), the jealous queen a symbol of copper, the most precious material for five millennia, and the poisoned apple a symbol of arsenic also used in hardening copper. ARG for the walls and ceiling of a cave shining up in the light of a lamp would also be present in *arg-gros ancient Greek argos for shining white, and in Latin argentum for silver. GRA for a painted cave may later have been used for a cave holding precious materials and might perhaps account for ancient Greek chrysos ‘gold’. GAR for an opening in rock may survive in Charon who led human souls into the realm of shadows. KAL, originally a beautiful place, turned into a hell German Hölle with the labor of mining, and with the wars the precious metals caused (Helen/tin as cause of the Trojan War).


PIR EN --- fire (pir) within (en), oven; English burn, German brennen, Persian birinj for copper


PIR ONS --- fire (pir) benefit coming from opinions that are based on reality (ons), a benefit coming from experiments with fire in ovens and various minerals; Venetian bronza for burning coals (providing heat in a furnace), English bronze German Bronze


CAP PIR --- to capture, keep (cap, originally hunting horses) fire (pir), keeping fire in an oven, allowing to melt copper; Latin cuprum for copper, Cyprus the copper island, English copper German Kupfer


Latin aes for money, copper, bronze may go back to AIS for fate, as the possession or absence of money can decide one’s fate, while pecunia refers to a Roman ingot decorated with a cow, the older word may have been PAC for a horse, which was then transferred to cattle, surviving in Italian vacca for cow.


BAL OMD --- hot (bal) multitude (omd), a multitude of small ovens; (balomd) *bolumdos *bolumbdos Old Latin plumbom Latin plumbum for lead, molten in many small ovens at an ancient Greek site, (balomd b-lo-) German Blei, (balomd ba-d) Serbian vodit, (balomd ba-d blad) Serbian vladiti for lead, (balomd –lomd) West Germanic *loudhom Old Friesic lad Middle Dutch loot Old Irish luaide English lead, German Lot for weight, plummet




PAD for the activity of feet and comparative PAS for everywhere in a plain may each have a lateral association:


PID --- hollow in the ground wherein water rests or moves, then also used for other liquids and materials, and for other hollows; ancient Greek pithos for barrel, English pit, puddle, river bed, bed in general, vat, German Bütte and Bottich, English pot, maybe also bowl as a softened version of pot, French bidon for a container of liquids, also vide for empty, English void (an empty vessel giving rise to the concept of emptiness), also Fud for vulva, an old German word


PIS --- water in motion, bodies moving in water, movement caused by water; ancient Greek pisos for a low meadow land run through by brooks, creeks, rivers and streams (German Aue, famous the Aue of the river Danube near Vienna), perhaps Pisa on the former mouthing of the river Arno, Latin pisces for fish (perhaps from pis kos, bodies moving in the watery cosmos), French piscine for swimming pool, English piss German Pisse pissen, also used for rain, Swiss Bisi for the pee of a child. A nasal infix yields pnis penis (more later). A labial inflix yield plis, wherefrom Latin flux for flow, fluvius for river, German fliessen for to flow, Fluss for river, Floss for raft, Latin pluvius for rain and French pleuver for to rain. Also Latin pulsare English pulse. If fleece German Vlies and pelt German Pelz come from pis, the hairs are equated with flowing water (an observation made by Leonardo da Vinci).


PIS and derivatives are present in many river names: Pisaurus and Sapis in Umbria, Pisoraca Pisuerga in northern Spain, Vulpis above Niceae Nice, Plavis Piave mouthing into the laguna of Venice, Danuvius Danube, Dra(v)us Drava and Savus Sava in Illyria, Telavius in Dalmatia, Albis Elbe and Visurgis Weser in Germany, Vistula Wista in Poland, Vézère in the Guyenne, Dubius Doubs in Burgundy and in the Swiss Jura. Candidates in the greater Greek area: Kephisos Oropos Europos Messapos Asopos Apsos Aipheios Enipeus Bias Beuos. Rivers in Switzerland: Vispa Rabiusa Illfis La Vièze. The French name for the medieval water channels in the Valais in southwestern Switzerland, hewn into rock and carved from tree trunks (once a total length of 20,000 kilometers) is bisse plural bisses pronounced pis by the locals. The compound PIS ARG for shining river may survive in Pisaurus and Pisoraca Pisuerga, as rump form in Isaurus and Isara Isar Isère Oise. The compound SAP PIS may have denoted the seven rivers that spring from the Pitinum Pisaurense and the adjacent Pitinum Mergens in Umbria: 1) Arnus Arno, 2) Vitis, 3) Sapis, 4) the river mouthing at Ariminium, 5) Pisaurus, 6) the long side arm of Metaurus, 7) Metaurus; if so, the river name Sapis would be the last reminder of this union of seven springs, perhaps in the possession of a Neolithic Umbrian mountain tribe. The compound PIS TOR for water in motion (pis) and the way a bull moves (tor) may refer to churning water grinding stone to sand and sand to mud, wherefrom Latin pistor for miller, baker, and the Etruscan village of Pistoriae ‘Millersburg’ or ‘Bakerville’ on the trading route of cereals from Felsina Bologna to the Etruscan territory. In the Swiss Alps we have several so-called glacier mills, deep holes in rock, carved by ever revolving stones driven by water … The compound PIS TYR NOS for the mind (nos) of the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give (tyr) and is present in moving water (pis) may denote the river god of the lower Danuvius Danube and survive in ancient Greek Istros and in Latin Hister and Ister for the lower Danube. The compound PIS NOS for water in motion (pis) and mind (nos) may survive in the principal Hindu god Vishnu the Preserver who descended from heaven, whose main incarnation is the love god Krishna, who provides a good harvest, and who brings the life-giving rain, makes the monsoon arrive and thus preserves the vegetation, life in northwest India in general. Polished forms of the same compound may account for Sanskrit vanah meaning sexual desire, for Sanskrit pasas Greek peos Latin penis, and for Latin Venus, once the Roman goddess of gardens and spring, later identified with the sea-born Greek love goddess Aphrodite. The compound PIS AC CA for water moving (pis) between earth (ac) and sky (ca) may have become ancient Greek paegae for spring, origin, downpour, stream, water. Thales of Miletus who allegedly believed water being the origin of everything …




PpAL LAPp, PpLA ALPp, LPpA APpL --- rock and light


PpAL --- rock, stone; ancient Greek pella for stone (Mallory and Adams 2006), Etruscan Felsina for Bonona Bologna, German Fels for rock (emphatic p replaced by final s)


LAPp --- shining stone, also stone lamps (in use from 18 000 BP onward, normally a concave piece of limestone, but also the wonderful lamp in the shape of a spoon from Lascaux, finely carved from sandstone, marked with open chevrons); Latin lapis for stone, marble, gem, pearl, tessera, PIE *lap for shine, ancient Greek lampos for torch, lamp, light, sun (emphatic p replaced by additional m), English lamp German Lampe


PpLA --- flat land, large and wide; ancient Greek platus for flat, large, wide, English flat German platt and flach


ALPp --- snow capped mountains, shining mountain top; ancient Greek alpeis English Alps German Alpen, Celtic alp for a high mountain


LPpA --- dark silhouette of a mountain range, especially in the east, where the sun will rise; ancient Greek lepas for bare rock, mountain


APpL --- sun rising over the eastern mountain (range), first rays darting; personified in the sun god archer Phoibos Apollon, Shining Apollon, Etruscan Aplu



ALP LPA --- high mountain, snow capped (alp) dark eastern mountain range wherefrom the sun rises (lpa). The contracted form alpa may account for alpha, the first letter of the alphabet. Canaitic alp means ox, North Semitic eleph means again ox, hence alpha, and the sign for this phoneme was the head of an ox, still visible in the uppercase alpha  Α  (turn it around, the triangle stands for the head while the legs become a pair of horns), and in the lowercase alpha  α  (head from the side with a rudimentary pair of horns from above). The first letter of the alphabet was named for an ox. How come? does this convey the value of oxen for the early farmers? There might also be a second reason suggested by the above compound, a reason rooted in a very ancient myth traces of which may have survived in ancient Egypt. Hathor, alter ego of the sky goddess Nut, assumed the shape of a cow and resided in the Western Mountain of Thebes, which, seen from Karnak/Luxor, somewhat resembles a lying cow, with the peak el-Qoru ‘horn’ evoking a cow’s horn. A double peak of the Ida mountain range seen from Phaistos in southern central Crete reminds of the head and horns of a bull – the Cretan Zeus who was worshipped in a cave of the Ida mountain and could assume the shape of a bull? We may imagine that someone, a long time ago, saw the sun rise from an eastern mountain in the shape of a cow or a bull, and exclaimed: ‘My, it looks as if the sun rises from the horns of the mountain cow, of the mountain bull …’, and this visual metaphor would have survived in the solar disk between the horns of the Hathor cow and of the sacred Apis bull of ancient Egypt, also, in abstract form, in the hieroglyphs for east and for horizon.



The last letter of the Greek alphabet is omega. The uppercase omega  Ω  resembles the sun (round form) rising above the horizon (broken line), while the lowercase omega  ω   shows a rudimentary round form in a pair of arcs and resembles the upper part of the Egyptian hieroglyph for east, evoking the solar disk between a pair of horns. The Egyptian day had twelve hours, the Egyptian night had again twelve hours. A whole day had 24 hours. The letters of the early Ionic alphabet represented not only phonemes but also the numbers 1 till 24: alpha 1, beta 2, gamma 3 … chi 22 psi 23 omega 24. If these numbers refer to the hours of the day, and if the first letter alpha denotes an eastern mountain (range) in the shape of a cow or a bull, wherefrom the sun rises in the morning, the last letter omega represents again morning, the sun rising from the eastern horizon, from a mountain in the shape of a cow or a bull, so that the whole alphabet forms kind of a loop, evoking the cosmic snake biting her tail, thus creating a world in space and time … Now letters allow to describe this world, and to weave the ambrosian veil, immortal veil, divine veil of Ino Leukotheae, daughter of Kadmos, a veil allowing Odysseus to go on his time travel to an early Troy symbolized in pleasant Scherie (Eberhard Zangger). How can we go on a time travel? by reading, owing to literature composed of letters ...




A Vision of the Paleolithic Sky


J.P.Mallory and D.Q.Adams, in: The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World, Oxford 2006, page 131, make this (it seems to me) rather melancholy comment: “…whatever the Proto-Indo-European view of the heavens was, it seems largely beyond recovery.” Not necessarily. Here is my vision of the Paleolithic sky in the light of Magdalenian, from January and February 2008.


KAL was the Underworld, LAK was the river of the Underworld, and CA LAK was its heavenly counterpart, which later became our Milky Way, galaktikos kyklos, galaxy. Three goddesses ruled the river of the Underworld and its heavenly counterpart:


The goddess of the Underworld was KAL GID SAI or KAL GID pSAI for Underworld (kal) give and take (gid) life (sai psai) -- the goddess of giving life and taking life (Marie E.P. König on the whoolly rhinoceros in the pit of Lascaux). SAI for life had an alternative form in pSAI, imitating a shaman chewing medicinal herbs and spitting them on the skin, or a painter shaman chewing colors and spitting them on the cave wall, thus giving life to the animals (a method reconstructed and very convincingly demonstrated by Michel Lorblanchet). A polished form of KAL GID pSAI, namely kal -i- psai, led to Kalypso English Calypso, Homer’s awe inspiring goddess who lives in a spacious cave, where a big fire burns, she sings with a beautiful voice and weaves her cloth, which may well be the web of life … Her emanation in the sky was the fire woman PIR GYN who survived in Old Norse Fjorgyn, mother of the thunder god Thor, also in Lithuanian Perkunas, a genitive meaning (son) of the fire woman (in the sky). The fire woman appeared in flashes, her son followed in rolling thunder … The fire woman was also known as PIR SAI for fire (pir) life (sai) - survival in the Ice Age depended on fire. PIR SAI was present in our constellation of Perseus, whose name was an overforming of the very ancient compound. Yet another name of the goddess was fire giver, PIR GID.


The goddess of the Underworld had a sister in CER -; I -: for divine hind or divine hind woman (cer) lip lick (-: i -:). She licked moon bulls into life, thus creating time, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 …days  hind1.JPG / hind2.JPG  Her name survives in English herd German Herde. Her constellation was ORE EON for beautiful (ore) shore (eon), or perhaps OER EON for woman (oer) shore (eon), meaning either the constellation on the beautiful bank of the heavenly river, or woman on the bank of the heavenly river. This name was later overformed and became our winter constellation of Orion representing a hunter. Her sides were at the same time the horns and fronts of the opposing ibices representing Midwinter (Marie E.P. König). The moon bulls waiting to go on their mission were present in Aldebaran in our constellation of Taurus the Bull. An alternative name of the goddess was the fur giver BIR GID. Worthy shamanesses found their heavenly abode in Betelgeuse, alpha Orionis. Worthy shamans found their heavenly abode in Procyon, alpha Canis Minoris, across the heavenly river from Betelgeuse in Orion. And the souls of future shamans waiting to go on their mission on earth had their place in SAI CER IAS or pSAI CER IAS for life (sai psai) shaman and shamaness (cer) healing, restoring (ias), rump forms of which, sai --r ias / s-i --r ias, became Greek Seirios and Latin Sirius, while pSAI CER became Greek psychae English psyche – shamans and shamanesses were not only healers of the body but also of the soul. CER IAS was the name for the minor stars below Sirius, which had been seen as berries, used by shamans and shamanesses for healing purposes, and for making berry wine; the name survived and survives in Greek kerasion Latin cerasum French cerise German Kirsche English cherry … The heavenly river flows from CER -: I -: across the sky toward CER KOS for divine stag (cer) heavenly vault (kos), namely the divine stag who protects the sun horse and moon bull, especially when entering and leaving the Underworld. His giant antlers made the sky unfold in the beginning, and, by visual analogy, they were seen in the oak tree, wherefrom Latin quercus for oak tree, Gaulish erkos for oak forest. Deciduous trees were rare in the Ice Age, but some survived in protected areas of the Franco-Cantabrian space, and the oak may well have been a sacred tree of the shamans. CER KOS was present in our summer constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpio.


The two goddesses mentioned above had a sister high in the summer sky, namely PIS NOS for water in motion (pis) mind (nos), a personification of the heavenly river, present in our Summer Triangle Deneb, alpha Cygni, Vega, alpha Lyrae, Atair, alpha Aquilae. Her name survives in the love goddess Venus, also in Sanskrit vanas for desire. She gave birth to a worthy ruler, allowing him a second life in the sky. Her alternative name was PIS GYN, water woman, referring to the heavenly river, to amniotic water, and to rain falling from the sky. This name survives in the word vagina. Another alternative name of the goddess was fertility giver, BRI GID.


The three goddesses are shown in the Paleolithic relief in the abri Bourdois near Angles-sur-l’Anglin, Dep. Vienne, France  anglin.GIF  (drawing  Marie E.P. König), on the left side PIS NOS Venus, alternative names PIS GYN and BRI GID, in the middle KAL GID SAI or KAL GID pSAI in her heavenly emanation of PIR GYN or PIR SAI or PIR GID, and on the right side CER -: I -: or BIR GID or ORE EON / OER EON with an hourglass figure, under her a bull, heading for the right side … The common name AD DA MAY TYR for the triple goddess will be explained later.


When the supreme ruler, born again by the goddess in the sky, wandered along the heavenly river, he came to a big hill standing in a narrow passage of the river, and inside this hill he found a beautiful cave, walls and ceilings covered with splendid paintings that evoke sweet memories of his former life on earth … The hill was called CA PpAL for heavenly (ca) rock (ppal), and the word for the paintings was ARG. These names were later overformed by Capella (once in the Milky Way, if I interpret my astronomical tables correctly) and Auriga.


Leaving the heavenly river, the supreme ruler found himself in a wilderness. He encountered a cave lion )EI or LEI, present in the bright star Regulus, alpha Leonis, while he himself is present in Denebola, beta Leonis. He survived the attack of the lion. Then he encountered a giant cave bear ARC, present in our Big Dipper, part of Ursa Major. He slays the beast and thus becomes ARC TYR for cave bear (arc) he who overcomes (tyr), then he fills a cranium with bear blood and raises it for a sacrifice. The bear slayer can be seen in our constellation of Bootes. 30,000 years ago, the bright star Arcturus marked the head of Bootes, confronting the Big Dipper seen as bear. ARC TYR survives in Arcturus, also in the dragon slayer Arthur (bones and skulls of cave bears had been confounded with dragons). The cranium filled with bear blood is present in our constellation of Corona Borealis, its ancient name was CRA ) which survived in English grail German Gral.


A pack of wolves witnessed the deeds of our hero. Fearing his power, they fled toward the Underworld. Their leader is present in Spica, alpha Virginis, while the other wolves are present in the other stars of this constellation. Canides were seen as creatures of the Netherworld. Wolves were helpers of the goddess of KAL GID SAI or KAL GID pSAI in her role as taker of life, while foxes guided worthy souls through the labyrinth of the Underworld back to daylight and then to their heavenly abode (foxes on the central pillars of two temples at Göbekli Tepe). The words for wolf and fox have two origins: 1) DhAG NOS for able (dhag) mind (nos), the able minded one, Prhygian daos for wolf, DhAG alone survived in many forms, for example in Latin dux for leader, in the supreme Celtic God Dagda for good god in the sense of able god, also in English fox and German Dachs; 2) KAL for the Underworld, kal kal, kel kel, kwel kwel, …, wolf, German Welpe English whelp, German bellen for to bark. KYN for dog, lateral association to GYN for woman, testifies to women adopting wolf puppies a dozen millennia ago.


Our hero, having survived the lion and bear, and having made the pack of wolves flee him, is now called DA PAD for away from (da) acitivity of feet (pad), a name that survives in our male given name of David. David in the Bible was delivered from the paw of the lion, from the paw of the bear, and from the hand of Goliath …


Returning to the heavenly river, our hero, born again in the heavens, can be seen again in our star Castor, alpha Gemini, originally KOS TYR for heavenly vault (kos) he who overcomes (tyr), founding a camp on the heavenly river, visible in Pollux, beta Gemini, originally POL LIC for a fortified settlement (pol) light (lic), a camp lit by fire on the bank of the heavenly river …


The river of the Underworld LAK and its heavenly counterpart CA LAK were the zone of the triple goddess whose name was AD DA MAI TYR for river (ad da, figurative), flowing toward (ad) coming from (da) female zone (mai) she who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give (tyr). A polished form of her name, -- da ma- tyr, became Daemaetaer Demeter  anglin.GIF  The heavenly river, dissolving, became rain, and the rain drops turned into a shower of grains, beautifully depicted on the gold signet ring from Tiryns  ring.gif  The banks of the heavenly river were called E)I SIA for to rest, and thank for having been spared (eli, with a cklicking L) healing, restoring (sia), a name which became Elysium, Elysian Fields, Elysian river plain …  sky.GIF



The goddess of the Summer Triangle became Zeus, Aquila his eagle. The goddess of Orion became Poseidon, and while she licked moon bulls into life, he created the horse Pegasus. The goddess of the Underworld became Pluto, his animal being the hellhound Kerberos. In India, Brahman is present in the Summer Triangle: Deneb his head, Atair his feet, Vega his right hand playing the Lyra, thus creating the world. He is also present in Orion, rising his right arm (Alhena his right elbow, Castor and Pollux his right arm). His name BRA MAN means right arm (bra) right hand (man). Vishnu the Preserver is also present in the Summer Triangle, his name being a derivation of PIS NOS. The same compound survives in Sanskrit pasas Greek peos Latin penis (while pis gyn became vagina). Vishnu’s main emanation is the love god Krishna, Vishnu descended from the sky, he brings the life giving rain, makes the monsoon arrive, then retires to a cave and sleeps on a huge serpent, which may well be the river of the Underworld, the more so as one of his lovers is the goddess Lakshmi, preserving hypothetical LAK for the river of the Underworld. Shiva the Destroyer would be present in the Underworld, which turned from a beautiful place into hell with the labor of mining. One of his lovers is Kali, a relatively young goddess, while kala for black and kala for death are ancient words. All three principal gods are present in the Summer Triangle: Vishnu in Deneb, Brahma in Vega, Shiva in Atair. The main sculpture at Elephanta in the state of Bombay shows Shiva as triple god: a relief of a profile looking toward the left side shows him as Destroyer; a majestic head facing the viewer shows him as Creator; a relief of a profile looking toward the right side shows him as Preserver. Now the latter is a woman, revealing the female origin of the triple deity. In the Rig Veda, Brahman, Vishnu and Shiva are minor gods, while the main gods are Indra, Agni, and Soma (Mallory and Adams). Indra with his club might have been present in Orion, Agni in Perseus (heavenly emanation of the deity of the Underworld), and Soma in the Summer Triangle. Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu, created the cow herd girls. In this aspect he comes from the divine hind CER -: I -: who licked moon bulls into life. His name means black one. Consider PIE *ker ‘burn’ – flames leaves black ashes. In this aspect Krishna goes back to the divine stag CER KOS who guarded the fiery entrance to and exit from the Underworld, passed by the sun horse in the evening and morning respectively.




The Genesis in the light of Magdalenian


God created the world in six days – not at once, but step by step, which is the hallmark of evolution. “And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters” – the spirit of God was CA NOS meaning sky (ca) mind (nos), Greek Chaos; God was ShA CA meaning ruler (sha) sky (ca), Hebrew Jahwe; and the face of the waters was AC EON NOS meaning earth (ac) shore (eon) mind (nos), Greek Okeanos English ocean. The paradise was AC CA meaning earth (ac) sky (ca), where earth and sky are meeting, perhaps the original name of Göbekli Tepe, preserved in the name of the Syrian province of aqa mentioned by the ancient Egyptians, also remembered in the Indo-European earth goddess akka (Pokorny). Göbekli Tepe, 11 600 – 9 500 BP, was the center of a wide area, by then a paradise of lush meadows and groves and game galore, heading for the cool Anatolian hills in spring, returning to the warm Syrian plains in fall. AC CA was written as a lying H, the lower horizontal bar representing earth (ac), the upper horizontal bar representing the sky (ca), the slim vertical bar representing exchanges between the two, prayers and the smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain rising to the sky, and rain falling down on earth, irrigating the fields and filling the river beds (prayers and rising smoke and falling rain represented by ascending and descending snakes). Agriculture started 10,000 years ago at the base of the Karacadag near Göbekli Tepe. Rain was important for the early farmers, and so AC CA turned into aca (guttural stop), ada (dental stop) awa (labial stop), giving raise to Latin aqua meaning water, to Adam, Hebrew ‘adama, English aker acre German Acker, and to Eve, Hebrew Hawwa, mother of all living beings. Consider also that Eden was associated with Gosen, Haran, and Rezeph in 2 Kings 19,12 – Haran is just to the south of Göbekli Tepe.


Noah would have been a ruler of Göbekli Tepe, his name would have been NOS AAR RAA meaning mind (nos) air (aar) light (raa), he who follows the mind of the one composed of air and light, namely AAR RAA NOS who became Greek Ouranos. A long drought would have been followed by fourty days and nights of rain. Noah and his people would have fled to Armenia – from AAR RAA MAN meaning air (aar) light (raa) right hand (man), he who carries out the will of the one composed of air and light with his right hand …


Abram Abraham would symbolize the subsequent civilizations of the fertile crescent, Ur in Sumer, Haran in Upper Mesopotamia, Beersheba in Judah, and Ancient Egypt ruled by Ra as descendant of AAR RAA NOS. The name Abram would come from ABA BRA meaning father (aba) right arm (bra), he who carries out the will of the heavenly father with his right arm … GhI ShA AC Isaac, ShA AC Ja’aqob Jacob whose byname was AS RAA ) or AS RAA L, and ShA SAP Joseph would symbolize the Chalcolithic culture of Beersheba that reached as far as the Jezrel valley with Maggiddo in the North, Ghassoul in the East, and the Sinai in the South.



The most complete name of the ancient god might perhaps have been ShA PAD TYR AS CA meaning ruler (sha) who goes ahead and leads the way (pad) and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give (tyr) up above (as) in the sky (ca). Abbreviated forms of this hypothetical name yield ShA PAD TYR Jupiter, PAD TYR pater, TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus, and ShA (…) CA Jahwe, rider of clouds, came from Mount Seir in the Negev, about seventy kilometers south of Beersheba. TYR CA might account for Turc Turkish. The bulls accompanying the supreme Anatolian weather god were Serri and Hurri, whose names are further possible derivatives of TYR.




Calendars  (for the mathematically interested)


Lunisolar calendar of Göbekli Tepe: a year has 12 months of 30 days, plus 5 and occasionally 6 days, while 63 continuous periods of 30 days yield 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations  goebekli.GIF  The begin of the calendar walk was marked by a stone phallus. The calendar walk forms two loops, while the additional days at the end of the year are represented as space between the pair of central pillars. The calendar walk is at the same time a representation of the life of a supreme leader: the first pillars mark youth, the central pillars his appointment as ruler and supreme ruler, the following pillars his adult life, the final space between the pillars his death, the leaping foxes on the central pillars the guides of his soul through the Underworld back to daylight … A charming Celtic coin shows the sun horse on the early morning of the summer solstice, under it the snout of a fox peeping out of a hole in the ground – the fox that guided the sun horse through the Underworld and back to daylight  menhir5h.GIF  The word for fox was DhAG meaning the able one, an able guide through the Underworld. This word has many derivatives, among them Latin dux for leader, and German taugen for being able, apt, fit.


Cult building II of Nevali Cori shows 12 pillars along the walls, each representing 30 days, plus a pair of central pillars for the 5 and occasionally 6 additional days. Cult building III shows thirteen pillars along the wall, each representing 28 days, while the space between the central pillars represents one and occasionally two additional days, and this time 135 continuous periods of 28 days yielding 3’780 days corresponding to 128 lunations …


The calendar of Halaf, using the same numbers as the lunisolar calendar of Göbekli Tepe, required 6 leap days in 25 years.


Sooner or later the calendar of Göbekli Tepe was combined with an astronomical observatory in a river plain with a flat horizon, somewhere in Upper Mesopotamia. Imagine a pole or a tree of life in the center of a circle, on the circumference a dozen poles in the positions of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 o’clock, the poles of 3 6 9 12 o’clock marking the cardinal directions east south west north. Sighting lines provided by the poles allow indicate where the sun will raise and set on the mornings and evenings of the equinoxes and solstices  halaf.GIF / halaf2.GIF  This calendar observatory became the Asherah sanctuary, from AS AAR RAA meaning upward (as) toward the one composed of air (aar) and light (raa).


On the lid of a curved ivory box from Beersheba I recognize a schematic representation of the Asherah sanctuary, twelve poles around a tree of life in the center, flanked by two geometric representations of AC CA, while a pendant from Ghassoul, left upper part chipped off, shows a more realistic Asherah sanctuary, with a schematic tree, branches pointing upward, and an altar in the form of a cross. A small ivory disk from Safadi shows a variant of the lunisolar calendar from Göbekli Tepe: nine perforations around a pair of central ones, each of the nine perforations representing a period of fourty days. Nine periods are 360 days, add 5 and occasionally 6 days for a year. The ratios of lunations (l) to periods of fourty days (p) yield very good additive values l/p: 4/3, 19/14, 23/17, 42/31, 65/48, 107/79  *  65/48, 42/31, 107/79, 149/110, 256/189. All three objects mentioned in this paragraph are from the fourth millennium BC  beersheb.JPG


The rosette in the center of the Tiryns disk, around 1650 BC, represents another variation of the Göbekli Tepe lunisolar calendar: each petal stays for 45 days, and the small circle in the center for 5 and occasionally 6 days, while 21 continuous periods of 45 days yield 945 days and correspond to 32 lunations  disc.htm  The Minoan double axe may be a graphic rendering of the solstices derived from the Asherah sanctuary, as shown in this drawing, inspired by the carvings on a block at Knossos  menhir5j.GIF




Solomon and Ezekiel // possible origin of Zion


Solomon, leader of a nomadic tribe in the Near East in the Early Iron Age, was a clever man. For measuring purposes he combined a black cubit of 21 parts with a red cubit of 22 parts. If the diameter of a circle measures 1 black cubit, the circumference measures 3 red cubits. If the radius of a circle measures 1 black cubit, the area measures 1 black cubit times 3 red cubits. If the diameter of a sphere measures 2 black cubits, the volume measures 2 black cubits times 2 black cubits times 1 red cubit. If the side of a square measures 20 black cubits, the diagonal measures 27 red cubits. Relying on these numbers, Solomon invented an ideal Jerusalem and described it in a poem, a distorted memory of which survives in the Bible (first book of Kings).


Another ideal Jerusalem is found in the vision of Ezekiel. Consider these numbers: 30 “measures” correspond to one lunation, while 64 “measures” correspond to 63 days. The wall in the form of a circle surrounding this ideal Jerusalem has a length of 4 times 4,500 measures = 18,000 measures, corresponding to 600 lunations, while the length of the diameter corresponds to 191 lunations or 5,640 days or 5,730 measures. Four gates in the wall mark the cardinal directions N E S W. Connect them with a square. How long is the side? It corresponds to 135 lunations or 3,988 days or 4,050 measures. Transform the square into a circle of the same area. How long is the diameter? It corresponds to 4,500 days (key number of Ezekiels vision). Inscribe a dodecagon in the large circle of the wall. How long is the periphery? It corresponds to 30 Venus years (roughly 48 solar years). --- A vision involving a large circle, the moon and Venus, long periods of time, days and the four cardinal directions, the number 12 of the zodiac, and the complicated motion of wheels within wheels, can’t but refer to the sky. Ezekiel would then have described a heavenly Jerusalem …


If Zion, Greek Seion (Septuaginta), Hebrew Sijjon, Latin Seon (Vulgata) and Sion, Old English Seon, German Zion, should have a Magdalenian origin, it would have been SAI IAN for life (sai) to mark the place of a new camp (ian), together something like: Let us mark the place of a new camp, where we can live, where life may flourish …




Magdalenian BIR and English bear


Magdalenian BIR means fur, ancient Greek byrsa, especially the fur on which a newborn was laid. This particular meaning suggests an ancient custom, and really, one Porphyrios described a custom of laying a newborn on a bear fur in the third century AD, and the same custom survived until the twentieth century in eastern Slavic regions, where a grandmother laid the newborn on a bear fur. A Vinca figurine from the early fifth millennium BC shows the divine mother wearing a bear mask, holding a baby wearing a small bear mask in her arms. Another Vinca figurine from the middle of the fifth millennium BC shows the divine mother or nurse wearing a bear mask, on her back a pouch for the baby … Marija Gimbutas: “The maternal devotion of the female bear made such an impression upon Old European peasants that she was adopted as a symbol of motherhood.”


BIR belongs to the permutation group of BRI meaning fertile. The word survives in the name of the fertility giver BRI GID, a triple goddess, whose other emanations are the fur giver BIR GID and the fire giver PIR GID. Magdalenian BRI also accounts for Sanskrit priya- Norse Fru German Frau. English woman Old English wifman might have meant: weaving hand, perhaps covering a still older BIR MAN meaning something like: she handling fur.


English bear German Bär Dutch beer are explained as the Brown One. Let me propose a new etymology: the bear was the Furry One, provider of the best fur, thick, longhaired, soft and warm. The Ostyak in Siberia call the bear Fur Man. In Lapp the animal is called Wooly One. Also two German names or nicknames of the bear concern its fur: Zottelbär ‘shaggy bear’, and petz female petze, in fables Meister Petz. Grimm, in his Wörterbuch, quotes one Hagedorn: “da sträubet sich der petz” meaning: here the ‘petz’ bristles up, stands on end. So petz can only mean pelt German Pelz and Fell. These words may be lateral associations to PIS for water in motion. Leonardo da Vinci observed that hair resembles flowing water. The same observation could well have been made by Ice Age people, while a linguistic connection to water in motion is preserved in the verb to pelt used for heavy raining.


BIR would have many derivatives, also of the second and tertiary order. One can bear a baby in a pouch made of fur (consider also the bearing-cloth mentioned by Shakespeare in The Winter’s Tale, Act 3 Scene 3, a rich cloth in which a child was carried to be christened). By analogy one has a word for a pregnant woman: she bears a child. Between the two ways of bearing a child (inside and outside the womb) happens the event called birth, a child is born, a newborn, a bairn – the latter word appears in many forms, including a Scottish bir meaning son. Parents are the happy people who can lay a newborn on fur. Being laid on a bear fur was the first event in life (and being carried in a bearing-cloth to be christened the first event in religious life), wherefrom Albanian pare Sanskrit purva Tocharian B parwe English first, while Turkish bir means one. Female bears are devoted mothers, patiently licking and fiercly defending their cubs, and so the choice of bear fur could also have served a psychological purpose: may a human mother care as devotedly for her children as a bear mother for her cubs … Bears are sleeping through winter, they disappear in fall and reappear in spring. Neanderthals apparently buried some of their dead wrapped in bear fur, a custom seen as evidence for a belief in regeneration, and this custom, adopted by Homo sapiens sapiens in Eurasia, would have given raise to English bier German Bahre, English bury and burial, perhaps also barrows (in Southern England).


Having good fur was important for Ice Age people, and the best fur was provided by the bear. Judging by its name also the boar Latin aper German Eber provided a good fur, while the squirrel *werwer and English beaver German Biber may come from the doubling BIR BIR. Most fur is brown, and so the name of this color also comes from BIR. Latin varius originally meant: of many colors, a fur of more than one color, wherefrom German Farbe. Also form may be a derivative of BIR, so we have German “Form und Farbe” as a double derivative of BIR.


Bears had to die so that humans could live. A painting in the cave Les Trois-Frères shows a bear covered in dots, blood spurting out of snout and body. The dots represent spear wounds, but as phonetic ideograms also SAI for life, existence – life for the Ice Age people who depended on fur. In autumn, a bear eats up to 150,000 berries German Beeren. Dutch brombeer ‘growling bear’ is practically the same as German Brombeere ‘brambler, black berry’. So we may assume that a) bears like berries, and berries were named for bears, or b) settlements were protected with quickly growing brambles against wild animals, or c) bramble alleys were used as bear traps. Pear Latin pire may refer to the shape of a bear’s head, round with a long snout. Hair on the chin is called beard German Bart. Bare could once have meant a skinned animal, deprived of its fur (as Greek nakae ‘goat skin’ became English naked). The Norse berserks were clad in bear skins impregnated with oil and herbs that made them go wild. English beorn means warrior. Also war (stifle) could come from hunting bears, idem fear, fury, furious, ferocious, fierce, wary, ward. Peacefaul derivatives could be fair in the sense of blond, also ware and purchase, remembering fur as a precious trading good. The same may account for Italian per French pour German für English for. We say brrr when we need a warm coat, which, during the Ice Age, would have been a fur coat. A feline purrs. A bear ending quasi hibernation lets go a tremendous fart German Furz. A bear going to quasi hibernation digs a hollow, which may have given raise to the words fork, furrow, farm, farming, farmer Swiss Puur German Bauer (while English dig comes from DIG meaning finger, and stick is an enforced version of DIG, as a digging stick enforces and prolongs the poking finger …).


Bear comes from PIE *bher-, which has many meanings, but all of them can be related to fur and especially bear fur: *bher- ‘brown’ – explained above //  *bher- ‘weave, twine’ – the fur of a sheep is longhaired as the one of a bear // *bher- ‘seethe, bubble; roast’ – the meat of a skinned animal // *bher- strike (through), split, cut’ – one has to kill the animal to get its precious fur and its meat // *bher- ‘carry’ – explained above // *bher- ‘+- cure with spells and/or herbs’ – curing a patient using spells and a warm bear skin impregnated with fat and medical herbs // *bhére(o) ‘bear (a child)’ – explained above // *bherg- ‘growl, bark’ – sounds made by a bear // *bhergh- ‘keep, protect’ – explained above, consider also that bark protects a tree like the fur an animal // *bhergh- ‘high, hill’ – the shape of a bear, magnified by fear, would have been seen in a hill or mountain German Berg. Old Indic rksa may combine the genuine word for bear, namely ARC, with RAG for the line of the back, first line drawn by a cave painter according to Leroi-Gourhan, strongly evocative of the whole animal; RAG is present in the name of the bear in several Indic languages. (PIE forms after Mallory and Adams 2006)


‘Berg’ became the word for mountain in German. LAD for hill and comparative LAS for mountain pose a problem. They disappeared from the Indo-European languages. My only evidence for LAS is AD LAS Atlas Atlantis, hypothetical ancient name of Eurasia, the land along the very long mountain barrier from the Cantabrian Mountains in northern Spain to the Himalayas in Asia. Atlas, the Greek god who carried the sky on his neck and shoulders, obviously personified a high mountain. In Switzerland we have a magnificient mountain group around the Aletsch, a mountain and a glacier, the latter a world heritage site under the protection of the Unesco. Geographical names in the region may be derivatives of LAD and LAS: Lonza Lötsch- Lütsch- -letsch-, AD LAS Aletsch … The name of the Valais south of the glacier means valley or dale, from DAL, inverse of LAD. In the Valais we have the villages of Lax and Laden. ‘Las’ in the Upper Valais was the word for water flowing down a mountain slope, akin to auslassen, let water flow out. English let German lassen might be derivatives of LAD and LAS, remembering the gods and goddesses who resided on hills and mountains and granted water, letting it flow down the slopes. ‘Glacier’ might go back to the compound GO) LAS or GOL LAS, meaning much as edible mountain, made of stone that can be licked, melted and drunk, or used for cooking. From GOL LAS we easily get to glass, a material resembling ice. While glaciers dominated the world of the Ice Age hunters, shining surfaces of glass dominate the business world in our modern metropoles. The beautiful new opera house in Helsinki, built of concrete and glass, looks like an artificial iceberg …






EIS --- reality behind all appearances, ideas and notions, idea of all ideas // ultimate reality behind all apparent realities, possible origin of words meaning one, Swiss Eis, ancient Greek heis, German Eins ein eine eines


BIR --- fur, especially the fur on which a newborn was laid // being laid on fur was the first event in life, origin of Albanian pare Sanskrit purva English first, while Turkish bir means one


DPA --- floor, ground // the world in which we live, realm of many appearances and phenomena, as opposed to eis above; duality doubled and doubled again; possible origin of English two and twice, close derivative Sanskrit dva for the female form of two


SEC --- safety provided by a camp // a newborn needs a warm fur (first phase of a young life), a child needs the safety of a camp (second phase of a young life), possible origin of English second


AD DA --- toward (ad) away from (da), to you from me, involving me and another person, possible origin of English other German –ander, also of Italian andare ‘go’, going toward a place coming from another place (while vado ‘I go’is a derivative of pad for the activity of feet), also of Celtic ada ‘water’, a river flowing toward the sea coming from a spring or well


TYR --- overcome (in the double sense of rule and give), TYR --- triumph // a newborn needs a warm fur, a child a save camp, and a boy and a girl in the third phase of their young life must learn to survive and cope with all sorts of challenges, possible origin of English three and third


KOD PIR --- hut (kod) fire (pir) // fires burning around a camp, keeping wild animals at bay, providing the dwellers of a camp with glowing coals for cooking and other purposes, allowing orientation by night – we may assume four fires indicating the cardinal directions, possible origin of English four and fourth, close derivatives are Sanskrit catvaras ‘four’ and Lithaunian ketvirtas ‘fourth’


Five and fifth, six (Italian sei) and sixth, seven and seventh, eight and eight, nine (Latin novem) and nineth, ten and tenth, would come from the names of the months number 5 6 7 8 9 and 10 of the Late Magdalenian calendar: PAS  SAI  SAP  OKD  NOPh and DEC.




DOK  (example of a shifting word)


A passage from Mallory and Adams 2006 (in a simplified notation by me): *h2/3éih1os and similar forms mean ‘pole’ and ‘shaft’ in Slavic (e.g. Russian voje), Anatolian (Hittite hissa- ‘pole, shaft, till for harnessing a draft animal to a cart’), and Indo-Iranian (Avestan aesa- ‘pole-plough, pair of shafts’, Sanskrit isa ‘pole, shaft’) but has shifted to nautical terminology in Germanic, e.g. New English ‘oar’, and Greek oieion ‘tiller, helm, rudderpost’.


Magdalenian offers DOK --- poles used for making a tent or hut; ancient Greek dokos for rafter. DOK and *h2/3éih1os may be compatible, the more so as German Deichsel ‘pole, shaft’ fits in between. The direct shifts from DOK to the above words would have followed about these lines:


   dok   vok   voje


   dok   dos   hos   hissa / aesa / isa


   dok   ok   oar / oheion oieion


English pole comes from POL DOK meaning fortified settlement (pol, Greek polis) made of poles (dok), hypothetical name of a woodhenge, then used for the people gathering there, English folk German Volk. POL PLO means a fortified settlement (pol) made in the wattle-and-daub technique (plo, Greek plokos for wickerwork, texture) and was then used for the dwellers, Old Latin poplo Latin populus Italian popolo French peuple English people, whereas the old sense is kept in Spanish pueblo – Pueblo Indians live in settlements made in the wattle-and-daub technique. Walls made in this technique also require poles, perhaps made from vertical branches of the poplar tree, Latin populus (long o).


Sitting at the dock of the bay … (Otis Reding) … a dock was originally made of poles (dok) driven into the (sea)ground. What about Latin docere English teach? We may assume that an early teacher spoke on a lectern or a pulpit or from another elevated position made of poles. English lectern contains )OG or LOG for the one who has the say. English say German sagen comes from SIG that is also present in English sign. SIG is the comparative form of DIG meaning finger (Latin digitus), also present in German zeigen for to point out with a finger (Zeigefinger, in-dex, in-dic-are), to show …


Light is both particle and wave. PIE, as it were, understands words as phonetic ‘particles’, whereas Magdalenian looks out for semantic ‘waves’ and their patterns left in the verbal morphospace of the Eurasian languages that keep more information on the past than previously held possible.





lascaux01.htm / lascaux02.htm / lascaux03.htm / lascaux04.htm / lascaux05.htm


Early calendars: calendar.htm


Lunisolar calendar of Lascaux, first series of Magdalenian words, reconstructed in a more intuitive and playful way, not always reliable:  lascaux01.htm